1. Title of Course: Communication Skills
UNIT 1: The Communication Process
2. 1.1 Definition of Communication
Communication comes from the Latin word communicare, which means “to
make common” or “to share.” Communication is the process of transmitting
information and meaning from one individual or organisation to another by
means of mutually understandable symbols. The crucial element is meaning.
Communication has as its central objective the transmission of meaning. The
process of communication is successful only when the receiver understands
an idea as the sender intended it. Both parties must agree not only on the
information transmitted but also on the meaning of that information.
3. Communication is simply the act of transferring information from one place to
another. This may be vocally (using voice), written (using printed or digital media
such as books, magazines, websites or emails), visually (using logos, maps,
charts or graphs) or non-verbally (using body language, gestures and the tone
and pitch of voice). How well this information is transmitted and received is a
measure of whether your communication skills are good.
4. ROLE/ PURPOSE OF COMMUNICATION IN AN ORGANISATION
1. Managing the human resource.
2. Communication is central to the success of everything that we do in an
organisations (objectives); our family, school/college, office, hobby group,
community group, our city/town are the organisations in which we live and act.
Our activities succeed or fail, and our goals are achieved or not achieved,
according to our ability to communicate effectively with other
3. Building positive interpersonal relation.
4. Communication is the glue that holds an organisation together, whatever its
business or its size (creates unity and harmony).
5. 5. Communication enables an individual to express ideas thoughts and feelings
effectively in writing and in speech.
6. Communication helps in team building and team-work.
8. Delegation of work horizontally and vertically.
9. Handling business: through internal and external communication.
10. Building positive public relations
6. The different categories of communication are:
• Spoken or Verbal Communication: face-to-face, telephone, radio or television and other edia.
• Non-Verbal Communication: body language, gestures, how we dress or act.
• Written Communication: letters, e-mails, books, magazines, the Internet or via other media.
• Visualizations: graphs and charts, maps, logos and other visualizations can communicate messages.
8. Context - Communication is affected by the context in which it takes
Sender/Encoder - Sender/Encoder is a person who sends the message.
Message - Message is a key idea that the sender wants to
Medium - Medium is a means used to exchange/transmit the message.
The Receiver: The person to whom a message is directed is called the
receiver or the interpreter.
Feedback: The communication process reaches its final point when the
message has been successfully transmitted, received, and understood.
Every message (Oral or written), begins with context. Context is a very
broad field that consists different aspects. One aspect is country,
culture and organization. Every organization, culture and country
communicate information in their own way.
Another aspect of context is external stimulus. The sources of external
stimulus includes; meeting, letter, memo, telephone call, fax, note,
email and even a casual conversation. This external stimuli motivates
you to respond and this response may be oral or written.
Internal stimuli is another aspect of communication. Internal Stimuli
includes; You opinion, attitude, likes, dis-likes, emotions, experience,
education and confidence. These all have multifaceted influence on the
way you communicate you ideas.
Encoder is the person who sends message. In oral communication the
encoder is speaker, and in written communication writer is the
encoder. An encoder uses combination of symbols, words, graphs and
pictures understandable by the receiver, to best convey his message
in order to achieve his desired response.
Message is the information that is exchanged between sender and
receiver. The first task is to decide what you want to communicate
and what would be the content of your message; what are the main
points of your message and what other information to include. The
central idea of the message must be clear. While writing the
message, encoder should keep in mind all aspects of context and the
receiver (How he will interpret the message).
Messages can be intentional and unintentional.
Medium is the channel through which encoder will communicate
his message. How the message gets there. Your medium to send a
message, may be print, electronic, or sound. Medium may be a
person as postman. The choice of medium totally depends on the
nature of you message and contextual factors discussed above.
Choice of medium is also influence by the relationship between the
sender and receiver.
The oral medium, to convey your message, is effective when your
message is urgent, personal or when immediate feedback is
desired. While, when your message is ling, technical and needs to
be documented, then written medium should be preferred that is
formal in nature. These guidelines may change while
communicating internationally where complex situations are dealt
orally and communicated in writing later on.
The person to whom the message is being sent is called
‘receiver’/’decoder’. Receiver may be a listener or a reader depending
on the choice of medium by sender to transmit the message. Receiver
is also influenced by the context, internal and external stimuli.
Receiver is the person who interprets the message, so higher the
chances are of mis-communication because of receivers perception,
opinion, attitude and personality. There will be minor deviation in
transmitting the exact idea only if your receiver is educated and have
Response or reaction of the receiver, to a message, is called
‘feedback’. Feedback may be written or oral message, an action or
simply, silence may also be a feedback to a message.
Feedback is the most important component of communication in
business. Communication is said to be effective only when it receives
some feedback. Feedback, actually, completes the loop of
13. Intercultural communication
Intercultural communication refers to the process of communicating
and exchanging information between people from different cultural
backgrounds. It involves understanding and negotiating cultural
differences to ensure effective communication and mutual
Effective intercultural communication requires individuals to be
aware of their own cultural biases and assumptions, as well as the
cultural norms, values, beliefs, and communication styles of others.
It also involves being able to adapt to different cultural contexts and
use appropriate language and nonverbal communication.
14. Some key considerations for successful intercultural communication
1. Avoiding assumptions and stereotypes (labels) about other cultures.
2. Recognizing and respecting cultural differences, including
differences in communication styles and nonverbal cues.
3. Listening actively and asking questions to clarify understanding.
4. Using clear and simple language and avoiding idioms, slang, or other
language that may be difficult for non-native speakers to
5. Being patient and willing to adapt to different cultural contexts and
Effective intercultural communication is important in a globalized
world where people from different cultures interact and work together.
It can help to promote mutual understanding, respect, and
cooperation, while reducing misunderstandings, conflicts, and cultural