• Models a more general problem: how the data was generated.
• I.e., the distribution of the class; joint probability distribution p(x,y).
• Naive Bayes, Bayesian Belief Network classiﬁer, Restricted
Boltzmann Machine …
• Map x → y directly.
• E.g., distinguish between people speaking different languages
without learning the languages.
• Logistic Regression, SVM, Neural Networks …