2. What is Maven
● A build tool.
● A Project Management Tool.
● An abstract container for running Build Tasks.
● A tool providing guidelines for best practice development.
3. What is Maven(Contd.)
● It is a tool to manage applications that graduate beyond simple and
need to start finding consistent ways to manage and build large
collections of independent modules and libraries which make use of
tens of hundreds of third-party components.
● According to the official definition -
Maven is a project management tool which encompasses a
project object model, a set of standards, a project lifecycle,
a dependency management system, and logic for executing
plugin goals at defined phases in a lifecycle. When you use
Maven, you describe your project using a well-defined
project object model, Maven can then apply cross-cutting
logic from a set of shared (or custom) plugins.
4. Convention over Configuration
● Maven incorporates this concept by providing sensible default
behavior for projects.
● It goes further than just simple directory locations. Maven's core
plugins apply a common set of conventions for compiling source
code, packaging distributions, generating websites, and many other
● However, most of the defaults provided by Maven can be customized.
5. Conceptual Model of a Project
● Maven maintains a model of project. It does not just compile source
code into bytecode, it develops a description of a software project and
assigns a unique set of co-ordinates to a project.
● It helps to mange project's license, the developers and contributors to
the project, other dependent sub-projects etc.
6. Installing Maven
● Verify that you've installed Java in your system.
● Download Maven.
● Set up Maven (remember to set up JAVA_HOME and
MAVEN_HOME, and add maven home directory to PATH).
● Test your installation (mvn –version in Windows).
● Google it if any problem occurs/ask in our group channel.
7. Creating a Simple Project
● We will use the Maven Archetype plugin to generate a simple skeleton
● Open up your command prompt/shell, go to a particular location
where you want the project to be stored, and execute the following
command and keep hitting ENTER for now to accept the default
options. The whole command should be typed in one line -
mvn archetype:generate -DgroupId=org.wikiengine.intro
● Please be patient. It will require considerable amount of time to
complete. You will also need internet connection.
8. Creating a Simple Project(Contd.)
● An Archetype is defined as -
An original model or type after which other similar things are
patterned; a prototype.
● A number of archetypes are available in Maven for anything from a
simple Swing Application to a complex web application, and the
archetype:generate offers a huge list of archetypes to choose from,
which you just did when you kept hitting ENTER. Here, archetype is
the plugin prefix, and generate is called a GOAL.
9. Generated Project Skeleton
● Open up the intro folder. The directory structure should look
something like this -
10. Generated Project Skeleton(Contd.)
● The Maven Archetype plugin creates a directory called intro that
matches the artifactId. This is known as the project's Base Directory.
● Every Maven project has what is known as a Project Object Model,
or, POM, for short, in a file named pom.xml. This file describes the
project, configure plugins, and declare dependencies.
● Project's source code and resources are placed under src/main. This
folder may contain some simple java classes and some properties file,
or it may be the document root of a web application, or it may contain
configuration files for an application server (remember Glassfish,
anyone?). In a java project, Java classes are placed in src/main/java
and classpath resources are placed in src/main/resources.
11. Generated Project Skeleton(Contd.)
● Project's test cases are located in src/test. Under this directory, Java
classes such as JUnit tests are placed in src/test/java, and classpath
resources for tests are located in src/test/resources.
● For the time being, the Maven Archetype plugin has generated a
single Java class org.wikiengine.intro.App, which is a pretty simple
Hello World program.
12. Building and Running the Project
● Once again, open up your command prompt/shell and traverse into the
project's Base Directory, which is intro in our case. Then execute the
following command -
● Be patient, it will take considerable amount of time in this case too.
Also you will need to be connected to the internet.
● After your build is successful, run the program to test it -
java -cp target/intro-1.0-SNAPSHOT.jar
13. The POM File
● Take a look at the generated pom.xml file. This is the most basic POM
we will ever deal with for a Maven project, usually a POM is
considerably more complex.
● The first few elements – groupId, artifactId, packaging, version – are
what is known as the Maven co-ordinates which uniquely identify a
● name and url are descriptive elements of the POM providing a human
readable name and associating the project with a web site.
● The dependencies element defines a single, test-scoped dependency
on a unit testing framework called JUnit.
14. The POM File(Contd.)
● Maven will always execute against an effective POM. This effective
POM is constructed from the current project's pom.xml, all parent
POMs, a super-POM defined within Maven, user-defined settings, and
active profiles. All projects ultimately extend super-POM, which
defines a set of sensible default configuration settings.
● To see the effective POM, run the following command in the project
base directory -
● You should see a much larger POM which exposes the default settings
of Maven. This can come in handy while debugging.
15. What Have We Done So Far
● A project is generated which consisted of a POM and some code
assembled in the Maven standard directory layout. We generated this
project by executing a plugin goal.
● We then executed Maven with a lifecycle phase as an argument,
which prompted Maven to execute a series of Maven plugin goals.
● Lastly, we have installed a Maven artifact into our local repository.
● Goals are unit of work in Maven. A goal is a specific task that
contributes to the building and managing of a project. Goals may be
executed as a standalone goal or along with other goals as part of a
● Examples of goals include the compile goal in the Compiler plugin,
which compiles all of the source code for a project, or the test goal of
the Surefire plugin, which can execute unit tests.
● When referring to a plugin goal, we often use the shorthand notation:
pluginId:goalId (remember our archetype:generate portion of the
● They define parameters that contain sensible default values. In our
example, the goal stopped for some input from us because there were
no sensible defaults for this case. If we had run the archetype:create
goal, Maven would have assumed that we wanted to generate a new
project using the default maven-archetype-quickstart archetype. This
is also an example of the convention over configuration principle.
● Each goal has access to the information defined in the project's POM.
They always execute in the context of a POM.
● A Maven plugin is a collection of one or more goals. Example plugins
are Compiler, Surefire, Jar etc.
● The Maven Core basically does nothing when it comes to project
build. It basically knows how to parse the command line, manage a
classpath, parse a POM file, and download Maven plugins. All other
important tasks are taken care of by the various plugins.
● This ensures universal re-usability of common build logics.
19. Maven Lifecycle
● The second command that we've executed contained a Lifecycle Phase
as an argument.
● Maven is based around the central concept of a Build Lifecycle. It is a
list of named phases that can be used to give order to Goal Execution,
wherein a phase represents a stage in the lifecycle. Goals are chosen
and bound by the packaging type of the project being acted upon.
● There are three built-in lifecycles – default, clean and site. The first
one handles project deployment, the second one handles project
cleaning, while the last one handles the creation of the project's site
documentation. Each of these is defined by a different list of build
phases. To see the total list, go here.
20. Maven Lifecycle(Contd.)
● The default lifecycle contains quite a lot of build phases. They are
executed sequentially to complete the default lifecycle.
● To fully execute a whole lifecycle, you only need to invoke the last
build phase to be executed. This is because if you call a build phase, it
will execute not only that build phase, but also every build phase prior
to the called build phase. So, for the default lifecycle, executing
will cause the whole default lifecycle phases to be executed.
● A build phase is basically made up of various goals as plugin goals
can be attached to it.
21. Maven Lifecycle(Contd.)
● As Maven moves through the phases in a lifecycle, it will execute the
goals attached to each particular phase. Each phase may have zero or
more goals attached to it. If it has no goals bound to it, it will not
● A goal which is not bound to any build phase could be executed
outside of the build lifecycle by direct invocation (remember
archetype:generate, anyone? ) .
● The lifecycle is what allows a developer to jump from one Maven
project to another without having to know very much about the details
of each particular project's build.
22. Next Meeting Topics
● Understanding Maven Coordinates, Repositories, Dependencies.
● Customizing Maven, managing dependencies
● Generating complex web application, adding Java EE dependencies.
● Managing multi-module projects.
● Maven by Example by Sonatype.
● Official Maven Documentation.
● Our handsome guy Sharif Shahnewaz's awesome slide.