Robotics

ROBOTICS
SAYANTAN SAHA
UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING &
MANAGEMENT, KOLKATA
INTRODUCTION
Robotics can be described as the current pinnacle of technical development. Robotics is a confluence
science using the continuing advancements of mechanical engineering, material science, sensor
fabrication, manufacturing techniques, and advanced algorithms. The study and practice of robotics will
expose a dabbler or professional to hundreds of different avenues of study. For some, the romanticism of
robotics brings forth an almost magical curiosity of the world leading to creation of amazing machines. A
journey of a lifetime awaits in robotics.
The promise of robotics is easy to describe but hard for the mind to grasp. Robots hold the promise of
moving and transforming materials with the same elan and ease as a computer program transforms data.
Today, robots mine minerals, assemble semi-processed materials into automobile components, and
assemble those components into automobiles. On the immediate horizon are self-driving cars, robotics to
handle household chores, and assemble specialized machines on demand. It is not unreasonable to
imagine robots that are given some task, such as reclaim desert into photovoltaic cells and arable land,
and left to make their own way. Then the promise of robotics exceeds the minds grasp.
In summary, robotics is the field related to science and technology primarily related to robotics. It stands
tall by standing the accomplishments of many other fields of study.
WHAT IS ROBOTICS?
Robotics can be defined as the science or study of the technology primarily associated with the design,
fabrication, theory, and application of robots. While other fields contribute the mathematics, the
techniques, and the components, robotics creates the magical end product. The practical applications of
robots drive the development of robotics and drive advancements in other sciences in turn. Crafters and
researchers in robotics study more than just robotics.
Robotics is a branch of engineering that involves the conception, design, manufacture, and operation
of robots. This field overlaps with electronics, computer science, artificial intelligence,
mechatronics, nanotechnology and bioengineering.
Science-fiction author Isaac Asimov is often given credit for being the first person to use the term
robotics in a short story composed in the 1940s. In the story, Asimov suggested three principles to guide
the behavior of robots and smart machines. Asimov's Three Laws of Robotics, as they are called, have
survived to the present:
1. Robots must never harm human beings.
2. Robots must follow instructions from humans without violating rule 1.
3. Robots must protect themselves without violating the other rules.
REASONS TO TEACH ROBOTICS
• Students Find it fun:
There are several competitions for a range of age groups that can channel competitive instincts in a positive way. For
example, asking children to build a robot from a Lego set and then running a race to see which robot goes fastest
works well. In my experience, the two most charming and effective ways of introducing IT in the curriculum of robotics
and computer game design.
• Effective way to introduce programming to students:
Programming can be too abstract. By having to control a physical robot and seeing what goes wrong, students learn
what robots can and can’t do. They also learn the need for precise instructions.
Robotics helps address the growing demand for teaching science, technology, engineering and maths in schools. As
well as exemplifying technology directly by programming the robot, students also learn about science, engineering and
maths and get an understanding of how these subjects link together.
• Provides skills useful in future employment:
There’s no doubt that there will be a need for people to be involved in programming mechanical devices in the
foreseeable future. The drone industry has taken off. According to The Economist, more than 15,000 drones are being
sold in the US each month.
By programming robots, students can discover if they have aptitude and interest in a job market of the future.
• Suitable for children with a range of abilities:
ASK NAO is a suite of games that have been developed for the NAO robots to teach autistic children. Milo is a robot
developed by US startup Robokind to help autistic children. Repetition, predictability and clear emotions work well.
ROBOTICS HISTORY
 First use of the word “ROBOTICS”:
The word robot was introduced to the public Czech writer Karel Capek(1890-1938) in his lay R.U.R. (Rossum's
Universal Robots), published in1920. The play begins in a factory that makes artificial people called robota. Capek was
reportedly several times a candidate for the Nobel prize for his works.
The word "ROBOTICS", used to describe this field of study, wa coined accidentally by the Russian born American
scientist and science fiction writer, Issac Asimov (1920-1992) in 1940s.
 Three Laws of “ROBOTICS”:
Asimov also proposed his three "Laws of Robotics", and he later added a "Zeroth Law".
Zeroth Law: A robot may not injure humanity, or, through inaction, allow humanity to come to harm.
First Law: A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm, unless
this world violate a higher order law.
Second Law: A robot must obey orders given it by human beings, expect where such orders would conflict with a
higher order law.
Third Law: A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with a higher order
law.
 The first robot “UNIMATE”:
Unimate was the first industrial robot, which worked on a General Motors assembly line at the Inland Fisher Guide
Plant in Ewing Township, New Jersey, in 1961.
It was invented by George Devo in the 1950s using his original patent filed in 1954 and granted in 1961.
The machine undertook the job of transporting die castings from an assembly line and welding these parts on auto
ROBOTICS TECHNOLOGY
Most industrial robots at least have the following parts:
• Sensors
• Effectors
• Controllers
• Arms
• Driver
• Sensors: Sensors are what allow a robot to gather information about its environment. This information can be used to
guide the robot's behavior. Some sensors are relatively familiar pieces of equipment.
1. Cameras allow a robot to construct a visual representation of its environment. This allows the robot to judge attributes
of the environment that can only be determined by vision, such as shape and color, as well as aid in determining other
important qualities, such as the size and distance of objects.
2. Microphones allow robots to detect sounds.
3. Buttons embedded in bumpers can allow the robot to determine when it has collided with an object or a wall
4. Some robots come equipped with thermometers and barometers to sense temperature and pressure
5. Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) sensors use lasers to construct three dimensional maps of their surroundings as
they navigate through the world
6. Supersonic sensors are a cheaper way to accomplish a similar goal only using high frequency sound instead of lasers.
• Effectors: The effectors are the parts of the robot that actually do the work. Effectors can be any sort
of tool that you can mount on your robot and control with the robot's computer. Most of the time, the
effectors are specific to the tasks that you want your robot to do. For example, in addition to some of
the very common effectors listed below, the Mars rovers have tools like hammers, shovels, and a mass
spectrometer to use in analyzing the soil of Mars. Obviously, a mail-delivering robot would not need
any of those.
• Controllers: The controller is the "brain" of the industrial robotic arm and allows the parts of the
robot to operate together. It works as a computer and allows the robot to also be connected to other
systems. The robotic arm controller runs a set of instructions written in code called a program. The
program is inputted with a teach pendant. Many of today's industrial robot arms use an interface that
resembles or is built on the Windows operating system.
• Arm: A robotic arm is a type of mechanical arm, usually programmable, with similar functions to a
human arm; the arm may be the sum total of the mechanism or may be part of a more complex robot.
The links of such a manipulator are connected by joints allowing either rotational motion (such as in
an articulated robot) or translational (linear) displacement. The links of the manipulator can be
considered to form a kinematic chain. The terminus of the kinematic chain of the manipulator is called
the end effector and it is analogous to the human hand.
TYPES OF ROBOTS
The most common types of Robots are:
 Mobile Robots
 Stationary Robots
 Autonomous Robots
 Remote-Controlled Robots
 Virtual Robots
1. Mobile Robots: A mobile robot is an automatic machine that is capable of locomotion. Mobile robots have the
capability to move around in their environment and are not fixed to one physical location. Mobile robots can be
"autonomous" (AMR - autonomous mobile robot) which means they are capable of navigating an uncontrolled
environment without the need for physical or electro-mechanical guidance devices. Alternatively, mobile robots
can rely on guidance devices that allow them to travel a pre-defined navigation route in relatively controlled space
(AGV - autonomous guided vehicle). By contrast, industrial robots are usually more-or-less stationary, consisting of
a jointed arm (multi-linked manipulator) and gripper assembly (or end effector), attached to a fixed surface.
Mobile robots have become more commonplace in commercial and industrial settings. Hospitals have been using
autonomous mobile robots to move materials for many years. Warehouses have installed mobile robotic systems to
efficiently move materials from stocking shelves to order fulfillment zones. Mobile robots are also a major focus of
current research and almost every major university has one or more labs that focus on mobile robot research. Mobile
robots are also found in industrial, military and security settings. Domestic robots are consumer products,
including entertainment robots and those that perform certain household tasks such as vacuuming or gardening.
2. Stationary Robots: Stationary robots are robots those work without changing their positions. Referring the robot
as “stationary” does not mean that the robot actually is not moving. What “stationary” means is the base of the robot
does not move during operation.
These kinds of robot generally manipulate their environment by controlling the position and orientation of an end-
effector. Stationary robot category includes robotic arms, Cartesian robots, cylindrical robots, spherical robots, SCARA
robots and parallel robots.
a. Cartesian/Gantry Robots
b. Cylindrical Robots
c. Spherical Robots
d. SCARA Robots
e. Robotic Arms - (Articulated Robots)
f. Parallel Robots
3. Autonomous Robots: Autonomous robots can act on their own, independent of any controller. The basic idea is to
program the robot to respond a certain way to outside stimuli. The very simple bump-and-go robot is a good
illustration of how this works.
The autonomous system is further classified into four types:
a. Programmable
b. Non-programmable
c. Adaptive
d. Intelligent
5. Remote-Controlled Robots: A lot of people may think that a robot is not fully a robot if it isn’t autonomous, in other
words if it is not able to move for extended periods of time without human intervention. The fact is that robot control
systems have varying levels of autonomy, and tele-operated or remote control mode robot—where there is direct
interaction between human and robot and the human has nearly complete control over the robot's motion—is one of them.
There is also the operator-assisted mode robot, where the human operator commands medium-to-high-level tasks, and the
remote control robot automatically figures out how to achieve them. An autonomous robot, as stated, goes for long periods
of time without human interaction, but doesn’t necessarily require more complex cognitive capabilities on the part of the
robot. Assembly plant robots, for example, they not remote control robots, but are completely autonomous. They operate in
a fixed and repetitive pattern.
This bot can be controlled locally by a computer or over the internet, and can move to different locations within the range of
the local router. In doing so, Spykee can take pictures and video, listen to surroundings with the on-board microphone and
play built-in or recorded sounds or music.
6. Virtual Robots: Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence exhibited by machines. In computer science, the field of AI
research defines itself as the study of "intelligent agents": any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that
maximize its chance of success at some goal. Colloquially, the term "artificial intelligence" is applied when a machine mimics
"cognitive" functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as "learning" and "problem solving" (known
as Machine Learning). As machines become increasingly capable, mental facilities once thought to require intelligence are
removed from the definition. For instance, optical character recognition is no longer perceived as an example of "artificial
intelligence", having become a routine technology. Capabilities currently classified as AI include successfully understanding
human speech,[4] competing at a high level in strategic game systems (such as Chess and Go), self-driving cars, intelligent
routing in content delivery networks, and interpreting complex data.
APPLICATIONS OF ROBOTICS
1. Space Robotics:
The research area Space Robotics deals with the development of intelligent robots for extra-terrestrial exploration
focusing on:
• Development of robot systems for unstructured, uneven terrain based on biologically inspired innovative
locomotion concepts.
• Development of multi-functional robot teams usable for different tasks. ranging from in-situ examinations to the
organization and maintenance of infrastructure.
• Reconfigurable systems for planetary exploration.
• AI-based methods for autonomous navigation and mission planning in unknown terrain.
• Image evaluation, object recognition and terrain modelling.
• AI-based support systems for scientific experiments.
2. Underwater Robotics:
This area deals with the development and realization of Artificial Intelligence methods in underwater systems. Main
points of research are:
• Development of systems for user support in remote-controlled underwater vehicles employing virtual immersion
methods.
• Design of methods for autonomous manipulation and mission planning of robot arms in underwater applications,
particularly with state-of-the-art sensor technology, such as "Visual Servoing"
• Image evaluation and object recognition with modular and intelligent underwater cameras
• Design of control methods for next-generation autonomous underwater vehicles
• Development of biologically inspired and energy-efficient methods of transport for underwater vehicles, such as
oscillating systems
3. Electric Mobility:
In the field of electric mobility, we are testing concepts for electric vehicles, battery charge technologies, and the collection
of vehicle data. We are creating models for intelligent, environmentally sound, and integrated urban mobility. Our research
focuses around:
Development and demonstration of innovative vehicle concepts
Design of new approaches to mobility and traffic control, application support, technology integration
Data collection by fleet tests with technologically different electric vehicles (see E-Mobility fleet in Research Facilities)
Coordination of the regional project office of the model region Electric Mobility Bremen/Oldenburg
Virtualization of the model region, simulation of future, larger vehicle fleets, and predictions of the effects on the model
region in terms of traffic volume, infrastructure needs, environmental pollution, and economic efficiency
Creating a foundation for new business models and traffic concepts on the basis of the data previously collected.
4. Search and Rescue (SAR) & Security Robotics:
In this area, robots will be developed to support rescue and security personnel. Main points of our research are:
Development of highly mobile platforms for indoor and outdoor applications:
• Development of autonomous systems that are able to identify potential victims (SAR) or intruders (Security)
• Development and application of state-of-the-art sensor technology based on radar, laser scanner, and thermal vision
to identify objects and persons, resp.
• Embedding of robot systems into existing rescue and security infrastructures
• Autonomous navigation and mission planning
5. Agricultural Robotics:
We develop robots for agricultural applications and transfer methods and algorithms from robotics to conventional
agricultural machines. Our objective is to increase the performance of machines and processes and to reduce resource
consumption at the same time. Our research is focused on technology applications used in the cultivation of land.
Primary research topics are:
• Methods for autonomous planning and navigation of outdoor machinery
• Methods for environmental recognition in agricultural machinery control
• Methods of infield logistics to optimize cooperation and resource consumption between multiple agricultural
machines
• Interoperability at the level of communication, processes and knowledge processing
Estimated Worldwide Annual Shipments
of Industrial Robots
ADVANTAGES OF ROBOTS
1. Decreased Production Costs: A quick return on investment (ROI) outweighs the initial setup costs. With robots,
throughput speeds increase, which directly impacts production.
2. Shorter Cycle Times: A lean manufacturing line is crucial for increasing efficiency. An automated robot has the
ability to work at a constant speed without pausing for breaks, sleep, or vacations, and ultimately has the potential to
produce more in a shorter time than a human worker.
3. Improved Quality and Reliability: Applications are performed with precision and high repeatability every time. It
ensures the product is manufactured with the same specifications and process every time. Repairs are few and far
between.
4. Increased Safety: Robots increase workplace safety. Workers are moved to supervisory roles where they no longer
have to perform dangerous applications in hazardous settings. Light screens or barriers are available to keep the
operator out of harm’s way.
5. Expert at Multiple Applications: Automation in the manufacturing industry is the process of integrating industrial
machinery to automatically perform a variety of applications such as welding, material
handling, packing, palletizing, dispensing, cutting, etc.
DISADVANTAGES OF ROBOTS
1. The robots need a supply of power, the people can lose jobs in the factories, they need the maintenance to keep
them running, it costs a lot of money to make or buy the robots, The software and the equipment that you need to use
with the robot cost much money.
2. The robots can take the place of many humans in the factories, So, the people have to find new jobs or be retrained,
they can take the place of the humans in several situations, If the robots begin to replace the humans in every field, they
will lead to unemployment.
3. The robots cost much money in the maintenance and repair, the programs need to be updated to suit the changing
requirements, and the machines need to be made smarter, in case of the breakdown, the cost of repair may be very
high, the procedures to restore lost code or data may be time-consuming and costly.
4. The robots can store large amounts of data but the storage, access, and retrieval is not as effective as the human
brain, the can perform the repetitive tasks for long but they do not get better with experience such as the humans do.
5. The robots are not able to act any different from what they are programmed to do, With the heavy application
of robots, the humans may become overly dependent on the machines, losing their mental capacities, If the control
of robots goes in the wrong hands, it may cause the destruction.
CONCLUSION
Today we find most robots working for people in industries, factories, warehouses, and laboratories.
Robots are useful in many ways. For instance, it boosts economy because businesses need to be
efficient to keep up with the industry competition. Therefore, having robots helps business owners
to be competitive, because robots can do jobs better and faster than humans can, e.g. robot can
build, assemble a car. Yet robots cannot perform every job; today robot’s roles include assisting
research and industry. Finally, as the technology improves, there will be new ways to use robots
which will bring new hopes and new potentials.
REFERENCES
 en.wikipedia.com
 www.google.co.in
 www.roboticsworld.in
 https://www.elprocus.com/different-types-of-autonomous-robots-and-real-time-
applications
 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonomous_robot
 http://www.robotpark.com/All-Types-Of-Robots
 http://www.robots-and-androids.com/remote-control-robots.html
 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_intelligence
 http://robotik.dfki-bremen.de/en/research/fields-of-application.html
 Dieter Fox, Wolfram Burgard, Frank Dellaert, and Sebastian Thrun. "Monte Carlo
Localization: Efficient Position Estimation for Mobile Robots." Copyright 1999, AAAI.
 Thrun, Sebastian. "Robotic Mapping: A Survey." CMU-CS-02-111, February 2002.
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Robotics

  • 1. ROBOTICS SAYANTAN SAHA UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING & MANAGEMENT, KOLKATA
  • 2. INTRODUCTION Robotics can be described as the current pinnacle of technical development. Robotics is a confluence science using the continuing advancements of mechanical engineering, material science, sensor fabrication, manufacturing techniques, and advanced algorithms. The study and practice of robotics will expose a dabbler or professional to hundreds of different avenues of study. For some, the romanticism of robotics brings forth an almost magical curiosity of the world leading to creation of amazing machines. A journey of a lifetime awaits in robotics. The promise of robotics is easy to describe but hard for the mind to grasp. Robots hold the promise of moving and transforming materials with the same elan and ease as a computer program transforms data. Today, robots mine minerals, assemble semi-processed materials into automobile components, and assemble those components into automobiles. On the immediate horizon are self-driving cars, robotics to handle household chores, and assemble specialized machines on demand. It is not unreasonable to imagine robots that are given some task, such as reclaim desert into photovoltaic cells and arable land, and left to make their own way. Then the promise of robotics exceeds the minds grasp. In summary, robotics is the field related to science and technology primarily related to robotics. It stands tall by standing the accomplishments of many other fields of study.
  • 3. WHAT IS ROBOTICS? Robotics can be defined as the science or study of the technology primarily associated with the design, fabrication, theory, and application of robots. While other fields contribute the mathematics, the techniques, and the components, robotics creates the magical end product. The practical applications of robots drive the development of robotics and drive advancements in other sciences in turn. Crafters and researchers in robotics study more than just robotics. Robotics is a branch of engineering that involves the conception, design, manufacture, and operation of robots. This field overlaps with electronics, computer science, artificial intelligence, mechatronics, nanotechnology and bioengineering. Science-fiction author Isaac Asimov is often given credit for being the first person to use the term robotics in a short story composed in the 1940s. In the story, Asimov suggested three principles to guide the behavior of robots and smart machines. Asimov's Three Laws of Robotics, as they are called, have survived to the present: 1. Robots must never harm human beings. 2. Robots must follow instructions from humans without violating rule 1. 3. Robots must protect themselves without violating the other rules.
  • 4. REASONS TO TEACH ROBOTICS • Students Find it fun: There are several competitions for a range of age groups that can channel competitive instincts in a positive way. For example, asking children to build a robot from a Lego set and then running a race to see which robot goes fastest works well. In my experience, the two most charming and effective ways of introducing IT in the curriculum of robotics and computer game design. • Effective way to introduce programming to students: Programming can be too abstract. By having to control a physical robot and seeing what goes wrong, students learn what robots can and can’t do. They also learn the need for precise instructions. Robotics helps address the growing demand for teaching science, technology, engineering and maths in schools. As well as exemplifying technology directly by programming the robot, students also learn about science, engineering and maths and get an understanding of how these subjects link together. • Provides skills useful in future employment: There’s no doubt that there will be a need for people to be involved in programming mechanical devices in the foreseeable future. The drone industry has taken off. According to The Economist, more than 15,000 drones are being sold in the US each month. By programming robots, students can discover if they have aptitude and interest in a job market of the future. • Suitable for children with a range of abilities: ASK NAO is a suite of games that have been developed for the NAO robots to teach autistic children. Milo is a robot developed by US startup Robokind to help autistic children. Repetition, predictability and clear emotions work well.
  • 5. ROBOTICS HISTORY  First use of the word “ROBOTICS”: The word robot was introduced to the public Czech writer Karel Capek(1890-1938) in his lay R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots), published in1920. The play begins in a factory that makes artificial people called robota. Capek was reportedly several times a candidate for the Nobel prize for his works. The word "ROBOTICS", used to describe this field of study, wa coined accidentally by the Russian born American scientist and science fiction writer, Issac Asimov (1920-1992) in 1940s.  Three Laws of “ROBOTICS”: Asimov also proposed his three "Laws of Robotics", and he later added a "Zeroth Law". Zeroth Law: A robot may not injure humanity, or, through inaction, allow humanity to come to harm. First Law: A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm, unless this world violate a higher order law. Second Law: A robot must obey orders given it by human beings, expect where such orders would conflict with a higher order law. Third Law: A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with a higher order law.  The first robot “UNIMATE”: Unimate was the first industrial robot, which worked on a General Motors assembly line at the Inland Fisher Guide Plant in Ewing Township, New Jersey, in 1961. It was invented by George Devo in the 1950s using his original patent filed in 1954 and granted in 1961. The machine undertook the job of transporting die castings from an assembly line and welding these parts on auto
  • 6. ROBOTICS TECHNOLOGY Most industrial robots at least have the following parts: • Sensors • Effectors • Controllers • Arms • Driver • Sensors: Sensors are what allow a robot to gather information about its environment. This information can be used to guide the robot's behavior. Some sensors are relatively familiar pieces of equipment. 1. Cameras allow a robot to construct a visual representation of its environment. This allows the robot to judge attributes of the environment that can only be determined by vision, such as shape and color, as well as aid in determining other important qualities, such as the size and distance of objects. 2. Microphones allow robots to detect sounds. 3. Buttons embedded in bumpers can allow the robot to determine when it has collided with an object or a wall 4. Some robots come equipped with thermometers and barometers to sense temperature and pressure 5. Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) sensors use lasers to construct three dimensional maps of their surroundings as they navigate through the world 6. Supersonic sensors are a cheaper way to accomplish a similar goal only using high frequency sound instead of lasers.
  • 7. • Effectors: The effectors are the parts of the robot that actually do the work. Effectors can be any sort of tool that you can mount on your robot and control with the robot's computer. Most of the time, the effectors are specific to the tasks that you want your robot to do. For example, in addition to some of the very common effectors listed below, the Mars rovers have tools like hammers, shovels, and a mass spectrometer to use in analyzing the soil of Mars. Obviously, a mail-delivering robot would not need any of those. • Controllers: The controller is the "brain" of the industrial robotic arm and allows the parts of the robot to operate together. It works as a computer and allows the robot to also be connected to other systems. The robotic arm controller runs a set of instructions written in code called a program. The program is inputted with a teach pendant. Many of today's industrial robot arms use an interface that resembles or is built on the Windows operating system. • Arm: A robotic arm is a type of mechanical arm, usually programmable, with similar functions to a human arm; the arm may be the sum total of the mechanism or may be part of a more complex robot. The links of such a manipulator are connected by joints allowing either rotational motion (such as in an articulated robot) or translational (linear) displacement. The links of the manipulator can be considered to form a kinematic chain. The terminus of the kinematic chain of the manipulator is called the end effector and it is analogous to the human hand.
  • 8. TYPES OF ROBOTS The most common types of Robots are:  Mobile Robots  Stationary Robots  Autonomous Robots  Remote-Controlled Robots  Virtual Robots 1. Mobile Robots: A mobile robot is an automatic machine that is capable of locomotion. Mobile robots have the capability to move around in their environment and are not fixed to one physical location. Mobile robots can be "autonomous" (AMR - autonomous mobile robot) which means they are capable of navigating an uncontrolled environment without the need for physical or electro-mechanical guidance devices. Alternatively, mobile robots can rely on guidance devices that allow them to travel a pre-defined navigation route in relatively controlled space (AGV - autonomous guided vehicle). By contrast, industrial robots are usually more-or-less stationary, consisting of a jointed arm (multi-linked manipulator) and gripper assembly (or end effector), attached to a fixed surface. Mobile robots have become more commonplace in commercial and industrial settings. Hospitals have been using autonomous mobile robots to move materials for many years. Warehouses have installed mobile robotic systems to efficiently move materials from stocking shelves to order fulfillment zones. Mobile robots are also a major focus of current research and almost every major university has one or more labs that focus on mobile robot research. Mobile robots are also found in industrial, military and security settings. Domestic robots are consumer products, including entertainment robots and those that perform certain household tasks such as vacuuming or gardening.
  • 9. 2. Stationary Robots: Stationary robots are robots those work without changing their positions. Referring the robot as “stationary” does not mean that the robot actually is not moving. What “stationary” means is the base of the robot does not move during operation. These kinds of robot generally manipulate their environment by controlling the position and orientation of an end- effector. Stationary robot category includes robotic arms, Cartesian robots, cylindrical robots, spherical robots, SCARA robots and parallel robots. a. Cartesian/Gantry Robots b. Cylindrical Robots c. Spherical Robots d. SCARA Robots e. Robotic Arms - (Articulated Robots) f. Parallel Robots 3. Autonomous Robots: Autonomous robots can act on their own, independent of any controller. The basic idea is to program the robot to respond a certain way to outside stimuli. The very simple bump-and-go robot is a good illustration of how this works. The autonomous system is further classified into four types: a. Programmable b. Non-programmable c. Adaptive d. Intelligent
  • 10. 5. Remote-Controlled Robots: A lot of people may think that a robot is not fully a robot if it isn’t autonomous, in other words if it is not able to move for extended periods of time without human intervention. The fact is that robot control systems have varying levels of autonomy, and tele-operated or remote control mode robot—where there is direct interaction between human and robot and the human has nearly complete control over the robot's motion—is one of them. There is also the operator-assisted mode robot, where the human operator commands medium-to-high-level tasks, and the remote control robot automatically figures out how to achieve them. An autonomous robot, as stated, goes for long periods of time without human interaction, but doesn’t necessarily require more complex cognitive capabilities on the part of the robot. Assembly plant robots, for example, they not remote control robots, but are completely autonomous. They operate in a fixed and repetitive pattern. This bot can be controlled locally by a computer or over the internet, and can move to different locations within the range of the local router. In doing so, Spykee can take pictures and video, listen to surroundings with the on-board microphone and play built-in or recorded sounds or music. 6. Virtual Robots: Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence exhibited by machines. In computer science, the field of AI research defines itself as the study of "intelligent agents": any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of success at some goal. Colloquially, the term "artificial intelligence" is applied when a machine mimics "cognitive" functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as "learning" and "problem solving" (known as Machine Learning). As machines become increasingly capable, mental facilities once thought to require intelligence are removed from the definition. For instance, optical character recognition is no longer perceived as an example of "artificial intelligence", having become a routine technology. Capabilities currently classified as AI include successfully understanding human speech,[4] competing at a high level in strategic game systems (such as Chess and Go), self-driving cars, intelligent routing in content delivery networks, and interpreting complex data.
  • 11. APPLICATIONS OF ROBOTICS 1. Space Robotics: The research area Space Robotics deals with the development of intelligent robots for extra-terrestrial exploration focusing on: • Development of robot systems for unstructured, uneven terrain based on biologically inspired innovative locomotion concepts. • Development of multi-functional robot teams usable for different tasks. ranging from in-situ examinations to the organization and maintenance of infrastructure. • Reconfigurable systems for planetary exploration. • AI-based methods for autonomous navigation and mission planning in unknown terrain. • Image evaluation, object recognition and terrain modelling. • AI-based support systems for scientific experiments. 2. Underwater Robotics: This area deals with the development and realization of Artificial Intelligence methods in underwater systems. Main points of research are: • Development of systems for user support in remote-controlled underwater vehicles employing virtual immersion methods.
  • 12. • Design of methods for autonomous manipulation and mission planning of robot arms in underwater applications, particularly with state-of-the-art sensor technology, such as "Visual Servoing" • Image evaluation and object recognition with modular and intelligent underwater cameras • Design of control methods for next-generation autonomous underwater vehicles • Development of biologically inspired and energy-efficient methods of transport for underwater vehicles, such as oscillating systems 3. Electric Mobility: In the field of electric mobility, we are testing concepts for electric vehicles, battery charge technologies, and the collection of vehicle data. We are creating models for intelligent, environmentally sound, and integrated urban mobility. Our research focuses around: Development and demonstration of innovative vehicle concepts Design of new approaches to mobility and traffic control, application support, technology integration Data collection by fleet tests with technologically different electric vehicles (see E-Mobility fleet in Research Facilities) Coordination of the regional project office of the model region Electric Mobility Bremen/Oldenburg Virtualization of the model region, simulation of future, larger vehicle fleets, and predictions of the effects on the model region in terms of traffic volume, infrastructure needs, environmental pollution, and economic efficiency Creating a foundation for new business models and traffic concepts on the basis of the data previously collected.
  • 13. 4. Search and Rescue (SAR) & Security Robotics: In this area, robots will be developed to support rescue and security personnel. Main points of our research are: Development of highly mobile platforms for indoor and outdoor applications: • Development of autonomous systems that are able to identify potential victims (SAR) or intruders (Security) • Development and application of state-of-the-art sensor technology based on radar, laser scanner, and thermal vision to identify objects and persons, resp. • Embedding of robot systems into existing rescue and security infrastructures • Autonomous navigation and mission planning 5. Agricultural Robotics: We develop robots for agricultural applications and transfer methods and algorithms from robotics to conventional agricultural machines. Our objective is to increase the performance of machines and processes and to reduce resource consumption at the same time. Our research is focused on technology applications used in the cultivation of land. Primary research topics are: • Methods for autonomous planning and navigation of outdoor machinery • Methods for environmental recognition in agricultural machinery control • Methods of infield logistics to optimize cooperation and resource consumption between multiple agricultural machines • Interoperability at the level of communication, processes and knowledge processing
  • 14. Estimated Worldwide Annual Shipments of Industrial Robots
  • 15. ADVANTAGES OF ROBOTS 1. Decreased Production Costs: A quick return on investment (ROI) outweighs the initial setup costs. With robots, throughput speeds increase, which directly impacts production. 2. Shorter Cycle Times: A lean manufacturing line is crucial for increasing efficiency. An automated robot has the ability to work at a constant speed without pausing for breaks, sleep, or vacations, and ultimately has the potential to produce more in a shorter time than a human worker. 3. Improved Quality and Reliability: Applications are performed with precision and high repeatability every time. It ensures the product is manufactured with the same specifications and process every time. Repairs are few and far between. 4. Increased Safety: Robots increase workplace safety. Workers are moved to supervisory roles where they no longer have to perform dangerous applications in hazardous settings. Light screens or barriers are available to keep the operator out of harm’s way. 5. Expert at Multiple Applications: Automation in the manufacturing industry is the process of integrating industrial machinery to automatically perform a variety of applications such as welding, material handling, packing, palletizing, dispensing, cutting, etc.
  • 16. DISADVANTAGES OF ROBOTS 1. The robots need a supply of power, the people can lose jobs in the factories, they need the maintenance to keep them running, it costs a lot of money to make or buy the robots, The software and the equipment that you need to use with the robot cost much money. 2. The robots can take the place of many humans in the factories, So, the people have to find new jobs or be retrained, they can take the place of the humans in several situations, If the robots begin to replace the humans in every field, they will lead to unemployment. 3. The robots cost much money in the maintenance and repair, the programs need to be updated to suit the changing requirements, and the machines need to be made smarter, in case of the breakdown, the cost of repair may be very high, the procedures to restore lost code or data may be time-consuming and costly. 4. The robots can store large amounts of data but the storage, access, and retrieval is not as effective as the human brain, the can perform the repetitive tasks for long but they do not get better with experience such as the humans do. 5. The robots are not able to act any different from what they are programmed to do, With the heavy application of robots, the humans may become overly dependent on the machines, losing their mental capacities, If the control of robots goes in the wrong hands, it may cause the destruction.
  • 17. CONCLUSION Today we find most robots working for people in industries, factories, warehouses, and laboratories. Robots are useful in many ways. For instance, it boosts economy because businesses need to be efficient to keep up with the industry competition. Therefore, having robots helps business owners to be competitive, because robots can do jobs better and faster than humans can, e.g. robot can build, assemble a car. Yet robots cannot perform every job; today robot’s roles include assisting research and industry. Finally, as the technology improves, there will be new ways to use robots which will bring new hopes and new potentials.
  • 18. REFERENCES  en.wikipedia.com  www.google.co.in  www.roboticsworld.in  https://www.elprocus.com/different-types-of-autonomous-robots-and-real-time- applications  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonomous_robot  http://www.robotpark.com/All-Types-Of-Robots  http://www.robots-and-androids.com/remote-control-robots.html  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_intelligence  http://robotik.dfki-bremen.de/en/research/fields-of-application.html  Dieter Fox, Wolfram Burgard, Frank Dellaert, and Sebastian Thrun. "Monte Carlo Localization: Efficient Position Estimation for Mobile Robots." Copyright 1999, AAAI.  Thrun, Sebastian. "Robotic Mapping: A Survey." CMU-CS-02-111, February 2002.