The sco pe o f this
asse ssme nt is to ide ntify e me rg ing wire le ss se rvice s
and te chno lo g ie s fo r po te ntial public safe ty use in the
ne ar future and be yo nd. This particular do cume nt is
the first o f a se rie s o f e me rg ing wire le ss te chno lo g ie s
studie s. This study will co nce ntrate primarily o n the
third g e ne ratio n(3G) o f mo bile te le co mmunicatio ns and
B yo nd.
3. Evolution of Wireless Systems:
The cellular systems developed through a series of era's
Beyond 3G(3.5G and 4G systems-future era )
4. 1G Systems
Cellular mobile services were offered
using analogue radio technologies
and were called as the first
generation systems (1G).
Were very limited in capacity and did
not extend across geographic areas.
5. 2G Systems
The Analog services were replaced by digital
technologies and were called second generation
It provided better quality and higher capacity at
lower cost to consumers.
GSM (Global system for mobile communication)
was the first commercially operated digital
cellular system which is based on TDMA .
Difficult roaming between countries using
6. 2.5G Systems
Also known as Interim Generation.
GPRS (General Packet Radio service) & EDGE
(Enhanced Data rate for GSM Evolution).
• Provides options for higher data rate while
building on existing 2G systems
GPRS -> 171.2 kbps theoretical max bit rate
EDGE -> 384 kbps bit rate
7. 3G Systems
3G Wireless Systems are the new generation of
systems that offer high bandwidth and support
digital voice along with multimedia and global
Globally, different systems are being used, so, to
migrate to globally acceptable systems,
numerous standardization activities were carried
out and three systems emerged:
W-CDMA, CDMA2000, and TD-SCDMA
8. 3G System Capabilities
Capabilities to support circuit and packet data at high bit
• 144 kilobits/second or higher in mobility (vehicular)
• 384 kilobits/second for pedestrian traffic
• 2 Megabits/second or higher for indoor traffic.
Interoperability and Roaming:
Common Billing/User Profiles
• Sharing of usage/rate information between service providers
• Standardized call detail recording.
• Standardized user profiles.
9. 3G Capabilities continued….
Capability to determine geographic position of mobiles and
report it to both the network and the mobile terminal.
Support of Multimedia Services/Capabilities.
Fixed and variable rate bit traffic.
Bandwidth on demand.
Asymmetric data rates in the forward and reverse links
Multimedia mail store and forward.
Broadband access up to 2 Megabits/second
11. Comparison of systems
Less than 500k
Voice + little Circuit
Voice + Packetswitch-data
More than 5Million
About 5.9 Million
9.6kbps to 14.4kbps
144kbps for mobile to
2Mbps for stationary
More secure data
incomplete coverage broader coverage,
and poor sound
more stable, allow
more users, better
12. Applications of 3G
Personal location (GPS)
Universal USIM and credit card .
On-line science lab
On-line language labs
• Mobile office
• Narrowcast business TV
• Virtual workgroups
• Expertise on tap
Audio on demand
14. 4G Systems
The 4G mobile communication services are expected to
provide broadband, large capacity, high speed data
transmission, providing users with high quality color video
images, 3D graphic animation games, audio services in 5.1
Reasons To Have 4G -
1.Support interactive multimedia services: teleconferencing,
wireless Internet, etc.
2.Wider bandwidths, higher bit rates.
3.Global mobility and service portability.
5.Scalability of mobile networks.
15. Comparison of 3G and 4G
1.8 - 2.5 GHz
2 - 8 GHz
5 - 20 MHz
5 - 20 MHz
Up to 2 Mbps (384
Up to 20 Mbps
W - CDMA / CDMA
2000 / TD -SCDMA
MC - CDMA or OFDMA
Circuit / Packet
3G technologies promise to deliver a lot and are
slowly being put into effect.
We have already started seeing the early features
of 3G technologies being implemented in our
phones, i.e., the video phones in the market.
It remains to be seen how much of the promised
features and applications are actually
implemented in today’s economy.
However, they have been slow in coming in.
Let’s see what the future holds…