1. MOBILE COMMUNICATION
TECHNOLOGY & NETWORKING
Presentation BY: Sarthak Kiran Sarode
(B.Tech Electrical and Electronics Engineering, 2nd yr)
Vellore Institute of Technology, Chennai
❖ Mobile communication technology
❖ OTDR(Optical time Domain Reflectometer)
❖ Generation of Mobile communication
❖ Implementing Network Topologies using Packet
❖ Implementing an IOT network using a
telecommunication network in Packet Tracer.
3. Working of the mobile microphone
and the antenna.
• Analog sound waves of the speaker are converted into the digital signals
• These signals are then converted by Antenna into electromagnetic
signals and send to the receiver.
4. Transmission of waves from
Transmitter to receiver.
• Electromagnetic waves are transferred by the mobile antenna.
Transmitter mobile Receiver mobile
● Electromagnetic wave can’t be transmitted at the long distances due to
the curved structure of the earth and presence of the physical objects.
5. Cellular technology
• EM waves from mobile goes to the cell tower
wave into an
● This signal is
6. Optical pulses
Em signal converted into an optical signal is the transferred by
tower to the optical cable which is laid under ground.
7. Role of MSC
• MSC connects Transmitter’s cell tower to the receiver’s cell
9. OTDR- Optical Time Domain Reflectometer
● OTDR (Optical Time Domain Reflectometer) is a versatile portable
instrument that is used widely to evaluate the characteristics of an
installed fiber optic link.
● It also measures optical fiber parameters such as attenuation,
length, optical connector and splices loss.
● OTDR technology is designed to provide a single ended test of
● OTDR fundamentally is an
12. OTDR Setup- RANGE
● The first one to consider is “Range” or distance of fiber to test.
● Many OTDRs have automatic length detection functions, but if the
length is known, the user can set the range manually. The range setting
should be adjusted to no less than 1.5 to 2x the fiber span under test.
14. OTDR Setup- Pulse Width
● Longer pulse widths are used for longer range tests. As distance
increases, pulse width must go up, otherwise traces will appear
“noisy” and rough.
● Similarly, short traces will be inconclusive if long pulse widths
are used (events may be missed or clipped).
16. OTDR Setup- Index of Refraction
• In review, the Index of Refraction is a way of measuring the speed of
light in a material. Light travels fastest in a vacuum, such as outer
space. The actual speed of light in a vacuum is 300,000 kilometers
per second, or 186,000 miles per second. Index of Refraction is
calculated by dividing the speed of light in a vacuum by the speed of
light in some other medium.
• Index of Refraction = Speed of Light in a Vacuum
Speed of Light in a Medium
17. Index of Refraction…
● If the Group Index of Refraction (GIR) setting in the
OTDR does not match that of the fiber under test, the
results will show incorrect distances as a result.
18. OTDR Setup- Averaging Time
Averaging time refers to how long the user allows the device to take
samples (how long the test “runs”). The longer the testing/averaging time
allowed, the better the result. Eventually, enough data is averaged for a
good test and continuing to test won’t yield any more of an accurate
20. OTDR Types
● Most common OTDRs use a “console” design allowing the user to
upgrade or swap between MM and SM modules.
● These offer similar analytical features to the lab quality OTDRs, but are
more ruggedand field portable.Files can be saved
to various media and later
downloaded to a PC. 14
21. Micro OTDRs
● Micro-OTDRs are the next generation of fast, economical test sets for field
use. These models offer fewer features than the larger console design and
are currently not upgradeable.
22. 1G Technology
• 1G refers to the first generation of wireless
telephone technology, mobile
telecommunications which was first
introduced in 1980s and completed in early
• It's Speed was upto 2.4kbps.
• It allows the voice calls in 1 country. 1G
network use Analog Signal.
• AMPS was first launched in USA in 1G
23. Drawbacks of 1G
• Poor Voice Quality
• Poor Battery Life
• Large Phone Size
• No Security Limited Capacity
• Poor Handoff Reliability
• Analog signals
24. 2 G Technology
• 2G technology refers to the 2nd generation which is
based on GSM.
• It was launched in Finland in the year 1991.
• 2G network use digital signals.
• It’s data speed was upto 64kbps.
• It enables services such as text messages,
picture messages and MMS (multi media message).
• It provides better quality and capacity .
25. Drawbacks of 2G
• 2G requires strong digital signals to help mobile
phones work. If there is no network coverage in
any specific area , digital signals would weak.
• These systems are unable to handle complex
data such as Videos.
26. 2.5 G Technology
• 2.5G is a technology between the second (2G) and third (3G)
generation of mobile telephony.
• 2.5G is sometimes described as 2G Cellular Technology combined
• Phone Calls
• Send/Receive E-mailMessages
• Web Browsing
• Speed : 64-144 kbps
• Camera Phones
• Take a time of 6-9 mins. to download a
3 mins. Mp3 song
27. 3 G Technology
• 3G technology refers to third generation which was introduced
in year 2000s.
• Data Transmission speed increased
from 144kbps- 2Mbps.
• Typically called Smart Phones and
features increased its bandwidth and
data transfer rates to accommodate
web-based applications and audio
and video files.
28. Features of 3G
• Providing Faster Communication
• Send/Receive Large Email Messages
• High Speed Web / More Security
Video Conferencing / 3D Gaming
• TV Streaming/ Mobile TV/ Phone Calls
• Large Capacities and Broadband
• 11 sec – 1.5 min. time to download a
3 min Mp3 song.
29. Drawback of 3G
• Expensive fees for 3G Licenses Services
• It was challenge to build the infrastructure for 3G
• High Bandwidth Requirement
• Expensive 3G Phones.
• Large Cell Phones
30. 4G Technology( Anytime, Anywhere)
• 4G technology refer to or short name of fourth
Generation which was started from late 2000s.
• Capable of providing 100Mbps – 1Gbps speed.
• One of the basic term used to describe 4G is MAGIC.
• Mobile Multimedia Anytime Anywhere Global Mobility
• Integrated Wireless Solution Customized Personal
• Also known as Mobile Broadband Everywhere.
31. Features of 4G
• The next generations of wireless technology that promises
higher data rates and expanded multimedia services.
• Capable to provide speed 100Mbps-1Gbps. High QOS
and High Security
• Provide any kind of service at any time as per user
• More Security
• High Speed
• High Capacity
• Low Cost Per-bit etc.
32. Drawbacks of 4G
• Battery uses is more
• Hard to implement
• Need complicated
hardware Expensive equipment required
• to implement next generation
33. Comparison between 3G & 4G
• The basic difference between 3G and 4G is in data transfer and
Technology 3G 4G
Data Transfer Rate 3.1 MB/sec 100 MB/sec
Internet Services Broadband Ultra Broadband
Mobile - TV Resolution Low High
Bandwidth 5-20 MHz 100MHz
Frequency 1.6-2 GHz 2-8 GHz
Download and upload 5.8 Mbps 14 Mbps
34. 5G Technology
• 5Gtechnology refer to short name of fifth
Generation which was started from late 2010s.
• Complete wireless communication
with almost no limitations.
• It is highly supportable to
WWWW (Wireless World Wide Web).
35. Benefits of 5G
• High Speed, High Capacity
• 5G technology providing large broadcasting of data in Gbps .
• Multi - Media Newspapers, watch T.V programs with the clarity
• as to that of an HD Quality.
• Faster data transmission that of
the previous generations.
• Large Phone Memory, Dialing Speed,
clarity in Audio/Video.
• Support interactive multimedia , voice,
streaming video, Internet and other
• 5G is More Effective and More Attractive.
42. Selection of the network
• Money: A linear bus network may be the least expensive
way to install a network; you do not have to purchase
• Length of cable needed:The linear bus network uses
shorter lengths of cable.
• Future growth: With a star topology, expanding a network
is easily done by adding another concentrator.
• Cable type: The most common cable in schools is
unshielded twisted pair, which is most often used with star