Acquired Immuno - Defficiency
First found in five homosexual humans of
U. S. A. in 1981.
First case of AIDS in India found in 1986.
It is caused by HIV.
Human Immune Deficiency Virus.
3. H. I. V. - Human Immune Deficiency Virus
It is a retrovirus causing AIDS. It is also called as
Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus-III (HTLV-III)
or Lymphadenopathy Associated Virus (LAV).
It was discovered by L. Montagnier-1982 &
isolated by Robert Gallo-1983.
This virus is spherical with RNA as genetic
It has the enzyme reverse transcriptase, that can
form DNA from RNA by a process of Reverse
It is enclosed by a bi lipid envelop and a protein
capsule having arrow like knobbed glycoprotein.
It gets killed on exposure to air without blood.
4. H. I. V. – INFECTION OF T - CELL
HIV in T cell of victim
Through blood / semen / placenta
Enter into body of new host
New host T cells identify foreign T cells but as
they meet HIV quickly invades and disable it
5. Inside disabled T cell, HIV become dominant for
months or years
When some other infections triggers the HIV
infected T cell, HIV multiply
They attack more and more T cells and disable
It disable the immune system of host
As Th cells help B cells to produce antibodies,
production of specific antibodies is impaired
6. SYMPTOMS OF AIDS
Asymptomatic Carrier :- Fever, chills, aches,
swollen lymph glands and itchy rashes. They
disappear in 9 – 10 months but HIV test is
positive & victim is highly infectious.
AID Related Complex (ARC) :- Swollen
lymph nodes in neck, armpits or groin
persisting for about three months. Persistent
recurrent fever, cough, cold, flu and
diarrhoea. Sometimes nervous disorders like
memory loss, inability to think, loss of
judgement and depressions.
7. Full – Blown AIDS :- Severe weight loss due
to persistent diarrhoea, and some
opportunistic infections ( infections due
to destruction of immune system ). Such as
Pneumonia (Pneumo cystis carinii)
– only in AIDS victim, Toxoplasmic
encephalitis – loss of brain cells,
Mycobacterium avium – infection of bone
marrow, Kaposi’s sarcoma – in blood vessel
causing reddish purple, coin sized lesions on
8. TRANSMISSION OF AIDS OR HIV
Contaminated needles or blades.
Transfusion of infected blood.
Unprotected sexual intercourse or
Foetus of infected mother
( through placenta and milk )
HIV or AIDS DOESNOT SPREAD BY
TOUCH OR BODY CONTACT WITH
PATIENT RATHER BY BODY FLUIDS.
9. PREVENTION OF AIDS OR HIV
Avoid causes of transmission.
Use disposable syringe & needle, only once
Blood of donor to be tested.
Articles having chances of blood or body
fluid contact should be used once by a
person, not by others.
Pregnant mother mother and father should
undergo HIV test and take proper
Proper awareness of public. Mass observation
of world AIDS prevention day on 1st December.
10. DIAGNOSIS OF AIDS OR HIV
ELISA – Enzyme Linked
Immuno – Sorbent Assay.
Western Blotting test.
11. TREATMENT OFAIDS OR HIV
Combination Drug Therapy :- AZT + Its analogs
like Zidovidine dideoxycytidine –
It inhibit HIV RNA replication.
Inhibit cleaving of large polypeptides into Viral
capsid forming enzymes and envelope segments.
Defective HIV gene :- nef gene reduce reproductive
capacity of HIV.
Chemokines and CAF –
Chemokines develop in blood of people infected
with HIV but not developed AIDS.
They inhibit HIV infection by binding to and
blocking CCR5 and CXCR4 coreceptors.
CAF (CD8+ cell) may also prevent AIDS.