2. CATAGORIES OF ADDICTION
Psychic Dependence :- Addict
become crave / crazy for it.
Physical Dependence :- Presence
of addicted in certain amount is
needed for normal functioning
of body tissues.
Tolerance :- Addict fails to
respond to normal dose of the
3. CAUSES OF ADDICTION
Curiosity :- To have personal experience of
taste & effects or drugs / alcohol / tobacco.
Temptation :- Advertisements and
inspirations from friends about feelings of
Frustration &Depression :- To overcome
Insecure Feelings :- To overcome feelings of
lonely, unloved and hates.
Excitements & Adventure :- To be satisfied.
4. Different World :- To excel in ability of
creativity, intellectual, dreams etc.
More work :- Desire of more physical and
Relief from Pains :- of some diseases but
Family History :- If family members are
Family disputes :- If family members are
quarrelling often from silly things.
Social Customs :- Some social customs &
Availability of Drugs :- If it is easy.
5. EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL ADDICTION
On Nervous System :_ Sedative and
anaesthetic effects. Affects functions of
neurons, orientation, coordination,
judgement, memory, mood. Disappears
anxiety, addict feels light headed. Blurs
vision, double vision, inability to guess
distance (avoid driving). Affects cerebellum
unable to speak clearly, lack coordination,
become drowsy. In excess alcoholism, nerve
cells are inflamed leading to neuritis.
WHO declared alcoholism a disease, 1964
6. On Digestive System :- Damage tissues of
mouth, oesophagus and stomach causes
ulcers. Decrease absorption, malnutrition
and food poisoning. Excessive causes
violent vomiting and bleeding ( Mallory
Weiss Syndrome ) Affects functioning of
liver and pancreatitis.
On Circulatory System :- Cause constant
dilation of arteries to release heat from
oxidation of alcohol making them brittle.
Increase BP, heart rate (Tachycardia),
malfunctioning of heart muscles
7. (Myocardiopathy). Lowers blood sugar level (
Hypoglycemia ), no availability of sugar to
brain. Decrease platelet count (
Thrombocytopenia ), increase WBC count (
On Kidneys :- ADH secretion is hampered,
loss of water leads to accumulation of wastes
in kidney and causes renal failure in
On Reproductive System :- In males causes
impotence. In females causes reduced ovaries,
absence of corpus Luteum, spontaneous
8. On Endocrine Glands :- Decrease
secretion of testosterone, vasopressin and
thyroid hormones but increase that of
cortisol and adrenal hormones.
On Immunity :- Decrease its response.
On Foetus / Foetal Alcoholic Syndrome :-
Facial abnormality, defective limbs &
joints, small teeth with defective enamel,
cleft palates, retarded brain and abnormal
Wernick’s Disease :- Optic nerve paralysis
due to acute deficiency of vitamin B1
9. Korsakoff’s Syndrome :- Loss of recent
memory, inability to recognise, pain in
arms and legs and bending of extremities
of long bones.
Alcoholic Deterioration :- Swelling face,
reddening of eyes and nose, less physical
energy, impaired movement and speech,
trembling of body etc.
Hang Over :- Collective effects like
headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness and
10. EFFECTS OF TOBACO ADDICTION
Cancer – About 30 % of all cancer death is
due to tobacco.
Bronchitis – Inflammation and swelling in
respiratory tract causing “Smoker’s cough”.
Pulmonary Emphysema – It breaks wall of
alveoli reducing surface of gaseous exchange.
Reduced Oxyhaemoglobin – CO of tobacco
smoke combines faster with Haemoglobin.
Gastritis – Ulcer due to release of HCl from
Pulmonary Tuberculosis – shared smoking
11. Immunity – Reduce immune cells fighting
bacteria and increase chances of infection in
Nervous System – Nicotine damage NS &
cause haemorrhage in arachnoid layer.
Impotency – In both male and female.
Leprosy – Due to damage to immunoglobulin
G that fights against leprosy.
Hamper to Pregnancy – Uterine foetal death,
poor foetal development, high risk of
abortion, neonatal death and premature
Gangrene – Blocks blood supply to legs and
12. Gangrene – Blocks blood supply to legs and
feet leading to gangrene.
Circulatory System – Cause release of
epinephrine leading to increase of heart rate,
high BP, disease of coronary artery. Nicotine
damage Atrio-ventricular valves.
Chromosomal aberrations – For heavy
Action of Medicines – reduced.
13. Indiscriminate Use Of Drugs / Medicines
Self medication can be dangerous and fatal –
improper dose, side effects, out dated ones.
Teratogenic Effects – Lots of abnormalities even
It makes body resistant to similar medicines.
Steroids may co-ordinate and stimulate
Analgesics / Pain killers – Make user addictive
and cause many secondary diseases.
Antibiotics – Nausea, vomiting and severe
problems as they kill some useful bacteria.
Combination of antibiotics cause resistance of
14. Social And Moral Implications Of Addiction
Considered as a social stigma – mark of
Non acceptance and ignorance by near and
Deprivation of family from basic necessities.
Unhappy and children mostly addicted.
Considered inefficient and unreliable.
Engaged in stealing, begging, burrowing,
smuggling, corruption and social evils.
Neglect their regular duties.
Road accidents, suicide etc.
15. SYMPTOMS OF ADDICTION
Loss of interest in daily routine, appetite
Unsteady gait, clumsy movement, lack of
Red and puffy eyes, unclear vision.
Trembling and non-clear speech.
Sleeplessness, drowsiness, lethargic and
Acute anxiety, depression, profuse
Frequently changing mood and temper.
Pharmacotherapy – Treatment by
Psychotherapy – Supportive care by
family and friends.
Physiological Treatment – By
Health Restoration – To restore health
lost due to addiction.
Prevention of Relapse – Care to stop