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Sarah M. Schultz
University of Southern California, Rossier School of Education
Professor Rebecca Williams
June 5, 2016
My Ideological Stance:
My ideological stance is that of a warm demander. I
can’t say that I’m there yet, but it is an aspirational goal
of mine to be the teacher and “coach” who believes in
the students and insists they do more than what they
think are capable of. I want to create a learning
environment where students feel a responsibility to
themselves and where they develop self-discipline.
Based in social cognitive and sociocultural learning
theories, I know that I must create relevant lesson plans
based in student interests. Self-regulation and
motivation are skills that transfer to any subject. To
practice cultural relevant pedagogy, I will need to bring
my own personal experiences to the classroom to share
with students. I will break down complex tasks, provide
mnemonics, introduce multiple perspectives and
supplement texts with historical fiction and vibrant
primary sources. And finally, I will continue to learn as a
teacher in order to provide students with opportunities
for transfer of skills to other disciplines.
How I Arrived At My
• I arrived at my stance through Guided
Practice, Literacy class and through
fieldwork observation of 7th grade Social
Studies classroom at Joseph Le Conte
Middle School in Hollywood, CA.
• Also from doing a Case Study of an ELL
• Also from getting to know different
Charter School classrooms through
• The learning theory I base my ideology in is social cognitive theory
and constructivism. Social cognitive theory believes that learners
partially learn from social interaction and outside media influences.
• The concept of self-efficacy stems from social cognitive theory. The
American Psychological Association defines self efficacy as follows,
“self-efficacy reflects confidence in the ability to exert control over
one's own motivation, behavior, and social environment. These
cognitive self-evaluations influence all manner of human experience,
including the goals for which people strive, the amount of energy
expended toward goal achievement, and likelihood of attaining
particular levels of behavioral performance.
• For example, if you scored well on a test one day, then that form of
reassurance will affect the way you see yourself and your abilities to
achieve even more. Students would benefit from knowing this trick,
particularly if they struggle with reading and writing.
• Constructivist methods based in constructivism have proven
effective in classrooms. Suk Kim found that using constructivist
teaching methods for 6th graders resulted in better student
achievement than traditional teaching methods. Learning is a social
process. Learning is not a process that only takes place inside our
minds. Meaningful learning occurs when individuals are engaged in
social activities (Snowman & McCown, 2012). This is why I design
lesson plans with structured pair-share and triads working
Equity – Be an advocate for change
• To promote equity:
• Build relationships of respect.
• Teach students how to code-switch and
know when and where to speak in formal
way, without trying to eradicate the way
they are used to speaking.
• Monitor progress and plan interventions.
• Use Funds of knowledge
• Establish a line of communication with
parent or guardian (Payne, 2008).
How I Plan to Implement
My Stance – Social Studies
• I will design lesson plans and create historical
questions that explore:
• -Cause and effect
• -Change and continuity
• -Turning points
• -Using the past
• -Through their eyes
• -primary and secondary source analysis
• Importantly, I will remember that even when
you’ve honed a trusted pedagogical
technique that works for many students, it
will not always work for every students. There
is no “one size fits all” strategy that works
• Modeling disciplinary approaches – i.e socratic seminars,
meeting of the minds, and writing comparison essays
• Repeated practice using multiple strategies to read and
analyze primary and secondary resources.
• Design lesson plans that incorporate student interest and
funds of knowledge (Nieto, 2012).
• Incorporate technology in a meaningful way, i.e. in a
lesson about civic participation, students could
research neighborhood politics and record
demographic data to see how government policy and
legislation is written.
• Systematic and well-planned vocabulary instruction
• Plan active classroom lessons
• Simulation, role-playing lesson plans to put students at
the center of the historical moment.
• Teach and model effective strategy
use (Zwiers, 2006).
-- strategies include: Venn diagrams, Inquiry
charts, storyboards, vocabulary overview
model, Circle thinking charts, mind maps,
concept maps, Cornell notes, prezi!
Strategies for reading primary and secondary
Teaching a reading strategy
After I model how to use the strategy, then students try it with a partner.
After that, they try it independently. If it’s still too hard, we repeat the
cycle of teacher model, group work, and independent practice. My
students will use The Inquiry chart to organize research findings in a visual
that shows you your evidence side-by-side your questions and initial
assumptions. Then students formulate an argument based on how the
sources support or deny their initial assumption.
“New questions,” on the right-hand side of the chart, create the
possibility for deeper inquiry or allows students to clarify misconceptions.
Ideally, students can use the I-chart to build on previous inquiries.
The textual complexity of the
academic sources will be challenging
for students, but scaffolding
techniques in the form of close-read
and think aloud techniques will help
students break down the content into
smaller chunks to analyze.
Additional Thinking Maps, Graphic Organizers,
and Visual Aids
Vocabulary instruction: I will design an instruction
plan from the outset of the year that is well-
planned, teaches high-use academic words, uses
visual representations of the words being taught,
and have students keep a record of vocabulary in a
Equity & Access
• I will continue to seek out new forms of literacy to
understand and explore ways in which it could benefit
students and aid in teaching.
• I will always supplement the textbook with additional
audio, visual, and aural sources.
• I will implement differentiated instruction to serve the
needs of diverse learners.
• I will visit a student’s home to gain a deeper
understanding of their home life and access to certain
life and academic resources (Payne, Payne’s 9
Powerful Practices, 2008).
• I will use assessments to gain insight into my own
teaching, rather than as control over a students.
• I will teach students to value each other’s contribution
(Nieto, Culturally responsive pedagogy).
• I will get to know students on an individual basis.
• I will design goal-oriented lessons and institute
benchmarked goal-setting as a priority.
• I will model think aloud technique early in the
semester so that we can use it often, so much that the
students will be able to use it independently and in
• American Psychological Association,
• Cummins, J. (2005). Teaching the language of academic success: A
framework for school-based language policies. In C. Leyba (Ed.), Schooling
and Language Minority Students: A Theoretical Framework (3rd ed.), pp. 3-
• Flanigan, K., Templeton, S., & Hayes, L. (2012). What’s in a word? Using
content vocabulary to generate growth in general academic vocabulary
knowledge. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 56(2), 132-140.
• Kinsella, K. (2005). “Series Part 1 – Preparing for effective vocabulary
instruction & Part 2 – Teaching academic vocabulary,” Aiming
High/Aspirando a lo mejor. Sonoma County Office of Education (SCOE), Santa
• Nieto, S., & Bode, P. (2012). Learning from students. In Affirming diversity:
The sociopolitical context of multicultural education (pp. 296-341). Boston:
• Payne, R. (2008). Nine Powerful Practices. Poverty and Learning, p. 48-52.
• Sedita, J. (2005). Effective vocabulary instruction. Insights on Learning
Disabilities, 2(1), 33-45.
• Snowman, J. & McCown, R. (2012). ED PSYCH (1st ed.) Boston: Cengage.
• Wong Fillmore, L. & Fillmore, C. J. ( n.d.). What Does Text Complexity Mean
for English Learners and Language Minority Students? URL:
• Zwiers, J. (2006). Developing Academic Thinking Skills In Grades 6-12.
5/4 3/2 1/0 Score
Pedagogy reflects literacies of the
Pedagogy is inclusive of integration
for students’ development of content
Pedagogy discusses strategies to
support literacy development
Pedagogy is not aligned with literacy
or content understanding
Equity & Access Stance clearly illustrates how literacy
integration provides equity and
Stance is related to equity and access Equity and access are discussed
peripherally or not included
Learning Theory Learning Theory is clearly is included
to support your stance and pedagogy
Learning Theory is mentioned
Choice of Media Medium chosen for product is
appropriate and does not limit
scholarly, fluent, and comprehensive
APA Format All information is correctly cited and
reference list is in proper format