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Pneumonia final ppt 24.09.12

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Pneumonia final ppt 24.09.12

  1. 1. PNEUMONIA PREPARED & PRESENTED BY: GROUP NO.1 Ms. Vandana Dubey Ms. Priti Tawde Mr. Narendra Daundkar Mr. Khandu Chaudhari UNDER GUIDANCE OF: Ms. Sheetal Mam
  2. 2. PNEUMONIA • OUTLINES  Introduction  Signs and Symptoms  Etiology  Diagnosis  Complications  Treatment  General Management
  3. 3. PNEUMONIA  Pneumonia is an infection in one or both of your lungs.  Characterized primarily by inflammation of the alveoli in the lungs (alveoli are microscopic sacs in the lungs that absorb oxygen).
  4. 4. TYPES OF PNEUMONIA Pneumonia affects your lungs in two Ways . According to areas involved :  Lobar pneumonia : affects a section (lobe) of a lung.  Bronchial pneumonia (Bronchopneumonia) : affects patches throughout both lungs.
  6. 6. BRONCHOPNEUMONIA (Bronchitis and Pneumonia occur together)
  7. 7. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS      High fever, Shaking Chills Shortness of breath (Dyspnoea) Increased breathing rate Chest pain when you breathe deeply or cough Dusky or purplish skin colour (cyanosis) from poorly oxygenated blood  Fatigue and muscle aches  Nausea, vomiting or diarrhoea  Cough, particularly cough productive of sputum
  8. 8. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS  Streptococcus pneumoniae: Rust-colored sputum Pseudomonas, Haemophilus, and pneumococcal species: May produce green sputum Klebsiella species pneumonia: Red currant-jelly sputum Anaerobic infections: Often produce foul-smelling or badtasting sputum  Newborns and infants may not show any sign of the infection. Or they may vomit, have a fever and cough, appear restless or tired and without energy, or have difficulty breathing and eating.  Older people who have pneumonia sometimes have sudden changes in mental awareness.
  9. 9. ETIOLOGY  Bacteria : Streptococcus pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Neisseria meningitidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae , Pneumocystis jiroveci .  Viruses : Influenza virus, Adenoviruses, Rhinovirus  Mycoplasmas : They are not classified as to whether they are bacteria or viruses, but they have traits of both.  Other infectious agents, such as fungi : Pneumocystis carini  Various Chemicals
  10. 10. Who gets Pneumonia?  Cigarette smoking  Recent viral respiratory infection—a cold, laryngitis, influenza etc.  Difficulty swallowing (due to stroke, dementia, Parkinson's disease, or other neurological conditions)  Chronic lung disease such as COPD, bronchietasis or cystic fibrosis  Other serious illnesses, such as heart disease, liver cirrhosis, or diabetes  Living in a nursing facility  Impaired consciousness (loss of brain function due to dementia, stroke, or other neurologic conditions)
  11. 11. DIAGNOSIS  Chest X-rays  Blood tests  Sputum test  Bronchoscopy  Pulse oximetry
  12. 12. COMPLICATIONS  Bacteria in the bloodstream (bacteremia)  Lung abscess.  Build up of fluid in the space between the lung and chest wall (pleural effusion).  Difficulty breathing.  Shock and respiratory failure  Septic arthritis  Endocarditis
  13. 13. TREATMENT • Most people can be treated at home. • If pneumonia becomes so severe that treatment is in the hospital, you may receive fluids and antibiotics in your veins, oxygen therapy, and possibly breathing treatments. • Viral Pneumonia: Anti-virals like Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza) • Bacterial pneumonia: Patients with mild pneumonia who are otherwise healthy are treated with oral macrolide antibiotics (azithromycin, clarithromycin, or erythromycin). • Patients with other serious illnesses, such as heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or emphysema, kidney disease, or diabetes are often given more powerful and/or higher dose antibiotics.
  14. 14. ANTIBIOTICS 1. Penicillin: common penicillins used to treat pneumonia      Amoxicillin (Amoxil) Amoxicillin-clavulanate (Augmentin) Ampicillin (Rimacillin) Benzylpenicillin (Crystapen) Piperacillin-tazobactam (Tazocin) Ticarcillin-clavulanate (Timentin). • There is a risk of a type of jaundice if you take amoxicillinclavulanate. (affects liver function)
  15. 15. Contd.. 2. Macrolides: • Often prescribed. Interference with other medicines. • Stomach cramps and can damage liver if taken for long time. Common macrolides used are Azithromycin (Zithromax)  Clarithromycin (Klaricid)  Erythromycin (Erymax, Erythrocin). 3. Ceftaroline, a cephalosporin, is newly approved for the treatment against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus (S.) aureus (MRSA) and multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae.
  16. 16. Fluoroquinolones • Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) • Levofloxacin (Levaquin) • Gemifloxacin (Factive) •    Side effects includeNervous system, mental, and heart problems Sensitivity to light Pregnant women should not take these medications.
  17. 17. MANAGEMENT OF PNEUMONIA  Don't smoke.  Practice good hygiene.  Stay rested and fit.  Wearing surgical masks by the sick may also prevent illness.  Appropriately treating underlying illnesses (such as HIV/AIDS, diabetes mellitus, and malnutrition) can decrease the risk of pneumonia.  Get a Pneumonia Vaccination.
  18. 18. VACCINATION Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevnar): For children less than 2 years of age or between two and four years with certain medical conditions. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (Pneumovax) : Adults who are at increased risk of developing pneumococcal pneumonia, such as the elderly, diabetics, those with chronic heart, lung, or kidney disease, alcoholics, smokers, and those without a spleen.