Culture is derived from the
English word ‘Kulthra’ and
Sanskrit word ‘Samskar’ which
denotes social channel and
intellectual excellence. Culture
is a way of life.
EB Taylor- Culture is a complex whole, which includes knowledge,
belief, art, morals, customs and any other capabilities and habits
acquired by the man as a member of society.
Leglic AY White- Culture is a symbolic continuous, cumulative and
Malinowski B- The cumulative creation of man; the handwork of man
and the medium through which he achieves is ends.
Graham wallas- An accumulation of thoughts, values and objects; it is
the social heritage acquired by us from preceding generations through
learning as distinguished from the biological heritage which is passed
on to us automatically through genes.
CC North- The instruments constituted by man to assist him in a
satisfying his wants.
Redfield- Culture is an organization of phenomenon of acts, objects,
ideas attitudes, values and use of the symbols. Culture is an organized
body of conventional understanding manifested in arts and artifacts
which persisting through tradition, characterizes the group
Culture is a learned behavior not inherited. It is learned
through experience, imitation, communication, concept,
thinking and socialization process.
Culture is transmitted by vertically or horizontally thus it
is communicative. Vertical transmission is from one
generation to another whereas horizontal transmission is
from one group to another group within the same period
Culture is social not individual the pattern of thinking,
feeling & acting can be shared by the members of the
group and kept relatively uniform through group
Culture provides opportunities and
provides means for the satisfaction of our
needs and desires to fulfill group
Culture is adaptive.
It may institute changes in the
environment as a means of adopting,
instead of altering themselves to the
Culture is dynamic.
Couture is subjected to slow but constant
Couture respond to the changing
condition of the world. Every society has
its own culture. Culture is continuous
and cumulative Culture is integrative.
There are two types of culture i.e. material culture and
non-material culture .
Material culture- Material culture concerned with the
external, mechanical and utilitarian objects. It can be
easily communicated and makes our life more comfortable,
luxurious and meaningful. Thus material culture has the
extrinsic value like housing, fashion, diet etc. material
culture represent the whole apparatus of life or
Non Material Culture : It includes the concepts, values,
mores and ideas e.g. monogamy, democracy, worship etc.
It makes man as a human being.
To regulate the conduct and prepares the
human being for group life through the
process of socialization.
It defines the meaning of situation.
Provides solutions for difficult situations.
Defines values, attitude
Broaden the vision of individuals.
Provide behavior patterns and relationship with
Keep the individual behavior intact. Moulds
Define myths, legends, supernatural believes.
Creates new needs and interests.es and goals.
Symbols :Anything that carries
particular meaning recognized by
people who share the same culture. It
can be either material object like flag
a cross or word or it can be a non
material object like sound gesture.
Symbolic meaning is obvious uniform
in culture and powerful
Language :A major symbolic system in
use in all human societies is
languages. Human languages are
learned and variable, flexible and
generative. Without language there is
Values :Values are general
abstract moral principles
defining what is right or wrong,
good or bad, desirable or
undesirable. In other words
values often come in pairs of
positive and negative terms.
Folkways :Folkways are
accepted ways of behavior.
According to Gillin and Gillin folkways are the behavior pattern of every day life
which unconsciously arises within a group.
According to AW Green folkways are the ways of acting that are common to a
society or a group that are handed down from generation to the next.
According to Merill folkways are social habits or group expectations that have
arised in the daily life of the group.
Folkways are social in nature, repetitive in character, unplanned in origin, informal
enforcement, varied in nature and subjected to change. Example of folkways are
eating pattern, habits, communication, dressing walking, working and greeting
Folkways become personal habits .
They save energy and time .
Solve social problems .
Meet needs of people .
Teach to life in an comfortable .
Mores: Standard of behavior that
influences the moral conduct of people
conformity to mass is called as mores.
According to MacIver & CH Page when
folkways have added to group welfare
and high standards that are converted
into mores. mores determine our
conception of right or wrong and proper
Mores differ from group to group and
from society to society. Mores are
dynamic, they keep on changing
according to changing need of society.
Customs : Customs are formed on
the basis of habits.
Customs are social habits which
through repetition become the basis
of an order of social behavior.
According to MacIver custom is a
group procedure that has gradually
emerged without express enactment
without any constituted authority to
declare it, apply it, to safe guard it.
Laws : Laws are enacted by the state or centre to
have control over individual.
According to Green law is more or less systematic
body of generalized rules, balanced between the
fiction of performance and fact of change governing
specifically defined relationship and situations and
employing force or the threat of force in defined
and limited ways. Laws applies equally to all Laws
are definite, clear and precise.
Human activities prescribed by the state for members
Clear , precise and definit .
Applicable to all .
Violation brings penalties
Preservs social behaviour .
Help court , police and armed forces
Evolution of specific culture is difficult to identify .
But from the discoveries and inventions cultural
development can be identified. But one thing is
clear that culture is as old as man.
Though the material aspects does not us about the
culture but reveals the evolution of culture.
Culture is a set of behavior of a group.
Therefore there are many culture as there are many
Culture of one group may differ completely or in certain
aspects from other.
These variations are known as cultural diversity. Factors
responsible for diverse culture are as follows-
Geographical location Unconscious behavior imitated and
later on become a custom which is the part of culture
Flexibility in behaviour
Uniformity of culture is meant by sharing the
same type of cultural pattern by the different
group of people.
Uniformity of culture is far more complex
than it seems.
Uniformity is based on the belief of God’s
Culture is defined as the belief, values, behavior
and material objects shared by a particular group
Socialization is the process which shapes and
defines our thoughts, feelings and also provides us
with a model for our behavior.
This process of socialization teaches the human
being the cultural values and norms which provide
the guidelines for our everyday life.
Human infants are born without any culture.
They must be transformed by agents of
socialization such as family, parents, teachers,
peers and mass media into culturally adapt
This general process of acquiring culture is
referred to as socialization.
Successful socialization can result in uniformity
Through the socialization personality
Socialization helps us to perform specific
role in society which is culturally bound.
Transculturalism is defined as "seeing oneself
in the other".
it means extending through all human
culture" or "involving, encompassing, or
combining elements of more than one
Transculturalism is characterized by the following:
Transculturalism seeks to illuminate the various
gradients of culture and the ways in which social
groups create and distribute their meanings; and
the ways in which social groups interact and
Transculturalism looks toward the ways in which
language wars are historically shaped and
A society which has its own highly
developed culture and way of life .
An advanced state of social and cultural
development , or the process of reaching
It is acquired behaviour of a group .
It has distinctive character of group / history
The development of culture is a continuous
The term cultural lag was coined by ‘OGBURN’ .
The other synonyms are : cultural clash ,
technological lag, cultural ambivalence .
The word lag means crippled movment . Cultural
lag thus thus means , faltering of one aspect of
culture behind other .
for ex: the sphere of fashion and dressing .
Early bathing .
Drinking tulsi water .
Drinking water from copper vessel .
Bathing paient of small pox with neem leaves.
Apply honey on burn injury .
Gold ornaments should not be worn under the waist .
Pardha system .
Not following the contraceptive methods . As children are gifts from
Drum sticks should not be consumed .
Pregnant women eat mud , chalk etc
Rich people eat saturated food .
Periodic fasts in ramzan and lent months clear the
Eating mangoes causes pimples.
Bhramhins do not consume roots and non veg .
Bringal ,egg ,fish causes allergies .