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  1. Miss Samruddhi A Awasare Clinical Instructor KNC Sevagram
  2. Sociology Anthropology Nature of culture Functions of culture Culture and personality Cultural lag Civilization Pattern and discovery of culture
  3. Culture is derived from the English word ‘Kulthra’ and Sanskrit word ‘Samskar’ which denotes social channel and intellectual excellence. Culture is a way of life.
  4.  EB Taylor- Culture is a complex whole, which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, customs and any other capabilities and habits acquired by the man as a member of society.  Leglic AY White- Culture is a symbolic continuous, cumulative and progressive process. Malinowski B- The cumulative creation of man; the handwork of man and the medium through which he achieves is ends.
  5. Graham wallas- An accumulation of thoughts, values and objects; it is the social heritage acquired by us from preceding generations through learning as distinguished from the biological heritage which is passed on to us automatically through genes. CC North- The instruments constituted by man to assist him in a satisfying his wants. Redfield- Culture is an organization of phenomenon of acts, objects, ideas attitudes, values and use of the symbols. Culture is an organized body of conventional understanding manifested in arts and artifacts which persisting through tradition, characterizes the group
  6. Culture is a learned behavior not inherited. It is learned through experience, imitation, communication, concept, thinking and socialization process. Culture is transmitted by vertically or horizontally thus it is communicative. Vertical transmission is from one generation to another whereas horizontal transmission is from one group to another group within the same period  Culture is social not individual the pattern of thinking, feeling & acting can be shared by the members of the group and kept relatively uniform through group pressures
  7. Culture provides opportunities and provides means for the satisfaction of our needs and desires to fulfill group functions.  Culture is adaptive. It may institute changes in the environment as a means of adopting, instead of altering themselves to the changing environments.
  8. Culture is dynamic. Couture is subjected to slow but constant change. Couture respond to the changing condition of the world. Every society has its own culture. Culture is continuous and cumulative Culture is integrative.
  9. There are two types of culture i.e. material culture and non-material culture . Material culture- Material culture concerned with the external, mechanical and utilitarian objects. It can be easily communicated and makes our life more comfortable, luxurious and meaningful. Thus material culture has the extrinsic value like housing, fashion, diet etc. material culture represent the whole apparatus of life or civilization. Non Material Culture : It includes the concepts, values, mores and ideas e.g. monogamy, democracy, worship etc.
  10. It makes man as a human being. To regulate the conduct and prepares the human being for group life through the process of socialization. It defines the meaning of situation. Provides solutions for difficult situations.
  11. Defines values, attitude Broaden the vision of individuals. Provide behavior patterns and relationship with others.  Keep the individual behavior intact. Moulds national character. Define myths, legends, supernatural believes. Creates new needs and and goals.
  12. Symbols  Language Values  Folkways Mores Laws Customs
  13. Symbols :Anything that carries particular meaning recognized by people who share the same culture. It can be either material object like flag a cross or word or it can be a non material object like sound gesture. Symbolic meaning is obvious uniform in culture and powerful Language :A major symbolic system in use in all human societies is languages. Human languages are learned and variable, flexible and generative. Without language there is no culture.
  14. Values :Values are general abstract moral principles defining what is right or wrong, good or bad, desirable or undesirable. In other words values often come in pairs of positive and negative terms.  Folkways :Folkways are accepted ways of behavior.
  15.  According to Gillin and Gillin folkways are the behavior pattern of every day life which unconsciously arises within a group.  According to AW Green folkways are the ways of acting that are common to a society or a group that are handed down from generation to the next.  According to Merill folkways are social habits or group expectations that have arised in the daily life of the group.  Folkways are social in nature, repetitive in character, unplanned in origin, informal enforcement, varied in nature and subjected to change. Example of folkways are eating pattern, habits, communication, dressing walking, working and greeting
  16. Social Repitative Unplanned origin Informal enforcement Varied in nature Neumorous and diversed Subjective to change
  17. Spontaneous Approved Distingtive Heriderary Meet the needs of people
  18. Folkways become personal habits . They save energy and time . Solve social problems . Meet needs of people . Teach to life in an comfortable .
  19.  Mores: Standard of behavior that influences the moral conduct of people conformity to mass is called as mores.  According to MacIver & CH Page when folkways have added to group welfare and high standards that are converted into mores. mores determine our conception of right or wrong and proper and improper.  Mores differ from group to group and from society to society. Mores are dynamic, they keep on changing according to changing need of society.
  20. Negative mores Positive mores
  21. Regulate social relationship . Relatively persistence . Varied from group to group . Mores are blocked by values and religion .
  22. Determines individual behaviour . Moulds personality of an individual . Restrains our tendencies Powerful means of social control . Maintains social relationships . Preserves social solidatiry . Frams social law that governs our social relationship .
  23. Customs : Customs are formed on the basis of habits. Customs are social habits which through repetition become the basis of an order of social behavior.  According to MacIver custom is a group procedure that has gradually emerged without express enactment without any constituted authority to declare it, apply it, to safe guard it.
  24. Social phenomenon Maintain social order Great social significance
  25. Contribute towards the welfare of society •Strongly embedded in social life Represent the daily act •Socially sanctioned
  26. Regulate social behavior •Supports law •Moulds personality of individual Binds people togather •Develop social relation •Maintain security Constiute our social heritage •Becomes law •Totalitarain of self expression
  27. Group shared expectations - Young and Mack An abstract pattern held in the mind - HM Johnson The rules that guid an behavious in day to day life - Donald Light Jr .S. Keller
  28. Universal Related of functional order Incorporates values and judgments Relative to situation and group Vary in sanction Internalised by man Not always obyed by all
  29. Laws : Laws are enacted by the state or centre to have control over individual. According to Green law is more or less systematic body of generalized rules, balanced between the fiction of performance and fact of change governing specifically defined relationship and situations and employing force or the threat of force in defined and limited ways. Laws applies equally to all Laws are definite, clear and precise.
  30. Not universal Human activities prescribed by the state for members Clear , precise and definit . Applicable to all . Violation brings penalties Preservs social behaviour . Help court , police and armed forces
  31. Eliminates homicidal activities . Persuades individuals to pay attention to their rights . Protects the individual and society . Promotes social welfare .
  32.  Evolution of specific culture is difficult to identify . But from the discoveries and inventions cultural development can be identified. But one thing is clear that culture is as old as man. Though the material aspects does not us about the culture but reveals the evolution of culture.
  33. Culture is a set of behavior of a group. Therefore there are many culture as there are many groups. Culture of one group may differ completely or in certain aspects from other. These variations are known as cultural diversity. Factors responsible for diverse culture are as follows-
  34. Geographical location Unconscious behavior imitated and later on become a custom which is the part of culture Flexibility in behaviour  Technological advancement  Religious belief Life style Language
  35. Uniformity of culture is meant by sharing the same type of cultural pattern by the different group of people. Uniformity of culture is far more complex than it seems. Uniformity is based on the belief of God’s superiority.
  36. Culture is defined as the belief, values, behavior and material objects shared by a particular group of people. Socialization is the process which shapes and defines our thoughts, feelings and also provides us with a model for our behavior. This process of socialization teaches the human being the cultural values and norms which provide the guidelines for our everyday life.
  37.  Human infants are born without any culture.  They must be transformed by agents of socialization such as family, parents, teachers, peers and mass media into culturally adapt human beings. This general process of acquiring culture is referred to as socialization. Successful socialization can result in uniformity within society.
  38. Through the socialization personality develops. Socialization helps us to perform specific role in society which is culturally bound.
  39. Transculturalism is defined as "seeing oneself in the other".  it means extending through all human culture" or "involving, encompassing, or combining elements of more than one culture".
  40. Transculturalism is characterized by the following: Transculturalism seeks to illuminate the various gradients of culture and the ways in which social groups create and distribute their meanings; and the ways in which social groups interact and experience tension. Transculturalism looks toward the ways in which language wars are historically shaped and conducted.
  41. A society which has its own highly developed culture and way of life . An advanced state of social and cultural development , or the process of reaching state .
  42. It is acquired behaviour of a group . It has distinctive character of group / history / nation The development of culture is a continuous process.
  43. Geographical environment Mobility of human beings Inventions , discoveries which influence technology , costums , tradition , belives and faith .
  44. Cultural diffusion Acculturisation Ethocentrism Assimilation Accomodation Cross fertilization Enculturisation
  45. The term cultural lag was coined by ‘OGBURN’ . The other synonyms are : cultural clash , technological lag, cultural ambivalence . The word lag means crippled movment . Cultural lag thus thus means , faltering of one aspect of culture behind other . for ex: the sphere of fashion and dressing .
  46.  Early bathing .  Drinking tulsi water .  Drinking water from copper vessel .  Circumsision  Bathing paient of small pox with neem leaves.  Apply honey on burn injury .  Gold ornaments should not be worn under the waist .  Pardha system .  Not following the contraceptive methods . As children are gifts from god .
  47. Drum sticks should not be consumed . Pregnant women eat mud , chalk etc Rich people eat saturated food . Periodic fasts in ramzan and lent months clear the gi tract. Eating mangoes causes pimples. Bhramhins do not consume roots and non veg . Bringal ,egg ,fish causes allergies .