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1
METU Department of
Mechanical Engineering ME400
Summer Practice Report
by
Samet Baykul
October 17, 2017
i
ii
ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
I hereby declare that all information in this document has been obtained...
iii
ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
iv
ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Description of the company ...........................
v
ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
5. Appendices …………………………………………………………………………………
A.1. Map Location ............
vi
ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
1
1. Description of the company
This section is intended to give a general idea about the company, Emek Arge.
1.1. Company...
2
ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
Emek Arge works as an R&D department for Emek Electrical Industry Inc. Bu...
3
ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
1.3. Engineers and Their Duties
Table 1 : Number of Engineers
Engineer Nu...
4
ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
development studies.
Emek Electrical Industry Inc. is a medium scale fact...
5
ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
2. Introduction
This report includes all my personal observations and act...
6
ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
3. Report
3.1. General R&D Cycle
General Manager Bora Balya gave us a bri...
7
ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
Standards is used for a level of quality or attainment.
3.1.2. Conceptual...
8
ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
• Tests of present design or alternative designs or termination of the pr...
9
ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
3.2. Projects of Emek R&D
3.2.1. Introductions
In this part, some industr...
10
ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
Emek Arge is working on pantograph disconnectors. They are responsible f...
11
ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
fault occurs in any of the branches fed from the main line, all users in...
12
ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
3.2.3. Project 3: Pantograph Disconnector
3.2.3.1. Introduction the Pant...
13
ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
3.2.3.3. Introduction the Problem
As a mechatronic system, in disconnect...
14
ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
To this are added the effects of a possible pollution layer on the conta...
15
ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
solution of the problem.
Stäubli (in English usually written as Staubli)...
16
ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
slightly rounded, permit a large number of sliding cycles. The resistanc...
17
ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
• If we choose LACU type Multilam, the required diameter of Multilam
con...
18
ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
• Since the road warranty is quite tightly linked to the material qualit...
19
ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
4. Conclusion
During my summer internship at Emek Arge, I had some very ...
20
ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
i
ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
Appendices
All related data, tables and drawings should be given in this ...
ii
A.2. Organizational Structure Chart of the Emek Arge
Figure 2. Organizational Structure of Emek Arge
iii
ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
A.3. Organizational Structure Chart of the Emek Electric Inc.
Figure 3....
iv
ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
B.1. General R&D Cycle Diagram
Figure 4. Research and Development Stages...
v
ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
C.1. Disconnectors
Figure 5. Different Types of Disconnectors which are u...
vi
C.2. Inverted Current Transformers
Figure 6. Different Types of Current Transformers designed by Emek Arge and
manufact...
vii
ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
C.3. Radial electrical power distribution systems
Figure 7. Radial Elec...
viii
ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
C.4. Smart Disconnector Principle
Figure 9. Radial Electrical Power Sy...
ix
ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
C.5. Smart Disconnector Prototype
Figure 11. Design of Coil for Measurem...
x
ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
Figure 13. Finished Product of the Project
xi
ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
D.1. Technical Drawings of Pantograph Disconnector
Figure 14. Technical ...
xii
ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
D.2. Pantograph Mechanism
Figure 15. Technical Drawing of a Pantograph ...
xiii
ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
D.3. Electrical Contact Problem between Moving Mechanical Components
F...
xiv
ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
D.4. Geometry of Multilam
Figure 19. Geometry of Multilam, a Special Ty...
xv
ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
D.5. Different Types of Multilam Connectors
Figure 21. Different Multila...
xvi
D.6. Cost of Prototype of Pantograph Disconnector
Table 1. Cost of the Prototype of Pantograph Disconnector which desi...
xvii
xviii
References
Hapam (2018, October 18), Pantograph disconnectors type GSSB,
http://www.hapam.nl/products/pantograph-dis...
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Emek R&D - Summer Practice Report

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DATE: 2018.10

This is the second and last internship for mechanical engineers in R&D. ME400 summer practice course in METU (ODTÜ).

This report includes all my personal observations and actions in Emek R&D as a mechanical engineering student during 20 business days.

- Purchasing meetings for required components
- Selection of electro-mechanical components
- R&D management stages

My personal observations:
1. General R&D Cycle: It covers how Emek Arge handles a research project and intermediate steps.
2. Projects of Emek R&D: Information about past and current projects of the Emek R&D.

My personal actions:
1. Factory Tour: Some images and videos of products and environment of the manufacturer company. All related digital media will be provided on demand.
2. Staubli Meeting: Notes on the related meeting are compiled in this section. All the related information about the meeting was compiled in an extra document. But some important actions were included in this report as well.

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Emek R&D - Summer Practice Report

  1. 1. 1 METU Department of Mechanical Engineering ME400 Summer Practice Report by Samet Baykul October 17, 2017
  2. 2. i
  3. 3. ii ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018 I hereby declare that all information in this document has been obtained and presented in accordance with academic rules and ethical conduct. I also declare that, as require by these rules and conduct, I have fully cited and referenced all material and results that are not original to this work. Name, Last Name : Samet Baykul Signature :
  4. 4. iii ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
  5. 5. iv ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Description of the company ....................................................................... 1 1.1. Company Name and Location............................................................................ 1 1.2. Organizational Structure of the Company..................................................... 1 1.3. Engineers and Their Duties ............................................................................... 3 1.4. Main Area of Business ......................................................................................... 3 1.5. History of the Company ...................................................................................... 3 2. Introduction ................................................................................................... 5 3. Report .............................................................................................................. 6 3.1. General R&D Cycle............................................................................................... 6 3.1.1. Contract, Specifications & Standards ............................................................. 6 3.1.2. Conceptual Design............................................................................................ 7 3.1.3. Requirement Review ........................................................................................ 7 3.1.4. Preliminary Design and Review ...................................................................... 7 3.1.5. Critical Design and Review.............................................................................. 7 3.1.6. Production of Prototypes and System Verification......................................... 8 3.1.7. Test Readiness Review..................................................................................... 8 3.1.8. Test Verification & Assent............................................................................... 8 3.1.9. Final Design Review ........................................................................................ 8 3.1.10. Production Readiness Review.......................................................................... 8 4.2. Projects of Emek R&D ......................................................................................... 9 4.2.1. Introductions .................................................................................................... 9 4.2.2. Project 1: Inverted Current Transformer...................................................... 10 4.2.3. Project 2: Smart Disconnector ....................................................................... 10 4.2.4. Project 3: Pantograph Disconnector .............................................................. 12 4. Conclusion .................................................................................................... 19
  6. 6. v ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018 5. Appendices ………………………………………………………………………………… A.1. Map Location ................................................................................................................ i A.2. Organizational Structure Chart of the Emek Arge ................................................... ii A.3. Organizational Structure Chart of the Emek Electric Inc. ...................................... iii B.1. General R&D Cycle Diagram......................................................................................iv C.1. Disconnectors................................................................................................................v C.2. Inverted Current Transformers..................................................................................vi C.3. Radial electrical power distribution systems........................................................... vii C.4. Smart Disconnector Principle .................................................................................. viii C.5. Smart Disconnector Prototype....................................................................................ix D.1. Technical Drawings of Pantograph Disconnector......................................................xi D.2. Pantograph Mechanism ............................................................................................ xii D.3. Electrical Contact Problem between Moving Mechanical Components ................ xiii D.4. Geometry of Multilam ...............................................................................................xiv D.5. Different Types of Multilam Connectors...................................................................xv D.6. Cost of Prototype of Pantograph Disconnector ........................................................xvi
  7. 7. vi ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
  8. 8. 1 1. Description of the company This section is intended to give a general idea about the company, Emek Arge. 1.1. Company Name and Location Full Name of the Company EMEK Araştırma Geliştirme Danışmanlık Sanayi ve Ticaret A. Ş Address of the Company Ü̈niversiteler Mahallesi. İhsan Doğramacı Bulvarı. No: 33. Halıcı Binası. No: K1-4. Teknokent Çankaya/Ankara Tel: 0312 221 64 00-01 Faks: 0312 221 64 02 E-posta: info@emekarge.com.tr Web: www.emekarge.com.tr The location of the company office is provided in Appendix A.1. 1.2. Organizational Structure of the Company Although Emek Arge has a small organizational structure consisting of five employees, it carries out highly effective research and development activities and achieves great works according to its size. In order to see overall organizational chart of Emek Arge please look at the chart in Appendix A.2.
  9. 9. 2 ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018 Emek Arge works as an R&D department for Emek Electrical Industry Inc. But Emek Arge and Emek Electrical Industry Inc. have separate legal entities. Therefore, some information about Emek Electrical Industry Inc. is also included in the report. In order to see overall organizational structure of Emek Electrical Industry Inc., please look at the chart in Appendix A.3. The company manager is Bora Balya. He was graduated from ODTÜ Mechanical Engineering. He is responsible for general order of the company. Team leaders are Mehmet Fatih Sayılır and Nurkan Aktaş. They are both electric and electronics engineers. They are both experienced in the power transmission industry. They manage the development of the research projects. Research and development engineer is Adem Duygu. He is a mechanical engineer. He is responsible for the current development in the power transmission industry and writing regular development reports about the industry. He is also responsible for the mechanical designs for the products such as pantograph disconnectors and smart disconnectors. He uses SolidWorks® and AutoCad® as CAD software for the mechanical designs. He uses also ANSYS® for the mechanical design analysis. Administrative affairs supervisor is Mine Akgül, is responsible for the financial transactions of the company. She also regulates the communication of the company.
  10. 10. 3 ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018 1.3. Engineers and Their Duties Table 1 : Number of Engineers Engineer Number Mechanical Engineer 2 EE Engineer 2 Almost all products which are developed in the company are electro-mechanic. In this reason, interdisciplinary cooperation is necessary in electricity and mechanics sides. Bora Balya and Adem Duygu are mechanical engineers. They are responsible for mechanical designs for the projects. Mehmet Fatih Sayılır and Nurkan Aktaş are electrical and electronical engineers. They are responsible for electrical designs for the projects. 1.4. Main Area of Business Design and development of instrument transformers, power capacitors, high voltage alternating current disconnectors and earthling switches in the power transmission industry. 1.5. History of the Company Emek R&D was established in 2014 by an effective team of engineers for the purposes of giving consultancy services in electro mechanic, energy and defense industries. The thought behind the foundation was to put Emek Electrical Industry Inc. one level up in the power transmission industry by making research and
  11. 11. 4 ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018 development studies. Emek Electrical Industry Inc. is a medium scale factory that is built on 23 kilometers away from Ankara. Today, the plant comprises of 10,835 m² covered area and 20,183 m² open area. In 1978, Emek Test Laboratory has been accredited according to TS ISO EN 17025 by TURKAK in 2011. In 1982, Emek realized the first export of instrument transformers, when 145 kV current and voltage transformers were exported to WAPDA, Pakistan. In 1998, Initial public offering of Emek Electricity's shares was realized. Emek gives importance to quality on all stage of processes. Emek has ISO9001:2008 certificate from ABS Quality Evaluations INC. In Emek all processes have been designed and implemented to regard environmental improvement. All related regulations and legislations are traced and implemented.
  12. 12. 5 ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018 2. Introduction This report includes all my personal observations and actions in Emek R&D as a mechanical engineering student during 20 business days. My personal observations: 1. General R&D Cycle: It covers how Emek Arge handles a research project and intermediate steps. 2. Projects of Emek R&D: Information about past and current projects of the Emek R&D. My personal actions: 1. Factory Tour: Some images and videos of products and environment of the manufacturer company. All related digital media will be provided on demand. 2. Staubli Meeting: Notes on the related meeting are compiled in this section. All the related information about the meeting was compiled in an extra document. But some important actions were included in this report as well.
  13. 13. 6 ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018 3. Report 3.1. General R&D Cycle General Manager Bora Balya gave us a brief information about research and development in the company in a meeting. In this section, this process will be explained. If you would like to see General R&D Cycle please look at Appendix B.1. All R&D steps are showed as follows: 1. Contract, Specifications and Standards, 2. Conceptual Design, 3. Requirement Review, 4. Preliminary Design and Review, 5. Critical Design and Review 6. Production of Prototypes and System Verification, 7. Test Readiness Review, 8. Test Verification and Assent, 9. Final Design Review, 10.Production Readiness Review. 3.1.1. Contract, Specifications & Standards Contract, professional or technical services means services that are intellectual in character, including consultation, analysis, evaluation, predication, planning, or programming, or recommendation, and result in the production of a report or the completion of a task. (mmd, n.d.) Specification, is a technical contract and it includes Performance, Visual and Functional articles.
  14. 14. 7 ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018 Standards is used for a level of quality or attainment. 3.1.2. Conceptual Design Conceptual Design includes literature search and indicating system’s needs. 3.1.3. Requirement Review All requirements and limitations are described loud and clear. Report of input and acceptance conditions is prepared. Project output has to satisfy the conditions. Conditions that are not described in this document are not required to actualize the conditions. 3.1.4. Preliminary Design and Review Alternative products are designed. In the review part, different designs are evaluated to determine if they satisfy economical and technical conditions. For different concepts, pro-con matrices are made. Risks are determined, preliminary calculations and assumptions are made. 3.1.5. Critical Design and Review In this phase, designed models are analyzed and tested. In the review part, detailed calculations are examined. Following topics are viewed: • Needs, project goals, important requirements, general design, functions of lower-segments, assumptions, designs from previous projects and comparison to rival companies, • Each necessities and supplies, • Models and sketches, • Tests, analyses and computations, • Assumptions, • Elimination of blurred topics, • Project plan, • Budget, • Suitability for mass production,
  15. 15. 8 ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018 • Tests of present design or alternative designs or termination of the project. 3.1.6. Production of Prototypes and System Verification Prototypes are manufactured and system is evaluated. 3.1.7. Test Readiness Review Tests for each prototype are planned. Proper ways for testing that satisfy all requirements are planned. 3.1.8. Test Verification & Assent Tests are done, if everything goes well, product is verified and accepted. 3.1.9. Final Design Review If the product succeeds tests, necessary changes are done in this stage. If the product fails the tests, process starts again from Design phase. After all changes, design process is frozen. 3.1.10. Production Readiness Review It is viewed if the company is ready for mass production and if equipment is enough, preliminary is made.
  16. 16. 9 ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018 3.2. Projects of Emek R&D 3.2.1. Introductions In this part, some industrial components are introduced in order to explain the following projects better. Disconnector A disconnector can be considered as a special type of switch. It is also called as disconnect switch or isolator switch. It completely de-energizes an electric circuit. It is used for service or when a malfunction occurred in sub-station and maintenance is needed. Until the problem is solved, disconnector keeps the circuit open hence any possible damage to people is prevented. It is mostly used in electrical distribution and industrial applications. There are different types of disconnector such as, • Center-break disconnector, • Double-break disconnector, • Pantograph disconnector, • Horizontal break knee disconnector.
  17. 17. 10 ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018 Emek Arge is working on pantograph disconnectors. They are responsible for research and development of the prototype of this type of disconnector. After the R&D project finish, they will continue to assist on mass production for Emek Electrical Industry Inc. Please look at the Appendix C.1. to see different types of disconnectors. 3.2.1. Project 1: Inverted Current Transformer The Project is related to design and production of prototypes of new generation inverted type current transformers according to IEC standards and receive test certificate. The main goal of this project is to produce a product that holds the market and is not offered in Turkey, by using local resources. Another aim is to satisfy the Internal Arc Test to decrease damage on nearby equipment and personnel during malfunction or explosion in sub-station. Lastly, to produce safer products for electric line which means mechanical endurance to earthquake. In Appendix C.2, different types of products are shown. 3.2.2. Project 2: Smart Disconnector Smart disconnector systems increase continuity of supply in energy transmission line. Since the electrical distribution companies are privatized, continuity of supply has become more important. Especially in the areas where land conditions are tough and radial electrical power distribution systems are used. The problem of energy continuity transmitted to the end user with radial distribution systems has been continuing for many years. In radial systems, when a
  18. 18. 11 ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018 fault occurs in any of the branches fed from the main line, all users in the main line remain without electricity until the fault point is detected and repaired by the source in case of failure. Long-term and costly detection of defective branches in difficult terrain is the disadvantage of these systems. Some figures about the Radial electrical power distribution system are showed in Appendix C.3. In radial electrical power distribution systems to prevent consumers from losing electricity when a fault occurs in the system, this project would be very helpful by isolating problematical branch from distribution line because the other branches on the line are not affected by the malfunction. In order to see the comparison of the systems with and without smart disconnectors, please look at Appendix C.4. The project was finished in 2017 by Emek Arge. Manufacturing is continuous. Some pictures were placed about the prototype in Appendix C.5.
  19. 19. 12 ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018 3.2.3. Project 3: Pantograph Disconnector 3.2.3.1. Introduction the Pantograph Disconnector The pantograph disconnector is single break and vertical reach type disconnectors mounted on a post insulator operated through an operating rod insulator. The divided support disconnectors are mounted directly on the structure. A technical drawing of a prototyped pantograph disconnector is placed in Appendix D.1. The disconnectors and/or earthling switches can be single-pole or three-pole operated by means of a motor-operated drive mechanism or a manual-operated drive mechanism. In case only one drive mechanism is used for three-pole operation, the poles are interconnected by means of adjustable coupling rods. The drive mechanism also houses the auxiliary contacts for position indication. (Hapam, 2018) An overview of the mechanism is showed in Appendix D.2. 3.2.3.2. Introduction the Project Developing a new pantograph disconnector design which is used in sub-stations in power transmission industry. All technical problems should be solved before manufacturing begins. In this report, only one specific problem related with the project will be discussed. I was assigned this problem personally during my internship. My responsibilities for the problem were as follows: 1. Investigation of the problem, 2. Search for possible solutions to the problem, 3. Making the necessary calculations for the solution, 4. To submit a report about the related subject.
  20. 20. 13 ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018 3.2.3.3. Introduction the Problem As a mechatronic system, in disconnectors, high voltage current passes through the moving mechanical parts between the main frame and the shafts. In this region, there is an extra component which has an electrical contact. This term can be used for a separable connection between two current-carrying conductors which are pressed together by a mechanical force. The supporting area created by this force (apparent contact area) does not, however, correspond to the effective contact area (a- sports) that is available for the transmission of current. Please look at the Appendix D.3. to see the details of the technical problem. 3.2.3.4. Approach The effective contact area, depends on a number of parameters as follows; • Contact force Fk, • Pollution layer (dirt, oxidation, etc.), • Roughness (surface characteristics), • Material characteristics, • Operating temperature Since the effective contact area is substantially smaller than the apparent area, the lines of flow are confined to the individual contact points, resulting in an increase in resistance which is known as the constriction resistance. According to the contact model of R. Holm, the constriction resistance Re is defined as follows;
  21. 21. 14 ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018 To this are added the effects of a possible pollution layer on the contact material. According to the formula: With increasing force and constant hardness, the contact area can be enlarged and thin pollution layers can be broken through. The force and constriction formula determines the correlation between the constriction resistance, the contact force and the surface hardness of the contacts. Consequently, it is necessary to use a resistant part which can be resists a certain mechanical load and high voltage current between the main frame and the rotating shaft. Therefore, we requested a meeting with Stäubli Inc. In 5.9.2018, I attended this meeting with general manager Mr. Balya and research engineer Mr. Duygu at the factory of Emek Electrical Industry Inc. We talked with Mr. Yavuz and Ms. Gözübüyük who are sales engineers from Stäubli Inc. They informed us about the
  22. 22. 15 ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018 solution of the problem. Stäubli (in English usually written as Staubli) is a Swiss mechatronics company, primarily known for its textile machinery, connectors and robotics products. Staubli offers mechatronics solutions for electrical connectors, liquid and gas couplings, robots and textile machinery. (Wikipedia, Staubli, n.d.) 3.2.3.5. Solution: The Multilam Technology Although a plug connection is not a stationary contact, it is subject to the same theoretical principles. Multilam are made from specially shaped contact strips (of copper, copper-beryllium alloy or copper alloy), and according to application they are plated with silver, gold or nickel and mounted in a slot. (Staubli Catalogue, 2018) The Multilam creates parallel contact points between the two surfaces from which each individual Multilam louver serves as an independent, resilient "bridge" for the transmission of current, thus substantially reducing the contact resistance. On the basis of the contact force of each Multilam louver, its geometry and spring characteristics, as well as the known hardness and character of the surface material, it is possible to reliably calculate the contact resistance. (Staubli Catalogue, 2018) Please look at the Appendix D.4. The constant spring pressure of the Multilam louvers ensures a permanent contact with the contact surfaces which results in a low constant transmission resistance. (Staubli Catalogue, 2018) They have a high current-carrying capacity in both short-time and continuous operation, and ensure a dependable performance over a wide temperature range as well as a long life. (Staubli Catalogue, 2018) The geometry of the individual Multilam louvers is designed for a long life, i.e. their permanent deformation is small and the louvers in the contact zone, which are
  23. 23. 16 ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018 slightly rounded, permit a large number of sliding cycles. The resistance values undergo no major changes and remain constant over a long period. Briefly, Multilam are specially formed and resilient contact elements. Because of their constant spring pressure, Multilam louvers ensure continuous contact surface, resulting in a constantly low contact resistance. The different Multilam types are included in Appendix D.5. After the meeting, we choose the LA-CU type Multilam. The reasons are as follows: • Very good electrical and thermal conductivity, • Low but adequate contact force minimizes wear, • Space-saving due to small width (smaller than LA-CUT type), • High short-circuit current carrying capacity, • This product allows rotation in both directions, • Our competitor Güray Elektrik A.Ş. also uses this product. (Güray Elektrik A.S.̧ manufactures their disconnectors under the patent permission from Belgium.) 3.2.3.6. Calculations for Selection of Correct Product All calculations and other details about the project are placed in another document namely “Using Multilam in Pantograph Disconnectors, Meeting Notes” and presentations. I submitted this report which I compiled from my meeting notes and my studies to the company during my internship period. Briefly, calculation results are as follow:
  24. 24. 17 ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018 • If we choose LACU type Multilam, the required diameter of Multilam connector should be minimum as 27 [mm]. • On the other hand, in recent design, mechanical restrictions increase this number up to 35 [mm]. • With a new design this number can be reduced. • As a result of calculations for LAIA Type Multilam, we saw the calculations holds approximate pre-calculated values. Calculations seem consistent. 3.2.3.7. Other Considerations Fail History • The selection of the connector model which cannot turn on both sides caused a fail in Güral Elektrik A.Ş. Warranty • Final diameter values could be used for real operations. This means, these numbers are in very safe zone for the test, • Guarantee continuous after the test, • Guarantee depends on number of the revolution or journey in km. It not depends on time. 3.2.3.8. Cost Analysis Cost Optimization • Connector manufacturer in Sweden believes in technical accuracy is much more important the price. • They do not think any sale due to the recent exchange rate fluctuation.
  25. 25. 18 ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018 • Since the road warranty is quite tightly linked to the material quality, it affects the final price significantly. For this reason, desired journey should be optimum. • As diameter increases, the journey increases as well. So, diameter should be selected as optimum. • Using standard products may be efficient for cost optimization. For example: o Cost of 1000 products is 30% cheaper than cost of 100 products. o Cost of 2000 products is 5% cheaper than cost of 1000 products. • It is not very important at the beginning but cost is much more than linear increasing with respect to the number of louver. For example: o If number of louver = 10 -> 10$ o If number of louver = 15 -> >15$ • All prices are open to negotiations. All expectations and details of budget may affect the final price. Cost of the Prototype A related table is given in Appendix D.6.
  26. 26. 19 ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018 4. Conclusion During my summer internship at Emek Arge, I had some very valuable experiences and I had the opportunity to develop many of my skills. I can sort some of these in the following way: • I increased my communication skills with people in a small office environment, • I had the opportunity to attend an important meeting with sales representatives from other companies. This gave me clues about how the communication between companies took place. I even developed ideas about continuing my after-school career as a sales engineer. • As a machine engineer candidate, I learned better the importance of curiosity and observation skills. • I learned how much knowledge and experience gained during academic life can make everything easier in professional life. • I have witnessed the development of research and development stages closely. • I have seen how programs such as ANSYS and SolidWorks are used. During the internship, I was one of the most hard-working interns in the office. When I presented my work to the general manager and project assistants, I enjoyed it. I was happy to see that I could do something useful for the company for even a very short time. It encouraged me for my future professional life. Thanks to the technical knowledge provided by Mechanical Engineering Department in METU and the social skills provided by METU campus, I can look forward to the future with more hopeful and courage. I would like to thank all my managers and interns for a great summer internship experience.
  27. 27. 20 ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018
  28. 28. i ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018 Appendices All related data, tables and drawings should be given in this section. A.1. Map Location Figure 1. Location of Emek Arge. Map shows ODTÜ Teknopolis, Ankara
  29. 29. ii A.2. Organizational Structure Chart of the Emek Arge Figure 2. Organizational Structure of Emek Arge
  30. 30. iii ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018 A.3. Organizational Structure Chart of the Emek Electric Inc. Figure 3. Organizational Structure of Emek Electric Inc.
  31. 31. iv ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018 B.1. General R&D Cycle Diagram Figure 4. Research and Development Stages on Emek Arge
  32. 32. v ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018 C.1. Disconnectors Figure 5. Different Types of Disconnectors which are used in Power Transmission Industry. Left to right: 1. Center-break disconnector, 2. Double-break disconnector, 3. Pantograph disconnector and 4. Horizontal break knee disconnector
  33. 33. vi C.2. Inverted Current Transformers Figure 6. Different Types of Current Transformers designed by Emek Arge and manufactured by Emek Electrical Industry Inc. These are: Cast-head Inverted Type, Welding Head Inverted Type, Tank Type and Bushing Type.
  34. 34. vii ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018 C.3. Radial electrical power distribution systems Figure 7. Radial Electrical Power System Figure 8. Malfunction Occurs in Radial Electrical Power System
  35. 35. viii ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018 C.4. Smart Disconnector Principle Figure 9. Radial Electrical Power System without Smart Disconnector Figure 10. Radial Electrical Power System with Smart Disconnector
  36. 36. ix ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018 C.5. Smart Disconnector Prototype Figure 11. Design of Coil for Measurement Transformer Figure 12. Tests of the Smart Disconnector. Left: Disconnector is closed, circuit is active. Rİght: Disconnector is open, circuit is break.
  37. 37. x ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018 Figure 13. Finished Product of the Project
  38. 38. xi ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018 D.1. Technical Drawings of Pantograph Disconnector Figure 14. Technical Drawings of Pantograph Disconnector. Designed by Adem Duygu from Emek Arge.
  39. 39. xii ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018 D.2. Pantograph Mechanism Figure 15. Technical Drawing of a Pantograph Disconnector while Moving Figure 16. Moving Steps of a Pantograph Disconnector
  40. 40. xiii ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018 D.3. Electrical Contact Problem between Moving Mechanical Components Figure 17. Effect of Pollution Layer on Electrical Contact Area Figure 18. Actual Electrical Contact Area is different than Ideal Contact Area
  41. 41. xiv ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018 D.4. Geometry of Multilam Figure 19. Geometry of Multilam, a Special Type of Electrical Connector which is Used in Moving Mechanical Parts as an Electrical Bridge Figure 20. Electrical Resistance of each Multilam Louver
  42. 42. xv ME 400 Summer Practice Report October 18, 2018 D.5. Different Types of Multilam Connectors Figure 21. Different Multilam Connectors on the Stäubli Catalogue
  43. 43. xvi D.6. Cost of Prototype of Pantograph Disconnector Table 1. Cost of the Prototype of Pantograph Disconnector which designed by Emek Ar
  44. 44. xvii
  45. 45. xviii References Hapam (2018, October 18), Pantograph disconnectors type GSSB, http://www.hapam.nl/products/pantograph-disconnectors-type-gssb/ Staubli Inc. Catalogue (2018, September 5) International Conference on Large High Voltage Electric Systems (1984, August 29 – September 6) MMD (n.d.) http://www.mmd.admin.state.mn.us/mn05000.htm Wikipedia, Staubli (n.d.), http://www.wikizeroo.com/index.php?q=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbi53aWtpcGVkaWEub3J nL3dpa2kvU3TDpHVibGkjY2l0ZV9ub3RlLWJlaXNlLTE

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