2. Introduction to Robotics
Robots have become a subject of great interest nowadays.
In our imagination, a robot is a machine that looks and acts like
a human being.
Robots are, in fact, defined as man-made mechanical devices
that can move by themselves, whose motion must be modeled,
planned, sensed, actuated and controlled, and whose motion
behaviour can be influenced by “programming”.
3. What Is Robotics...?
Robotics is science of designing or building an
application of robots. Simply ,Robotics may be
defines as “The Study of Robots”. The aim of
robotics is to design an efficient robot.
Why Is Robotics Needed...?
Robotics is needed because:
• Can work in hazardous/dangerous temperature
• Can do repetitive tasks
• Can do work with accuracy
4. History of Robots
The acclaimed Czech playwright Karel Capek
made the first use of the word ‘robot’, from the
Czech word for forced labor or serf.
The word 'robotics' was first used in Runaround, a
short story published in 1942, by Isaac Asimov.
But it was not until 1956 that a real robot came into
5. The Three laws of Robotics
Asimov also proposed his three "Laws of Robotics", and he later
added a “zeroth law”.
Zeroth Law : A robot may not injure humanity, or,
through inaction, allow humanity to come to harm
First Law : A robot may not injure a human being, or, through
inaction, allow a human being to come to harm, unless this would
violate a higher order law
Second Law: A robot must obey orders given it by human beings,
except where such orders would conflict with a higher order law
Third Law : A robot must protect its own existence as long
as such protection does not conflict with a higher order law.
6. The First Robot
• After the technology explosion during World War II, in 1956,
George C. Devol, Norman Schafler and Joseph F. Engelberger
and made a serious and commercial effort to produce a robot.
• They started a firm named Unimation and succeeded in building
the 1st robot named Unimate.
• Joseph F. Engelberger is known as the ‘Father of Robotics’
7. The Unimate
It was first used in General Motors.
It basically to extract die-castings from die casting machines and to
perform spot welding on auto bodies, both tasks being particularly
hateful jobs for people.
A variety of other tasks were also performed by robots, such as
loading and unloading machine tools.
The Unimate started a revolution in the robotics industry and many
robots of its type were built for doing tiresome jobs for people.
Robots offer specific benefits to workers and industries. If introduced
correctly, industrial robots can improve the quality of life by freeing
workers from dirty, boring, dangerous and heavy labor.
9. Robotics Technology
Most industrial robots have at least the following five parts:
• Manipulator or Rover: Main body of robot (Links, Joints, other
structural element of the robot)
• End Effecter: The part that is connected to the last joint hand) of
• Actuators: Muscles of the manipulators (servomotor, stepper
motor, pneumatic and hydraulic cylinder).
• Sensors: To collect information about the internal state of the
robot or To communicate with the outside environment.
10. Controller: Similar to cerebellum. It controls and coordinates the
motion of the actuators.
Processor: The brain of the robot. It calculates the motions and
the velocity of the robot’s joints, etc.
Software: Operating system, robotic software and the collection
12. Types of Robots
1) Mobile robots.
2) Industrial robots
3) Autonomous robots
4) Remote-controlled robots.
5) Virtual robots.
13. Mobile Robots
Mobile robots are able to move, usually they perform tasks such
They are of 2 types:
1) Rolling robots- Rolling robots have wheels to move
around. They can quickly and easily search. However they
are only useful in flat areas.
2) Walking robots- Robots on legs are usually brought in when
the terrain is rocky. Most robots have at least 4 legs; usually
they have 6 or more.
15. Industrial Robots or
Most of these robots perform
repeating tasks without ever moving.
Most robots are working in
industries. Especially dull and
repeating tasks are suitable for
A robot never grows tired; it will
perform its duty day and night
without ever complaining.
16. Autonomous Robots
Autonomous robots are self-
They run a program that gives
them the opportunity to decide
on the action to perform
depending on their
At times, these robots even
learn new behavior. They start
out with a short routine and
adapt this routine to be more
successful at the task they
perform. The most successful
routine will be repeated .
17. Remote-controlled Robots
In case a robot needs to perform more complicated yet
undetermined tasks an autonomous robot is not the right
Complicated tasks are still best performed by human beings
with real brainpower. A person can guide a robot by remote
control. A person can perform difficult and usually dangerous
tasks without being at the spot where the tasks are performed.
18. Virtual Robots
Virtual robots don’t exits in real life. Virtual robots are just
programs, building blocks of software inside a computer.
A virtual robot can simulate a real robot or just perform a
Search engines use such kind of robots. They search the World
Wide Web and send the information to the search engines.
Going to far away planets.
Going far down into the unknown waters and mines where humans
would be crushed
Giving us information that humans can't get
Working at places 24/7 without any salary and food. Plus they don't get
They can perform tasks faster than humans and much more
consistently and accurately
Most of them are automatic so they can go around by themselves
without any human interference.
People can lose jobs in factories
It needs a supply of power
It needs maintenance to keep it running .
It costs money to make or buy a robot
26. The Future of Robotics
To demonstrate advances in research and stimulate scientists,
a RoboCup soccer competition is held a few times every year.
Recognizing teammates, the goals, the ball is a difficult task for
the robots. Thus, it becomes a challenge for them.
Thus, constant advances are being made in robotics and robots
are bound to revolutionize Humanity
27. In future, cooperation between robots and humans
will be diversified, with robots increasing their
autonomy and human-robot collaboration reaching
completely new forms. Current approaches and
technical standards aiming to protect employees
from the risk of working with collaborative robots
will have to be revised