1. CRIMINOLOGY AND INCREASING CRIMES IN KASHMIR
Central University Of Kashmir
PREPARED BY: FAIQA HILAL,SAMEEM MAKDOOMI, RAJA ANJUM
ENROLLMENT NO.s: 2124CUKmr41,2124CUKmr09,2124CUKmr05
SUBMITTED TO: YAQOOB SIR.
What is a crime?
• A crime is an act or event which is prohibited by law, and which if
committed leads to prosecution, and punishment of some administered by
agents of the state rather than the payment of compensation.
• Crime is basically defined through the eyes of society. An act is not a crime
until society doomed it to be and if society considers some act not opposed
to their group sentiments than that act is not a crime at all.
• Crime is an act which offends and threatens the society, and thus such acts
need to be punished . The basic reasons behind the making of law are to
penalize those who commit a crime and these laws are the result of
society’s need to stop happening of such acts.
4. WHAT IS CRIMINOLOGY
• Criminology is a wide-ranging interdisciplinary field that encompasses the
study of crime and the criminal justice system.
• Criminology, scientific study of the nonlegal aspects of crime
and delinquency, including its causes, correction, and prevention.
• Or in simpler terms we can say; Criminology is the “study of crime” and is a
branch of sociology . It involves research into and analysis of who commits
crimes, why they commit them, their impact, and how to prevent them .
• The goal of criminology is to determine the root causes of criminal behavior
and to develop effective and humane means for addressing and preventing it.
• Viewed from a legal perspective, the term ”crime” refers to individual
criminal actions, and the societal response to those actions.
5. SOME OF THE SPECIFIC AREAS THAT CRIMINOLOGY COVERS INCLUDE:
7. DRUG ADDICTION:
Drug addiction is defined as out of control use of drugs despite their negative effects. Drug users
population is fast increasing in Kashmir and they have been occupying media headlines
frequently. It is unfortunate that Kashmir has witnessed a whopping 1500 percent increase in drug
abuse cases in the last three years. The major contributors to the business of ‘pleasurable’ drugs
have been mostly youngsters, including teenagers who are fast becoming habitual of taking highly
volatile and most expensive drugs like heroin. A Government report says there are at least 6 lakh
people in the 17–33 age group affected by drug related issues in Kashmir. Health Officials have
been shocked to witness this surge in drug abuse with female drug addicts coming to hospital for
treatment in alarming numbers. According to a report published by United Nation, Drug Control
Programme (UNDCP) around 70 thousand people are drug addicts alone in Kashmir division
among whom approximately 31 percent are women.
8. • Psychiatrists treating the drug addicts are listing prevailing circumstances in
Kashmir as one of the main reasons forcing the young to take drugs to beat the
• “There is no recreational alternative available for the children in Kashmir as
drug addiction isn’t a choice but in absence of any sports and recreational
alternative, children are becoming addicts as we are witnessing mostly 15-30
year age group involved in it.”, a psychiatrists states.
• In the backdrop of the alarming situation and the experts’ advice, large scale
programs in the field of sports and cultural activities are needed to keep the
youngsters in a delightful mood even in the most depressive conditions.
• It is worth mentioning that apart from Government efforts, parents have a
huge role to play when it comes to curbing the fast growing drug menace.
9. SOME CRIMES IN KASHMIR IN DETAIL:
• The Kashmir Conflict has been characterized by large scale usage of sexual violence.
• Mass rapes were carried out by Dogra troops as well as Hindu and Sikh mobs, and by invaders when
the conflict broke out in 1947, including Kunan Poshpora.
• Rape has been leveraged as a 'weapon of war' by Indian security forces comprising the Indian Army,
Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) and Border Security personnel. However, the government rejects
• Several victims’ family members, including husbands and children, were made to witness their rapes.
• An Amnesty International report in 1992 stated that rape is conducted during counter offensives
against militants as part of a bid to methodically shame local Kashmiri communities.
10. • A study in 2005 concluded that the rate of sexual violence against Kashmiri women was one of
the highest among the world's conflict zones.
• There are no reliable statistics on the number of rapes committed by security forces in Kashmir.
• It was reported that Indian forces committed gang-rape of 882 Kashmiri women in 1992 alone as
many Kashmiri Pandit women were kidnapped, raped and murdered, throughout the time of
• Human rights groups have documented many cases since 1990, but because many of the incidents
have occurred in remote villages, it is impossible to confirm any precise number.
• The Humanitarian Law Development documented more than 200 cases of war rape from January
1994. Many cases are not reported because of the shame and stigma associated with rape in
• Human rights groups state that 150 top officers, of the rank of major or above, have participated
in torture as well as sexual violence and that the Indian government was covering up such acts.
• In 2016, Kashmiri human rights activist and lawyer Parvez Imroz has said that a vast majority of
cases of sexual harassment by Indian forces in Kashmir go unreported.
11. Kunan-Poshpora Mass Rapes and the Indian Army’s violence against
The Himalayan mountains know best what happened on the cold dark night of February 23, 1991, deep in
the Kashmir valley. Kunan and Poshpora in the India-administered Kashmir valley were raided that night
by more than 300 personnel of the Indian army. As many as 150 girls and women were raped that night;
nearly 200 men were tortured. Barns became torture chambers. The next morning, as one can well
imagine, was marked by immense horror and paralyzing pain. And yet, justice is elusive over all these
years, as the Indian army has continued to exercise barbarism and has enjoyed complete impunity, thanks
to the Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA). The controversial law lets Indian Army personnel enter
any premise at any time in the Valley, without a search warrant, and use lethal force, if they deem it
necessary. The Indian state has continuously shirked responsibility for abuses at the hands of the Army.
Human rights groups have repeatedly condemned extrajudicial killings by Indian forces.