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Similar a Economics copy (1).pptx(20)


Economics copy (1).pptx

  1. Poverty and Income inequality Economics
  2. Presented By • Sameel Ahmed • Fassih Bin Tariq • Subhan Razzaq • Alishba Amjad • Shahwaar Mughal • Humna Majeed • Aafiya Abid
  3. Income Distribution What is Income Distribution? Who is distributing it? Perfect Income Distribution Imperfect Income distribution Do Perfect Income Distribution exists?
  4. Urban Areas Development Accessible Markets Contribution In State's GDP Skill Learning & Education Better resources and opportunities
  5. Rural Areas • Income distribution among inhabitants of rural areas is less then that of urban areas. Why this is so ? • Lack of development • Less GDP contribution • Lack of Investment • Lack of Education and opportunities • Urbanization
  6. Definition of Poverty • There is a certain level of ambiguity regarding the usage of the term poverty. This ambiguity arises from the influences of different world views, ideologies and approaches. • When it comes to comparing the poverty of different countries, historically, the convention of measuring poverty relative to the poverty line (a fixed level of income) has been used • Recently however, different approaches have been used to conceptualize poverty.
  7. Definition of Poverty Poverty definitions have been classified into 4 groups by Chamber (2006): Income poverty / Consumption Poverty. Material lack or want: shelter, food, furniture, clothes, services etc. Deprivation of capability: skills, abilities, social status Multidimensional Poverty: encompasses the different dimensions of poverty as listed above.
  8. Types of poverty: Absolute poverty: Poverty that is measured in relation to the poverty line. Independent of time and place. Relative Poverty: Poverty measured in relation to other people / communities. Approaches to Poverty: Income approach Basic needs approach Capabilities approach Participatory Approach Multi-dimensional poverty index (MPI)
  9. Income Approach • Current extreme poverty line for developing countries: $1.90 USD per person per day. • SDGs (Sustainable Development Goals): adopted by the UN General Assembly in 2015: • Consists of 17 long-term goals and 169 targets. • Target 1.1: Eliminating extreme poverty ($1.24 USD per day < ) by 2030. • Its aim is also cut in half the number of individuals living in poverty with respect to any and every aspect of poverty, as defined by national norms.
  10. Poverty in Pakistan According to an analysis, poverty has increased roughly from 30% to 40% during the past decade.
  11. Causes of Poverty Corruption Lack of Education Privatization Low Level of Income Increase in Population Public Dishonesty and Irresponsible Behaviour of People
  12. How to combat poverty? • By Controlling Population. • By Creating Jobs. • By Increasing Access to Education. • By Establishing NGOs • By Increasing Exports and Decreasing Imports.
  13. Labor Intensive • The term “labor-intensive” refers to a process or industry that requires a large amount of labor to produce its goods or services. The degree of labor intensity is typically measured in proportion to the amount of capital required to produce the goods or services: the higher the proportion of labor costs required, the more labor-intensive the business.
  14. Labor Intensive Investment Employment-intensive investments, link infrastructure development with employment creation, poverty reduction and local economic and social development. In using local labour and resources they create much needed employment and income, reduce costs, save foreign currency, and support local industry while increasing the capacity of local institutions. Why basic needs, education and training of employees/ workers is important?
  16. Human Resources • Human resources (HR) are the division of a business that is charged with finding, screening, recruiting, and training job applicants, as well as administering employee-benefit programs.
  17. Human Resource Development • "Human resource development is a series of organised activities, conducted within a specialised time and designed to produce behavioural changes." Leonard Nadler • Human resource development is set of planned and systematic activities designed by an organization to provide opportunities to its members to learn skills necessary for the present and future job requirements. • The three main functions of HRD are: • Training and development • Organizational development • Career development
  18. • Challenges: Nepotism and use of references to influence hiring process. Low attention from top management toward labour related issues is another challenge. Non-availability of talented and skilled staff. Inadequate salaries and poor reward system for employees at different levels.
  19. Remedies: Effective utilization, strategic planning and execution of human resources is the need of hour. Recruitment and selection, reward and recognition, an HR plan, training and development, and organizational policy development would all be adapted to reach the corporate objectives. Close collaboration between HR and the top/senior management, is required for the development of organization. HR Personnel should also actively develop themselves by seeking new knowledge, improving their skills, and connecting with the latest researches in the field. This Photo by Unknown author is licensed under CC BY.
  20. Child Labour The term “child Labour” is often defined as work that deprives children of their childhood, their potential and their dignity, and that is harmful to physical and mental development. It refers to work that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful to children. This Photo by Unknown author is licensed under CC BY-SA.
  21. Child Labour in Pakistan About 3.3 million of Pakistani children are trapped in child labour, depriving them of their childhood, health and education. Only 34% of children under five are registered at birth nationally. In Sindh Province, 21.5 percent of children ages 5 to 14 are working. Due to the prevalence of poverty, only 60.6 percent of children in Sindh Province between the ages of 5 to 14 attend school with 11.6 percent combining work and school. Regardless of Pakistan’s introduction of the Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act 1992, bonded labour still exists due to the country not having enough resources to enforce child labour laws.
  22. Remedies • Strengthening the capacity and enhancing awareness of rural communities to end child labour and bonded labour. • To reduce child labour, economic growth should be enhanced. • Stake holders and organizations must take the responsibility. • Supporting the ILO constituents develop community-based child and bonded labour monitoring system.
  23. Poverty of Participatory Index (POPI) • Poverty of Index Participatory is a method of studying and decreasing poverty that incorporates the poor's perspectives. • POIP seek to better understand the poor, offer the poor more say over decisions that affect their lives, and improve the effectiveness of poverty- reduction initiatives.
  24. History • The term was coined within the World Bank in 1992 • Early experiences were in sub-Saharan Africa in the early 1990s • It rose to prominence in the 1990s. Three applications for their utilization emerged throughout time: • Poor people have the right to be involved in the design of policies that affect them. • It resulted in new insights about poverty. • Its procedures created opportunities for poor people to influence policy. This Photo by Unknown author is licensed under CC BY-SA.
  25. Advantages • The process of implementing a POIP resulted in the formation of new partnerships between the government, assistance players, civil society organizations (CSOs), and ordinary citizens. • POIPs are not only used to design appropriate policies, but can also help in implementing and monitoring them, providing a baseline for follow-up studies.
  26. PRODUCTIVITY Productivity is commonly defined as a ratio between the output volume and the volume of inputs. This is usually stated as: Productivity can also be defined as the relationship between results and the time it takes to accomplish them Importance Productivity is important to individuals (workers and consumers), business leaders, and analysts (such as policymakers and government statisticians).
  27. PRODUCTIVITY ISSUES IN PAKISTAN • Low productivity is one of the major issues that Pakistan's economy has been facing for decades. This issue is affecting the output in every sector, including agriculture, manufacturing, trade, education, health and other services
  28. CAUSES OF LOW PRODUCTIVIT Y ⦁ Multitasking. ... ⦁ Workplace Stress. ... ⦁ Lack of Sense of Belonging. ... ⦁ Lack of Recognition. ... ⦁ Toxic Workplace Behavior. ... ⦁ Damaged Organizational Structure. ... ⦁ Too Many Meetings. • Poor Management
  29. Factors Affecting Productivity ⦁ Man Power: Selection i.e. selection of right man for a specific job Applying well known saying division of labour. ⦁ Equipment and Machines ⦁ Input Materials ⦁ Time. ⦁ Floor Area or Space. ⦁ Power or Energy. ⦁ Finance. ⦁ Movement of Man and Materials
  30. FACTORS THAT EFFECT PRODUCTIVITY • Change in the Work Force • Change in Industrial Composition • Change in Capital-Labour Ratio • Decrease in Research and Development Spending • Government Regulation
  31. WHAT TO DO TO ENHANCE PRODUCTIVIT Y Hard factors ⦁ Product ⦁ Plant and equipment ⦁ Technology ⦁ Materials and energy Soft factors ⦁ People ⦁ Organisation and systems ⦁ Work methods ⦁ Management styles
  32. Thank You