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  2. 2. i Central Philippine University College of Education HEALTH AND P.E. DEPARTMENT ACSCU-AAI Accredited, Level IV Tel. No. (63-33) 329-1971 loc. 1040/1078 E-mail address: hpesec@cpu.edu.ph Fax No. (033) 320-3685 LECTURE AND ACTIVITY MANUAL IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION 3(W) RHYTHMIC ACTIVITIES (Outcome-Based Education [OBE] Aligned) Based on CMO 30 series 2004 Revision No. 1, August 2020 by: INSTR. CANDELARIA E. ALAVATA, LPT F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  3. 3. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  4. 4. ABOUT THE AUTHOR NECIL C. MAGNO, MAED Assoc. Prof. N. Magno is a graduate of Bachelor of Science in Secondary Education Major in Mathematics and minor in Physical Education, Health and Music at Central Philippine University in 2001. She earned her Masters of Arts in Physical Education major in Physical Education at West Visayas State University in 2012, and currently pursues her Doctor in Physical Education at Filamer Christian University. As a teacher, she has been engaged in teaching Physical Education since 2000. Her contributions in Physical Education include the following: Choreographer of Iloilo PRISAA Interpretative Dance which garnered championship awards for seven times between 2001-2015; Member of National Philippine Folkdance Society and Iloilo Choreographers Guild. She was one of the Board of Judges for Ginoong at Binibining Pilipinas Australia in May 2019 held at Sunnybank, Brisbane, Australia. She also rendered her service as Resource Person for Cultural Exchange in Australia in 2019. She served as the Artistic Director and Choreographer of CPU Sari-Saot Dance Troupe from 2000-2019. She has been devoting her time as University Chairman of events such as Modern Contemporary Dance and Hiphop Dance, and a Zumba Fitness Instructress. While still a student, her milestones are as follows: a pioneer member of the renowned Dagyaw Theater and Dance Company of Iloilo National High School, a choreographer and dancer of CPU College of Education Interpretative Dance which garnered championship awards for six consecutive times from 1995-2001. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  5. 5. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  6. 6. ii No part of this manual may be reproduced in any form, either wholly or in part, for any use whatsoever without written permission from the department and the person concerned. ACKNOWLEDGMENT I wish to take this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude for the cooperation and assistance of the many friends who gave freely of their time, their knowledge, and their helpful criticism. Special recognition and grateful appreciation are extended to: Mrs. Jayna J. Acap for her interest and encouragement during the writing and preparation of this manual; Prof. Anna May A. Yap- Zerrudo and Prof. Mitzi May R. Duremdes for reading, correcting and editing this entire manuscript ; Mr. Randy L. Villanueva for typing the materials; Mr. Edwin Laruan for the beautiful photography; CPU Sari-Saot Dance Troupe Members for their all out support and for consenting to pose in the pictures; CPU Printing Press who rushed prints and supplies through record time; My student assistants Lyn D. Cartama and Hershey Cordero for their valuable assistance; Toto Prince, Toto Sherwin and Beautiful Princess my inspiration and love of my life; Captain Sherwin A. Magno, my husband for his untiring support, love, financial assistance, and who made me feel special which boosted my confidence to pursue my dreams; Above All to God as the source of everything ............. To God be the greatest glory! This PE3 (W) manual was prepared by Prof. Necil Capiñanes-Magno for and in behalf of the Health and P.E. Department of CPU (June 2016). F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  7. 7. vi Central Philippine University and College of Education Mission, Vision Statements, College Outcomes and Core Values….......................vii CPU Songs............................................ix Alma Mater SongsRaise A Song O Central, Our Central Central Spirit The Course...........................................1 Course No. and Title Prerequisites School Year/ Semesters Offered Course Description Course Credit/Unit Course Subject/ Outcome Course Requirements Unit O - Orientation and Course Background ............................ 4 CPU Vision/ Mission and Core Values Requirements of the Course University and Department Rules and Regulations Nature and Scope of the Course Unit I –Rhythm…................................. 6 What is Rhythm Elements of Rhythm Time Signature and Rhythmic Patterns Rhythm Band Unit II - Rhythm and Fundamental Movements ..............................13 What is Movements Elements of Movements Movements, Rhythm and Phantomime Dramatization Three Forms of Mime Dance Formation and Positions Used in Choreography Contents Unit IV -Dance Techniques and Dance Secrets......................... 59 How to become a dancer The Secrets of leading (Man) The Secrets of Following (Woman) How to Exude Charm and Personality in Dancing Example of Various Dancing Personalities The Importance of Warm- Up and Cool Down in Dance Exercises to Improve Dancing Rock Your Body Warm up How Important is Cool Down? Unit V - Dance as an Expression............75 Fundamental Arms and Feet Positions Philippine Folk Dance Dance Terms Common to Philippine Folk Dance Beneracion Salakban Other Dance Forms ● Samba The Basic Samba Moves Other Distinctive Steps Benefits of Dancing Samba ● Zumba Basic Steps Variations ● Waltz Five Basic Walts Steps Propre Dance Hold ● Tango Basic Metric and Rhythmic Pattern ● The Belly Dance Social Context of Belly Dance In Middle East Movements Found In Belly Dancing Tips Unit III - Introduction to Dance.............. 41 What is Dance Benefits of Dancing Tips of Dancing Types of Dance and its Definitions ● The Bollywood Dance Steps and Moves Who’s Who.......................................... 116 Glossary............................................... 121 References...........................................123 F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  8. 8. vii Mission and Vision Statements of Central Philippine University (CPU) and College of Education (COE) College Outcomes and Core Values UNIVERSITY Vision Statement: A University committed to Exemplary Christian Education for Life (EXCEL) and responsive to the needs of the total person and the world. Mission Statement: The mission of Central Philippine University is to carry out a program of spiritual, intellectual, moral, scientific, technological and cultural training and allied studies under influences which strengthen Christian faith, build up character and promote scholarship, research, and community service. Core Values: Faith. The act of believing the things God has revealed about himself and acting on those beliefs. This includes commitment, cooperation, trust, and confidence. Character. The aggregate features and traits that form the individual’s nature of a person, moral quality, and good report. This includes honesty, integrity, humility and loyalty. Justice. Righteousness or lawfulness and fairness. It is observing due process in administering the deserved punishment or reward. This includes fairness, equality, morality and peace. Stewardship. The proper and responsible management of life, position, possessions, and other resources entrusted by God to man. This includes, service, accountability culture and outreach. Excellence. The highly commendable quality of feature of a person’s worth and/or deeds, this includes competence, technology, and scholarship and research. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  9. 9. viii COLLEGE OF EDUCATION Vision Statement: A College dedicated to the development of competent and committed students and graduates who will serve as ambassadors of Exemplary Christian Education for Life (EXCEL). Mission Statement: The mission of the College of Education is to provide quality Christian Education for the total development of students to prepare them for life-long service to God and fellowmen and for successful participation in their profession. College Outcomes: C – Committed to EXCEL in Science and Faith as Ambassadors of Christian Education. O – Outreach and Research Oriented for Community Linkage and a tool for University wide development. E – Exemplary in promoting moral values in performance utilizing the available educational technologies. D – Determined to succeed in developing the physical, intellectual, emotional, social, moral, and spiritual aspects of learners. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  10. 10. ix Central Philippine University Songs Alma Mater Song Raise a Song Central, my Central Raise a song for dear old Central, Our Alma Mater true Far and fair renowned! Our praise we’ll sing to you Let her campus ring with echoes, Day after day Make her halls resound! We’ll keep thine honour dear Franklin, Weston, Roblee ringing Save thee from every fear Lopez Hall replies, Thy name we will revere Hark! Upon the distant mountains When far away. How the fading echo dies! Central, my Central Loved, honored be thy name And everywhere the same Through North and South May thou forever stand Renowned in every land Supreme in heart and hand We love thee best. O, Central, Our Central Central Spirit From far and near we come to thee Hope of coming generations, O, central, our Central Gleaming dawn of day! And may we e’re be true to thee Filled with lofty venerations O, central, our Central All we think and say Thy fame we’ll spread throughout the land Central Spirit lead us onward, To thee we pledge our hearts and hands Loyal make each son! Our gratitude we voice in song ‘Till we find our efforts honoured O, central, Our Central. With the Master’s words “welldone!” Ideals that lift our visions high We’ve a wealth of school day mem’ries At Central, our Central That makes for manhood in man With us will be until we die And a rich and broad horizon O, Central, our Central Central students scan, The blues of this school so dear Here’s a leadership fraternal, Awake our hearts the call is clear For eastern nations to see For purpose strong and service true For a renaissance supernal O, Central, our Central Sweeps our isles from sea to sea! F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  11. 11. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  12. 12. 1 Program/Degree: Basic Physical Education for All Programs Program/Degree Outcomes: Based on CMO 30 series 2004 Course Number: P.E.3 (M/W) Rhythmic Activities Prerequisites: None School Year: 2020 - 2021 (Revision 1) Course Description: This is a study, execution and practice of the fundamental movements with rhythm, their variations and combinations, learning how to improvise simple dance routines using the basic movements through creative approach and learning dances both native and foreign. Course Credit/Unit: 2 Units Course/Subject Outcome: At the end of the term, the students must have: 1. discussed rhythm and fundamental movements as the foundation of movements and steps; 2. showed appreciation of the importance of rhythm in any choreograph routines; 3. mastered the steps and body movements in preparation for a lifelong recreational activity; 4. created and organized a dance activity for entertainment, exercises, everyday activity and as a profession; 5. demonstrated and come-up with improvised dance routines based on own ideas and concepts; 6. explained the contributions of the different artists, both local and international, in the field of dance; and 7. performed Philippine Folk and Foreign Dances with accuracy and confidence. COURSE REQUIREMENTS AND OTHER CLASS CONCERNS 1. Attendance- attendance should start on the first day of the semester. Each student is allowed up to 7 excused and unexcused absences. The 8th absence mark results in an automatic “DRO 1 PPED” from the class roll. Three (3) “TARDY” marks are equal to one (1) absence mark. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  13. 13. 2 2. P.E. Uniform - each student is required of a complete setwhich should be worn at all times every time she has a class in P.E.3 (W). 3. OBE Lecture and Activity Manual - each student should have a personal copy of the OBE Lecture and Activity Manual of the subject. 4. Theoretical Exams - these include quizzes and two periodic exams, the midterm and final exam. 5. Practical Exams - Students should take the practical exam set bythe teacher. They will be graded according to: Sets/Groups/Pairs/Individual performance. 6. Make- Up Test (Written/Practical) Written Exam - This will only be given as scheduled by the teacher to those who have valid reasons for their absence during the test. Practical Test- Make up work shall be given provided that a medical certificate is presented to the teacher. 7. An “incomplete mark” is given in the event of documented personal illness or family emergency. It is the student’s responsibility to inform the teacher regarding such at least three (3) weeks before the final exam week of the semester. Students requesting an “incomplete mark” must speak with the instructor three (3) weeks prior to the final week of the course. An incomplete will be given to a student because of chronic tardiness or missed classes. 8. Medical Certificate- This document is required for all students who cannot perform a task due to illness. However, those who are properlyidentified as not allowed to participate in the more strenuous dances will be given alternative activities. 9. Classroom Policies: (a) Complete PE uniform consisting of the required complete set,tennis shoes/jazz shoes or dancing shoes must be worn during classes. (b) Cell phones and other gadgets should be turned off whileclasses or activities are going on. (c) Hand towel/ bottled water during practical activity are a must. (d) Hair should be securely tied up. Jewelry should not be wornif these will pose as distraction to the performance. 10. Culminating Activity: Each student shall participate in the culminating activity. This may serve as the final practical test. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  14. 14. 3 11. Grading System: Periodical Examination (Online) - 20% (Midterm and Final Exam) Daily Quizzes - 10% Daily Participation/Assignments - 30% Major Practical Exam/Test (Online) - 40% TOTAL - 100% 12. Methods and Strategies A. Lecture/discussion/contextual teaching B. Modeling/demonstration C. Command-Teaching Style D. Part-to-whole and add-on-a-step E. Symbol Sequence F. Practice Style G. Guided Discovery H. Students on Video I. Students as Leaders J. Peer Teaching K. Direction Readers L. Verbal and Gesture Cueing M. Self-Check 13. Materials Needed: A. Visual Aids B. Audio/Video Equipment C. Mobile Phone (Mobile Data) D. Online links F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  15. 15. 4 UNIT 0 ORIENTATION AND COURSE BACKGROUND A. Desired Learning Outcomes: At the end of the unit, the students must have: 1. explained the general objectives of the course; 2. discussed online netiquettes, department policies and the school rules and regulations; 3. showed appreciation through learning and mastery of CPU songs; 4. recognized the importance of the CPU Vision Statement andMission Statements; and, B. Values and Thought Focus Values: Faith in God, Appreciation, Acceptance Thought: Oh. Give thanks to the Lord, for He is good. His loving-kindness continues forever. Psalm 136:1 C. Course Content 1. CPU Vision/Mission Statement and Core Values 2. Requirements of the Course 3. University and Department rules, regulations and policies D. Activities 1. Opening prayer, led by the teacher. 2. Checking of registration forms (stub codes, stamp enrolled, etc.). 3. Orientation (a) Pre-class activities: Changing into PE uniforms 5 minutes before class and 5 minutes before dismissal • Letting the class “Fall-in” by column and according to height • Opening prayer assignments • Checking of attendance- by count-off F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  16. 16. 5 • Class evaluation • Closing prayer assignments • Dismissal (b) Explaining attendance policies, tardy (late) marks absences (excused and unexcused), rules and policies of the university, department and classroom policies. (c) Explaining teacher’s policies on make-up work, missed exams/quizzes, major exams and practical tests and gradingsystem. (d) Explaining classroom requirements- use of numbers during practical test; complete PE uniform; class observation during menstruation and proper hygiene during activities. (e) Encouraging students to bring their lecture and activity manual during PE classes (f)Reminding students of their personal belongings, valuables, useof facilities and equipment. (g) Encouraging students to visit the teacher during counseling hours, to attend convocations and CEW- Christ Emphasis Week (CEW). 4. Explaining the nature and scope of the course. 5. Discussing the Vision and Mission statements of CPU and the general objectives of the course. Letting the students memorize the Visionand Mission of CPU. 6. Learning, memorizing the CPU songs (a) Know the time signature and accented note, word/syllable (b) Beat while learning the songs (c) Have variety 7. Assignment 8. Dismissal F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  17. 17. 6 UNIT I RHYTHM A. Desired Learning Outcomes: At the end of the units the students must have: 1. discussed rhythm, elements of rhythm and common time signature; 2. recognized rhythm through observing sounds in the environment; and 3. created simple rhythmic music by combining differentrhythmic patterns. B. Values and Thoughts Focus: Values: Cooperation, appreciation, creativity, patience, resourcefulness. Thought: Patience with others is love. Patience with self is hope. Patience with God is faith. -Adel Bestavro C. Course Content INTRODUCTION Every individual has a rhythm. It is found in all of nature and is natural for every individual. Rhythm is everywhere. Our lives are driven to an enormous degree by the internal and external rhythms that are a fundamental part of life at every level. Rhythm is most clearly seen through dance-the the art of movement. What is Rhythm? • is the arrangement of sounds as they move through time. • is a measured motion of flow characterized basically by the regular recurrence of elements or features as beats, sounds, and accents. This implies measurements of time, space and energy. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  18. 18. 7 • is what makes music move and flow. Rhythm is made of sounds and silences. Sound and silences are put together to form patterns of sounds, which are repeated to create rhythm. Rhythm has a steady beat, but it may also have different kinds of beats. ELEMENTS OF RHYTHM All movements are affected by the elements of rhythm. 1. Accent Applied to the first beat of a measure. Certain notes or beats in a rhythmic pattern receive more force than others. 2. Bar In music, a vertical across a staff dividing it into equal measures of time. 3. Beat The underlying rhythm of the music. Some musicians refer to the beat as the pulse of the music. The underlying beat determines the time signature of a piece of music or movement. 4. Count A pulse beat; a time limit. 5. Intensity A variation of the stress of movent. The intensity of music can be loud, soft, light, or heavy. 6. Measure A group of pulse beats. 7. Meter This refers to how the beats are put together to form a measure of music. Common meters used in rhythmics are 2 4, 3 4, 4 , and 6 . 4 8 8. Note A printed symbol of a musical tone. 9.Note Pattern Refers to a note or set of notes with or without rest, used to a certain dance step. 10. Phrase A natural grouping of measures. A phrase consists of eight (8) underlying beats; phrases of music is put together into rhythmic patterns. 11. Pitch The lowness or highness of a tone. 12. Step Pattern Refers to the movement or movements done for each of the dance steps. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  19. 19. 8 TIME SIGNATURE AND RHYTHMIC PATTERNS Time Signature • Is used to indicate the appropriate counting for a particular rhythmic pattern. It can be grouped into two’s, Three’s and four’s. 2 4 There should be two counts to a measure. 34 There should be three counts to a measure. 44 There should be four counts to a measure. Time Signature Rhythmic Pattern Is used in the arrangement of long and short beats in relation to the time signature given. 2 4 Regular Pattern: 1, 2 1 & 2; ah-ah2ah-ah; 3 4 Regular Pattern: 1,2,3 1&2,3; 1,2&3; 1&2&3; 1ah-ah2,3; 1ah-ah2 ah-ah3; 1,2ah-ah,3ah-ah 44 Regular Pattern:1,2,3,4 1 & 2, 3, 4; 1,2 & 3, 4; 1,2,3 & 4; 1,2,3,4 &; 1&2,3&4; 1 &2 & 3 & 4; 1ah-ah2,3,4; 1ah-ah2,3ah-ah4; 1ah- ah2ah-ah3ah-ah4. Rhythm Band • A band may creatively combine different rhythmic patterns according tothe time signature to produce a simple rhythmic music using different soundsources. • Students create a rhythm from ordinary objects found inside the room. • Divide the class into four small groups to create a rhythm band. • A time limit of 15 minutes for practice and 3 minutes for the final performance. Example of Objects: Pencil/pen, heeled-shoes, rubber band, ruler, empty water plastic bottle, spring of notebook, etc. The speed of the music. It can be constant or may show a gradual increase (acceleration) or decrease (deceleration). (1) Fast- 1 count in a measure (2) moderate- 2 counts in a measure (3) slow- 4 counts in a measure 13. Tempo F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  20. 20. 9 Activity # 1 Application (to be submitted to the teacher) Name: Class Time Date Score General Instruction: Rhythm Guidelines: 1. In a group of ten or solo compose a rhythm using 2 4, 3 4 and 4 4. 2. Choose any improvise rhythmic instruments such as (sticks, plasticbottle, cans, cups, ruler etc.) as long as it can produce sounds. 3. Use appropriate music for (2-3 minutes) and combine different rhythmic pattern. 4. Make you own original sound variations using tempo (slow, fast and moderate), combined common time signature (2 4, 3 4 and 4 4). Criteria/Rubric: Timing/Coordination… ............................40% Creativity/Variation.................................40% Choice of Instruments.............................20% TOTAL: 100% Name: Class Time Date Score Rhythm Score Timing/Coordination….......................................... 40 Creativity….......................................................... 40% Choice of Instruments......................................... 20% TOTAL F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  21. 21. 10 F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  22. 22. 11 Activity # 2 (to be submitted to the teacher) Name: Class Time Date Score Self -Check Test: Multiple Choice: Choose the correct answer from the choices given. Write your answer on the space before the number. 1. It has a steady beat and different beats. A. accent B. beat C. measure D. rhythm 2. It refers to a printed symbol of a musical note. A. step pattern B. meter C. note D. tempo 3. What elements of rhythm measure the first beat? A. accent B. bar C. measure D. intensity 4. It refers to the lowness and highness of a tone. A. note B. note pattern C. pitch D. measure 5. What do you call a vertical across staff dividing into equal measures of time? A. beat B. bar C. count D. accent 6. Which of these rhythmic patterns refers to ¾ time signature? A. 1 ah ah 2 B. 1 and 2 and 3 C. 1, 2, 3,4 D. 1 and 2 and 3 and 4 7. It refers to a group of pulse beats. A. measure B. tempo C. measure D. count 8. What elements of rhythm refers to a group of measures? A. phrase B. note C. count D. measure 9. It refers to the arrangement of long and short beats of sound. A. rhythmic pattern B. rhythm C. time signature D. rhythm band 10. Which of the following is an example of 2/4 time? A. 1 ah ah 2 ah ah 3 C. 1 ah aha 2 ah ah B. 1,2,3 ah ah D. 1 ah 2 ah 3 II. Identify the following rhythmic pattern by writing the time signature on the space provided. 11. 1 ah ah 2 ah ah 3 16. 1 ah ah 2 ah ah 3 ah ah 4 12. 1 and 2 and 3 and 17. 1, 2, 3 13. 1, 2, 3,4 and 18. 1,2 14. 1 and 2 and 3 and 4 19. 1,2,3,4 15. 1 and 2 and 20. 1 and 2, 3 and 4 F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  23. 23. 12 F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  24. 24. 13 UNIT II RHYTHM AND FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENTS A. Desired Learning Outcomes: At the end of the unit the students must have: 1. discussed fundamental movements; 2. identified movements as locomotors, non-locomotors and manipulative movements; 3. developed an appreciation of the importance of fundamental movements as the foundation of all movements; and 4. applied fundamental movements through creating originalchoreograph routines; B. Values and Thought Focus: Values: cooperation, appreciation, confidence dedication. Thought: “Give me one hundred men who love nothing but God, Hate nothing but evil, and know nothing but Jesus Christ, and I will change the world” – John Wesley C. Course Content INTRODUCTION Without movement, there is no life. From the womb of our mother, there is movement. It is not patterned, unorganized and unstructured. There are still thousands of movements going on inside us that we need to discover, explore and expose. Flowing and pulsating, breathing, beating is only afar. When approaching movements, our problems can be stiffening, straining, pushing, collapsing, pulling up, and pushing down - block energy and stop fluency. It is hard to move fluently out of a fixed state. It requires a huge amount of effort. We need to connect with an inner flow that takes us easily into movement. The root of the movement is the response to gravity, giving grounded F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  25. 25. 14 support. There are three centers of the body from where you move the gut, heart, and head. Consider the intention of your movement. When the intention is clear, then the inner thoughts and feelings are conveyed in the movement; there will be clarity, connection and communication. What is movement? Movement is…  An impulse  A flow of energy- a space to feel the effect of gravity, the body’s spring mechanism.  A response to a stimulus requiring movement away from ortoward expansion or contraction.  A movement of suspense.  Falling in space.  Responding to the contact of the ground. ELEMENTS OF MOVEMENTS (In Dance) I. BODY (The Instrument) This category defines what the body can perform. (a) Shapes (the body makes) Examples: Long- Short Wide - Narrow, Straight - Twisted, Curled - Stretched, Symmetrical- Asymmetrical (b) Balance or Weight Bearing Balance demands the different parts of the body. It supports the weight or receives the weight. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  26. 26. 15 (c) Transfer of Body Weight Many skills demand moving the body weight from one body part to another, such as walking, leaping, rolling and so on. (d) Flight This category differs from transfer of body weight. It is an explosive movement and involves lifting the body weight from the floor or apparatus for an extended period of time. The amount of time off the floor distinguishes flight from transfer of weight. Examples: Running, Jumping, etc. II. FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENTS (The Material) Fundamental movements are motions that are used as the foundation for any movement activity such as sports, dance and perhaps in everyday life. A. Locomotor Movement is used to move the body from one place to another in any direction with the feet as the moving base of support. 1. Walking Each foot moves alternately, with one always in contact with the ground or floor. The weight of the body is transferred from the heel to the ball of the foot and then the toes for push-off. 2. Running Is moving rapidly so that for a brief moment, both feet are off the ground /floor. It varies from trotting (slow run) to sprinting (a fast run for speed). It should be done with a slight body lean forward. 3. Leaping Is an elongated step designed to cover distance or move over a low obstacle. It is a spring from one foot, landing on the other. 4. Jumping Taking off with one or both feet and landing on both feet. It can be done in place or as a locomotor activity to cover ground. 5. Hopping Propelling the body up and down on the same foot. The body lean, the other foot, and the arms serve to balance the movement. 6. Sliding Sliding is done on the balls or soles of the feet with the weight shifted from the leading foot to the trailing foot. It is a one-count movement, with the leading foot moving to the side and the other foot following quickly. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  27. 27. 16 7. Skipping Is a series of step-hops done with alternate feet. It is done on the balls of the feet. 8. Galloping A step-and-cut combination. One foot leads and the other is brought toward it. There is more upward motion of the body. B. Non- Locomotor Movement is a movement that a person performs while remaining stationary. Examples of Non-Locomotor Movement (a) Bending incline the body downward from the vertical (b) Bounce to cause to rebound (c) Cringe to shrink; crouch (d) Flick a light sharp jerky stroke (e) Gesturing is a form of non-verbal communication in which visible bodily actions communicate particular messages (f) Grind to move with difficulty or friction (g) Jerk a short quick, sharp sudden movement (h) Pull to exert force as to draw (i) Push to thrust forward, downward or outward (j) Rising Ascending, sloping upward (k) Rotating to move in a circle around an axis or center (l) Slap to strike sharply with the open hand (m) Stamp to pound or crush with, to beat with the bottom of the feet (n) Stroke hit or strike someone (o) Sway to swing gently from side to side (p) Swing to move back and forth or from side to side while suspended or on axis (q) Thrust to push suddenly or violently in the specified direction (r) Twirl to turn or cause to turn rapidly (s) Twist to form into a bent, curling; to cause to rotate F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  28. 28. 17 C. Locomotion that does not require the feet  Crawl -transfer about three or more supports with the body in a basically parallel orientation to the floor  Roll- transfer by rotation of support about a non-vertical D. Manipulative Movements - these movements may use a combination of locomotor and non-locomotor movements; always done with an object being controlled or manipulated. Examples: Throwing Kicking Wand and Hoop Handling Dribbling Juggling F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  29. 29. 18 F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  30. 30. 19 Activity # 3 (to be submitted to the teacher) Name: Class Time Date Score Self -Check Test: Multiple Choice: Choose the correct answer from the choices given. Write your answer on the space before the number. 1. It refers to a flow of energy, an impulse and falling into space. A. fundamental B. movement C. body D. non- locomotor 2. What elements of movement refers to an instrument? A. body B movement C. space D. fundamental 3. What type of body elements refers to explosive movements that involve lifting the body weight from the floor? A. balance B. shapes C. flight D. transfer 4. What non- locomotor movements refer to light or jerky movements? A. bounce B. grind C. cringe D. flick 5. It is a combination of a skip and hop. A. jump B. skip C. hop D. gallop 6. It means to shrink or crouch. A. bounce B. flick C. cringe D. jerk 7. It refers to spring from one-foot landing on the samefoot. A. hop B. jump C. skip D. leap 8. It is considered a series of steps. A. run B. gallop C. leap D. walk 9. These movements may always do with controlled objects. A. non-locomotor B. manipulative C. locomotor D. natural 10. Which of the following is not an example of shape? A. twisted B. narrow C. curled D. line F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  31. 31. 20 II. Analyzation: What fundamental movements are suited in the following situations? Choose your answer in the choices given by writing the letter only. You may use the letter more than once. A. skip C. run E. gallop G. slide B. walk D. leap F. jump H. hop 11. You are 15 mins late in your class. 12. A man won 50 million in the lotto. 13. Her mom bought her new sets of crayons. 14. The teacher assigns her to imitate the movement of a horse. 15. After she slid on the floor, she broke one of her bones. 16. The first fundamental movements learned by 11 months old. 17. She tried to reach out to the books on the shelves above her head. 18. Christina tried to cross the other side of the river by blocks of stones. 19. He is in the office when he got a phone call from the hospital. 20. Sheane’s mom allows her to attend Alex’s birthday. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  32. 32. 21 III. SPACE (The Canvas) – it is where the body can move. The spatial qualities of movement related to moving in different directions and at different levels are the focus. A. Shape- is the strongest visual component in dance. (a) Symmetry/Asymmetry: apply to motion and body positioning. (1) Symmetrical Positions – are body shapes that are a mirror image on each side of the center line of the body. (2) Asymmetrical Positioning – are body shapes that are different on each side of the center line of the body B. Level- this defines the relationship of the body to the flooror apparatus, whether low or high, or in between. (a) Low level- consists of non-locomotor or locomotor movement on, along and or close to the floor. Movements include: Crawling Sitting Kneeling Rolling Lying (b) Medium Level- consists of non-locomotor and locomotor movement where there is contact with the floor by either the feet or hands. The medium level is generally the most used in dance. Dancers will combine level with shape, direction and pathway, to achieve intent in the movement. (c) High Level- the high level occurs where the body shape is vertically long or where the body leaves the floor, these movements include: Vertical Balances on rise Jumps and Leaps The high level may reinforce the idea of strength or power. C. Relationship to self, other bodies/objects in space andthe space at large. (a) Personal Space (Kin Esphere)- the area around the individual body. Personal space around the dancer will expand or contract asthe shapes change. (b) Active Space- occurs when the space itself comes alive, when it has F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  33. 33. 22 meaning, or takes on symbolic suggestions of its own. Active space is created by: (1) Shape of the body (2) Direction (3) Focus D. Path/Floor- is the pathway that the dancer takes when moving through space. It is also an indicator of where the dancer has been.The floor pattern can be any combination of: (a) Straight in all directions (b) Circular (c) Wavy (d) Zigzag (e) Spiral (f) Figure Eights E. Direction- refers to the position and movement of the body or body parts in relation to space, audience and other performers. (a) Forward (e) Down (b) Backward (f) Up (c) Right (g) Diagonal (d) Left (h) Sideways F. Planes- are somewhat specific pathways defined as: (1) Frontal Plane- is an imaginary line running from side toside. The body is divided into front and back. Examples: • Moving the arms or legs from the anatomical position directly to second. • Tilting the body sideways. • A lateral bend of the spine (2) Sagittal Plane- is an imaginary line which is drawn lengthwise through the body running from front to back. The body is divided into right and left halves. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  34. 34. 23 Examples: • Swinging or circling the arms and/or legs forward and backward from the shoulder or hip joint. • Bending and straightening the knee or elbow fromthe anatomical position. • Spinal roll- rolling the body forward, bending eachvertebrate from the head to the hip, and then unrolling the spine. (3) Transverse Plane- is a line drawn to the body, dividing the body into top and bottom. Examples: • Turns • Moving the arms from first position to second position • Carrying the leg from an arabesque position to second. G. Dynamics- has two main components; (a) Release of energy- is dependent on the amount of force usedto make movements occur. Examples are: ◦ Sudden ◦ Sag ◦ Collapse ◦ Strong ◦ Jerky ◦ Slow ◦ Forceful ◦ Swing ◦ Sustained Note: Varying the speed of energy throughout the movement will cause the dancer to either speed up or slow down. (b) Weight or Force- weight gives movement a sense of lightness or heaviness. Force is the intensity of the release of energy. It is on a continuum from gentle to strong. IV. TIME (The Organization) - time may also be organized in other ways including clock time, sensed time, and event- sequence. Dancers may take sight cues from each other to start the next phrase or use a shared awareness of sensed time to end a dance. A. Duration- the length of time from beginning to an end. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  35. 35. 24 B. Tempo/Speed- (what is fast or slow?) maybe described in musical terms like adagio, moderato and allegro or in phrases like slow motion, medium or moderate speed, and fast or high speed. Examples: Slow sustained movements are called adagio quick, light jumps are called allegro. C. Rhythm- the events (sound, movement, etc.) that occurwithin duration. (a) Metric Duration- subdivided into regular, even beats. (b) Non-Metric Duration- subdivided into irregular “beats” (breath, bio-rhythm, waves, wind). D. Accent Emphasis- the accent is an emphasis. Accents in a piece of music can occur anywhere in the bar. Most accents occur at the beginning of the bar. Having the accent on a beat that is other than the first makes the music interesting. Accent is a strong movement, gesture or sound. V. FORM (The Structure) - the plan, design or procedure for the theme and arrangement of a piece of music. A. Theme or Variation- a form in which an initial theme is established and then is followed by variations. The variations are inversion fromthe basic theme, without altering its essential character. B. Canon/Fugue/Rondo (a) Canon- a choreographic device or structure in which movements introduced by one dancer are repeated exactly by subsequent dancers in turn. (b) Fugue- in music, polyphonic procedure involving a specified number of voices in which a motive (subject) is exposed in each voice, in an initial tonic/dominant relationship, then, developed by contrapuntal means. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  36. 36. 25 Fugue (Fyug)- (also called monothematic) one subject composition or having only one theme. Example: Sarabanda - a baroque dance Dance Movements: Allemande Courante Saraband Bourree Gigue (jig) This dance movements have different meters, tempo, characteristic and rhythmic features. (c) Rondo- a choreographic structure, in which contrasting sections alternate with recurring section. It uses a musical chorus or refrains. C. Suite- a group of dances, or a set of instrumental pieces drawn froma longer opera, ballet or similar work. A French word “Suite” means “A sequence” of things. Example: Allemande Courante Sarabande Gigue D. Narrative- is a story you write or tell someone. A narrative can be a work of poetry, song, theater or dance. It meant to include the “whole story”. E. ABA- ABA form begins with an opening theme, leading into contrasting theme that complements the first, and concluding with a return to the opening theme. There is a cyclic feel, a sense of continuity, order and inevitability. F. Aleatoric “Chance” Composition- from the latin word Alea,meaning “Dice” is music in which some element of the composition is left to change, and/or some primary element of a composed works realization is left to the determination of its performers. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  37. 37. 26 G. Various Devices Examples: a) Electronic Devices (Hammond Organ, Electric Guitar) b) Loop Music (Samplers, Synthesizers, Sequencers) c) Club Dance Music- technology base with the DJ playing an important role in mixing and presenting tracks. MOVEMENTS, RHYTHM AND PANTOMIMIC DRAMATIZATION Pantomime (mime) - the telling of a story without words by means of bodily movements, gestures and facial expressions. -This is designed to entertain and to communicate. “Telestes” - first known mime in 467 B.C. “Maneros” - first origin of dancing, was a slow rhythmical song accompanied by distinct movements and phases of a regular dance mime. Pantomime is the oldest dance to date and actually maybe the original dance form of all dances. Pantomime originated out of mime from Greece and landed in Persians, Hebrews and Egyptians. Masked Dancers (Pantomimi) - would use body movements and gestures. Three Forms of Mime (1) Rhythmic- when the mime is done to the rhythm of music accompaniment (Bind). (2) Non-rhythmic- when the mime is not constrained or bounded tothe rhythm of the music accompaniment. (3) Non-musical- where no music is used at all the mime. Example: •”The Robot” 1980’s (Rhythmic) - done by street dancers to disco music. •”Moon Walk” (Non-Rhythmic) - Michael Jackson’s Choreography. •”Wave” (Nonmusical) at a football game F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  38. 38. 27 Activity # 4 Application (to be submitted to the teacher) Name: Class Time Date Score General Instruction: Pantomime using Fundamental Movements Guidelines: Suggested Activity/Group Activity or individual 1. Think of a certain situation that would tell a story as the mime (Pantomime). 2. Interpret the mime through elaborate dance steps and gestures. 3. Rules: There must be a theme. Locomotor and axial movements must be used. Suitable music must be included. The piece must be limited to 2-3 minutes. No spoken or recorded words Props not allowed. Instrumental music can be used, sound effects are optional (but you must provide your own equipment) 4. Video yourself and submit through email or canvas Criteria/Rubric: Story has logical development… ......................................25% Clear gestures and facial expressions...............................25% Appropriate music ...........................................................15% Communicates ideas to audience through well-developed characters ……………………………………………………………35% Total: 100% F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  39. 39. 28 Name: Class Time Date Score Rhythm Score 1. Story has logical development………………………… 25% 2. Clear gestures and facial expressions………………. 25% 3. Appropriate music…………………………………………. 15% 4. Communicates ideas to audience through well- developed characters………………………………………... 35% Total : F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  40. 40. 29 DANCE FORMATIONS AND POSITIONS USED IN CHOREOGRAPHY (Model: Sari-Saot Dance Troupe Members) A. Formation- any dance in which a number of couples form a certain arrangement, such as two facing line or a circle, and perform a series or figures within or base on that arrangement. B. Dance Position- the connection between you and your partner before you can move as one, lightly and smoothly around the floor. Dance Position and Connection between Partner Open (Side-by-side) Lady is at the right side of the man both facing the same direction F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  41. 41. 30 Back-to-back- partners facing away from each other. Closed - standard dance position-facing each other, slightly offset to the left, lower bodies’ together, upper bodies apart, both looking left. The man’s right hand is just below her left shoulder blade and her left hand is on his upper right arm. His left hand is out to his left and about shoulder level holding her right hand. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  42. 42. 31 Facing - any position in which the man and woman are directly in front of each other, front to front. Escort- an open position in which the woman’s left arm is passed through the crook of the man’s right arm. Her forearm rests on his forearm F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  43. 43. 32 Varsovienne - partners face the same direction, the man behind the lady and to her left, he holds her left hand in his left slightly in front and above her shoulder. His right arm passes behind her shoulders, and his right hand holds her right, again to the side and above her shoulder. Half open- both facing the same direction, woman on man’s right side, bodies turned half toward each other, man’s right palm on woman’s back and woman’s left hand at or near man’s right shoulder. Free arms maybe extended to side. In left half open, she is on his left side. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  44. 44. 33 Promenade - the crossed- arm position in which dancers stand side by side, facing the same direction, with the right hand held by partner’s right and the left by partner’s left. Cuddle - a close embrace, men’s arms around her waist or lower back and woman’s arms on his shoulders, neck, or face. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  45. 45. 34 Hand shake - a facing position. Right hands or left hands joined at waist level Back Cross - side-by-side - man to woman’s left, right hands joined behind woman’s back and left hands joined behind man’s back F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  46. 46. 35 Dance Formation Used in Choreography (Model: Sari-Saot Dance Troupe Members) Column Formation Line Formation Single Circle Formation Double Circle Facing Partner Cross Formation Reverse L Formation F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  47. 47. 36 X Formation V Formation Double Diagonal Formation Alternate/ Window Formation T Formation F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  48. 48. 37 Activity # 5 (to be submitted to the teacher) Name: Class Time Date Score Self-check Test: I. Identification: Identify what is referred to. Write your answer on thespace before the number. 1. It refers to in which the body can move. 2. What is the strongest visual component in dance? 3. Examples are forward, backward, sideways and diagonal. 4. It defines as the amount of force used to make movements occur. 5. It refers to the length of time from the beginning to the end. 6. It refers to repeated same steps or movement but different counting. 7. It can be a work of poetry, song, theater or dance. 8. It is known as the first mime. 9. A story telling without words by means of body movements. 10. It is a form of mime where music is not necessary. II. Multiple choice: Choose the correct answer from the choices given. Write your answer on the space before the number. 11. What dance position refers to a lady is at the right side of the man and both facing the same direction? A. escort B. open side to side C. facing D. cuddle 12. Partners are both facing away from each other. A. half-open B. back cross side to side C. back to back D. escort 13. A close embrace, men’s arm around waist level of a lady and woman’s arms on the shoulder of a man. A. varsovienne B. promenade C. closed ballroom D. cuddle 14. It is called monothematic. A. fugue B. canon C. suite D. form 15. It is a French word means “a sequence”. A. rondo B. sarabande C. suite D. courante F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  49. 49. 38 F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  50. 50. 39 Activity # 6 Application (detach this portion and submit to the teacher) Name: Class Time Date Score General Guidelines: Elements of Movements Guidelines: 1. Create/compose a dance utilizing the elements of movements and fundamental movements applying the formation using the following songs/music. 1. Covid 19/CORONA 4. Typhoon Yolanda 2. Heal our Land 5. Bayan Ko 3. Anak 6. Volcanic Eruption 2.The dance piece must have striking or remarkable beginning and has definite ending. 3.Create original dance piece, video yourself and submit through emailor in canvas. Criteria/Rubric: Content - Artistic interpretation of values as projection through movements ………………………………………. 40% Execution - Creativity, rhythm/timing degree of difficulty and continuity of dance movements ………………… 40% Presentation - Exhibition of confidence, attentiveness, enthusiasm and expressions.....................................20% TOTAL 100% Name: Class Time Date Score Dance Interpretation /Elements Score Content .............................................................40% Execution .......................................................... 40% Presentation........................................................20% TOTAL F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  51. 51. 40 F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  52. 52. 41 UNIT III INTRODUCTION TO DANCE A. Desired Learning Outcomes: At the end of the unit, the students must have: 1. defined the meaning of dance; 2. discussed the history, characteristics and significance of each typeof dances; 3. explained the fitness value of dance and its health benefits; 4. created original dance piece through adapted movements from different countries. B. Values and Thought Focus: Values: Concern, Appreciation, Patience, Attentiveness Thought: Praise the Lord with harp: sing unto Him with psaltery and an instrument of ten strings. Sing unto him a new song: Play skillfully with a loud noise. —Psalm 33:2-3 C. Course Content INTRODUCTION Dance, like language, is found in all human societies. Dance has power. The universality of dance is easily explained. The human body itself is its vehicle. All societies acknowledge its power and harness it according to their fundamental values, aesthetic, and mores. People have danced their way through history. In every ancient culture that has left records in words or pictures, dance is an expression of religious worship. It is used to express national and cultural identity, with a focus on clashes between societies. Dance is an expression of cultural mores with a focus on gender-specific behavior. Dance is a classic art. Dance is a medium of cultural fusion. Dance is the creation of individual artist. Dance is the indicator of who we are today or where we are going with the focus on electric media. Dance today is not simply cross-cultural but pan-cultural and planetary. Dances are borrowed, degraded, adapted and transformed at rates unparallel in the past, with consequences that cannot be predicted. Dances F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  53. 53. 42 changes with everybody that dances, It changes with the time, the country, even the weather. It does not have one history but many. (Jonas, Grauer pp 9-11, 1992) What is Dance? steps. 1. It is to move rhythmically to music, typically following a set sequence of 2. It is a series of movements that match the speed and rhythms of a piece of music. 3. It is an act of stepping or moving through a series ofmovements usually in time to music. 4. It is to move one’s feet or body, or both, rhythmically in a pattern of steps, especially to the accompaniment of music. 5. It is to move your body in a way that goes with the rhythm and style of music that is being played; to move with and guide (someone) as music plays to dance with (someone). - Merriam Webster 6. It is a performance art form consisting of purposefully selected sequences of human movement. This movement has aesthetic and symbolic value, and is acknowledged as dance by performers and observers within a particular culture. Dance can be categorized and described by its choreography, by it’s his historical period or place of origin. “Dancing is one of the best self-expressions that involves art”. -Britney Spears- “Is an intense fitness program, not just something nice to watch”. -Jamie King- (celebrity/choreographer&creator of the Nike Rockstar workout) “Dancing is one of the most effective medium of self-expression. One can effectively express his thoughts, ideas, feelings and even pent-up emotions through dancing. One can convey important messages of love, fear, joy and even grief through dance”. Dr. Milagros M. Aguinaldo, 2002 Ballroom Dancing a New Lifestyle F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  54. 54. 43 BENEFITS OF DANCING 1. Fitness - dancing is one of the versatile and satisfying recreation or a form of exercise to develop fitness. (a) Improved condition of the heart and lungs. (b) Increase muscular strength, endurance and motor fitness. (c) Increased aerobic fitness. (d) Improved muscle tone and strength. (e) Proper weight management. (f) Development of stronger bones and reduced risk of osteoporosis. 2. Joy and satisfaction- the physical well-being of a person who participates is improved. (a) Better social skills. (b) Increased physical confidence. 3. Grace and coordination- it improves response to rhythmic patterns. Constant participation in dance activities will improve one’s neuromuscular coordination and help one’s acquisition of grace. (a) Improved mental functioning. (b) Improved balance and spatial awareness. 4. Self-expression- it develops poise and good posture (a) Greater self-confidence and self-esteem. 5. Relieved stress. Tips for dancing 1. Do warm-up stretches before you begin a dance session. 2. Drink plenty of water before, during and after dancing. 3. Wear an appropriate attire. 4. Check with your dance instructor whether you are holding thecorrect form or not. 5. Perform regular leg, strengthening exercises. 6. Move as fluidly and gracefully as you can. 7. Cool down after a dance session, including stretching. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  55. 55. 44 Types of dance and its definitions 1. Fad Dance- are also called dance crazes which are characterized by a short burst of popularity. Examples: Renaissance Period- Minuet, allemande, schottische mazurka, waltz 1910-1920’s- Jitterbug, Charleston, meringue, samba, mambo 1940’s- jazz 1960’s- Bossa nova craze 1970’s- Mashed potato, twist, watusi 1980’s- Walk like an Egyptian 1990’s- Macarena Note: Fad dance is spurred by modern communication like printed media, radio, movies, television, and internet. 2. Novelty dance- a silly fun dance with a certain theme. This dance isfun for the audience and the performers. This includes quirky and unusual steps, or having unusual name. Examples: (1909) The GRIZZLY BEAR, (1958) The Ostrich, The Fly (1930- 1940’s) The Peabody, The Stroll, The Freddie 3. Traditional dance- a dance that evolved naturally from earlier forms, a traditional dance of a given country native to a specific people. “Traditional” is more frequently used when the emphasis is on the cultural roots of the dance. A traditional dance will therefore have arisen from a people’s cultural traditions. Examples: (a) JarabeTapatio (Mexican hat dance)- was named the national dance of Mexico in 1924. (b) The Maglalatik (Philippines)- danced in the religious procession during the fiesta of Biñan as an offering to San Isidro De Labrador, the Patron Saint of Farmers. (c) Russian Cossacks (Russia)- performed during the annualMancky festival. (d) Bedouins Dance (Yemen)- danced during the Sanaa Summer Festival. (e) Irish Step Dance (Ireland) F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  56. 56. 45 (f) Horn Dance (England) (g) Whirling Dervishes or Sufiwhirling (Turkey) (h) Legong (Bali, Indonesia) (i) Dunhuang Dance (China)- a danced influenced by Buddhism and the images of Buddha; originated from the province of Gansu. (j) Joget (Malaysia)- mostly performed during weddings, social and official functions. (k) Odori (Japan)- originated in the Edo period. Odori grew out of kabuki drama and is more oriented toward male sentiments. (l) Mai- traditionally performed in Japanese rooms instead of on the stage. This was developed in the 17th century Tokugawa period. It is heavily influenced by the elegance and sophistication. (m) Kuchipudi (India)-the most popular traditional dance form in south India performed with a violin, flute and the tamburainstruments. (n) Hula (Hawaii)-a dance form accompanied by chant (Oli) or song (Mele). It was developed in the Hawaiian island by thePolynesians who originally settled there. The hula dramatizes or portrays the words of the Oli or Mele in a visual dance form. Traditional dance A. Folk Dance- a cultural art form handed down from generationto generation. It communicates the customs, beliefs, rituals and occupation of a region or country. Folk dancing belongs to and emenates from the people. Examples: (a) Pandanggo sa Ilaw (Philippines) - derived from the Spanish word” fandango”, this dance is designed to show off the grace, balance, and dexterity of the performers. (b) La Jota (Spain)- a Spanish folk dance originating in Aragon inthe north of Spain. (c) Tarantella (Italy)- a dance for women only. A couple dance tellinga story of love in a mime. (d) Clogging (USA)- originated from square dance in Asheville, North Carolina’s mountain dance and folk festival (1928), organized by Bascom Lamar Lunsford in the Appalachian region. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  57. 57. 46 (e) Milonga (Argentina)- the root of this dance go deep into the Argentinean folklore. It is a dance which could be said to be a variation of the Tango. Today, it is everywhere in the country- from club to streets. (f) Gumboot Dance (South Africa) - is the dance that is performed by dancers wearing Wellingtons (a type of boot). This dance was originated from the black miners and was their form of entertainment. This is a highly energetic type of dance. (g) Halay (Turkey)- is a folk dance coming from Turkey’s Eastern, South-Eastern and central Anatolia regions. It is extremelypopular and engaging dance of the country which is accompanied by equally rich music and instruments. (h) Baladi (Egypt)- it is a form of belly dancing. Baladi is typically a style that evolved from the tribal areas of the country. It has a certain mystical and romantic allure. This is very popular inEgypt. (i) Garba (India)- it is a Gujarati folk dance which isperformed predominantly during festival of Navaratri. (j) Casino (Cuba)- it is part of the Cuban’s tradition and social life. Casino is the Cuban style salsa which has actually achieved great popularity in many pockets of the world. The grooves, the steps and the music make this an entertaining dance. (k) Samba (Brazil)- It is a fun dance and is highly appreciated all around the world. There are different variations of samba basedon regions but the basic steps are similar. B. Ethnic and Tribal Dance - any dance form which can be identified as originating with an ethnic culture and expressing the movement aesthetics of that culture. It would cover all ethnic cultures, whether European, American, African, Polynesian, Asian, and Middle Eastern. Examples: (a) Dugso (Bukidnon, Philippines)- a ritual dance (b) Talip (Ifugao, Philippines)- a courtship dance 4. National Dance- is a traditional folk art which is popularly dance in most parts of a specific country and the common dance steps is widely used by the common people in that particular place or country. Examples: (a) Cariñosa (Philippines) (b) Landler (Austria) F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  58. 58. 47 (c) Vallenato and Cumbia (Colombia) (d) Canican (France) (e) Meringue (Haiti) (f) Czardas (Hungary) (g) Kathak (India) (h) Flamenco (Spain) (i) English Country Dance (England) (j) Scottish Island Dance (Scotland) 5. Social Dance - a dance designed to bring people together for group enjoyment and participation and is usually accompanied by popular music. (a) Ballroom Dance- is a set of partner dances, which are enjoyed both socially and competitively around the world, because of its performance and entertainment aspects. Examples: Charleston (1920’s) Waltz (1960) - ballroom dancing has been a passion in Vienna for over two hundred years. At the annual Viennese opera ball, the opera house fills with come 6,000 party goers, at the 1960 ball, waltzers take the floor. Samba (1935) - the samba schools were recognized as official carnival organization whatever the beat, the music and dance of Brazilian carnival blend African and European elements in a powerful cultural synthesis that virtually defines Brazilian identity. Other Dances: Salsa Paso Doble Foxtrot Cha Cha Tango Rumba Jive Quick Step Samba Swing (b) Recreational Dance- includes dance mixers, square dancing and couple dances. (c) Popular Dance- a highly recognized as a dance form in television and other dance centers like houses and social gatherings. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  59. 59. 48 Fresh dance styles came from the streets and clubs of the U.S., inspired by disco, funk, and hip-hop music. Made popular by stars such as: Michael Jackson- from funk to musical: “Moon Walk” (1988) - uses technique of gliding Madonna- Vogue: Vogueing (1990) – an international dance craze “Hung Up”(2005); krumping became globally popular. Psy (2012) - “Gangnam Style” Brandon Beal (2014) – “Twerk it like Miley” Silento’ (2015) – “Whip/Naenae” 6. Theatrical Dance- a dance performed on stage to entertain spectators. (a) Ballet- a dance of supreme standards learned from an academe. It is a highly theatre art today which began in Italy, was developed in France and was perfected in Russia. Beautiful ballet is thrilling to watch and takes extraordinary dedication to learn. ● Classical Ballet- dances with standardized rules and restrictions. Classical ballets with their elegant corps of dancers transport the audience to magical worlds. Ballet developed from a simple court entertainment to amuse kings into a thrilling spectacle for everyoneto enjoy. (b) Modern Dance- the highest form of dance for the purposeof entertainment. It is the end product of movement exploration and improvisation as a dancer or choreographer expresses his/her feelings, ideas and interpretation. (c) Contemporary Dance- (not traditional), a contemporaryinterpretation of steps and designs of folk melodies and rhythm. (d) Jazz- a combination of ballet and modern dance. It is a classification shared by a broad range of dance styles. Before the 1950’s, Jazz dance referred to dance styles that originated from African American vernacular dance. (e) Creative Dance- it is a form of dance that provides the dancers for personal expressions. This is to communicate through movement and F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  60. 60. 49 the dancer draws on their own inner resources to create and express through their own unique movement. It aims to continually expand and extend movement range by drawing inspiration from a range of external stimuli including music, props, emotions, etc. e.g. “Wings of Love”- performed by a pair (Jan. 24, 2016 PGT ABS- CBN) (f) Character Dance- it aims to interpret a specific folk tradition of a particular country. The movements used to be less stylized than in classical ballet, allowing greater individual expression anddiversity. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  61. 61. 50 F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  62. 62. 51 Activity # 7 Application (to be submitted to the teacher) Name: Class Time Date Score General Instruction: Different Dances Guidelines: Virtual Travel through Web (Using High End Gadgets) 1. Divide the class into 6 groups or solo. 2. Watch any dance from different countries. 3. The cultural dance you select could be: (a) Traditional Dance (b) Folk Dance (c) Social Dance (d) A dance that provides entertainment (e) A dance that is considered an art 4. Learn several movements, poses, movement sequence, etc. 5. Be ready to present/perform some distinct moves, poses, movement sequence of the hands and feet. The dance must be in 2-3 minutes. 6. Video yourself and submit through email or canvas. Example: Tarantella- (Taranto, Italy) -1500’s, a strange ritual develops when people were bitten by the poisonous tarantella spider. -The dance has retained this energetic intensity -Distinct moves/steps Skips Clapping hands with Tambourines Hops Criteria/Rubric: Choreography.............................................................. 40% Execution of movements, interpretation and originality Performance................................................................ 40% Mastery, difficulty of movements and expression Music/ Rhythm..............................................................20% Choice of music and timing TOTAL: 100% F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  63. 63. 52 Name: Class Time Date Score Virtual Travel Score Choreography..............................................................40% Performance .............................................................. 40% Music and Rhythm ...................................................... 20% TOTAL F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  64. 64. 53 Activity # 8 (to be submitted to the teacher) Name: Class Time Date Score Self-check Test: Discuss the benefits of dance as; 1. Fitness 2. Self- expression 3. Stress reliever 4. Satisfaction F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  65. 65. 54 F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  66. 66. 55 Activity # 9 (to be submitted to the teacher) Name: Class Time: Score: Self- check Test: A. Identify the types of dances below. Write your answers on the blanks. 1. A dance crazes which are characterized by a short burst of popularity. 2. A silly fun dance with a certain theme. 3. A cultural art form handed down from generation to generation. 4. Any dance form which can be identified as originating with an ethnic culture and expressing the movement aesthetics of that culture. 5. A traditional folk art which is popularly dance in most parts of a specific country and the common dance steps are widely used by the common people in that particular place or country. 6. A dance designed to bring people together for group enjoyment and participation and are usually accompanied by popular music. 7. A combination of ballet and modern dance. 8. A ballroom dancing has been a passion in Vienna for over two hundred years. 9. It includes dance mixers, square dancing and couple dances. 10. It aims to interpret a specific folk tradition of a particular country. ESSAY: 10 Points Define dance in your own words. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  67. 67. 56 F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  68. 68. 57 Activity # 10 Application (to be submitted to the teacher) Name: Class Time Date Score General Instruction: Create a 3-minute dance exercise. Guidelines: 1. Create a dance exercise, you may choose any of the following(Traditional Dance, Folk Dance, Ethnic Tribal Dance, National Dance) 2. The dance steps maybe in hip hop or Zumba form but the music must be taken from any of the following (Traditional Dance music, Folk Dance music, Ethnic Tribal Dance music, or National Dance music) (for your guidance and reference you may see attached links, sent by yourteacher) 3. The duration of the video must not exceed 4 minutes. 4. No need to edit the video. 5. You may use props and costume as well as the participation of other persons but strict observance of minimum health standard is amust. 6. Submit it in MP4 format. Rubric/Criteria: Content ...............................................................................40% Artistic interpretation of values as projection through movements Execution.............................................................................40% Creativity and precision of movements Presentation........................................................................ 20% Exhibition of confidence, enthusiasm and expressions. Total: 100 % Name: Class Time Score Criteria Score Content...............................................................40% Execution........................................................... 40% Presentation… .....................................................20% Total F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  69. 69. 58 F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  70. 70. 59 UNIT IV DANCE TECHNIQUES AND DANCE SECRETS A. Desired Learning Outcome: At the end of the unit, the students must have: 1. explained the importance of rhythm in dance; 2. discussed the importance of various exercises as part of the warm-up and cool-down-activity in dancing; 3. created simple dance exercises as basis for any dance activities. B. Values and Thought Focus: Values: Perseverance, persistence, self-confidence, appreciation Thought: Nothing in the world can take the place of persistence. Talents will not; nothing is more common than unsuccessful men with talent. Genius will not; unrewarded genius is almost a proverb. Education will not; the world is full of educated derelicts. Persistence and determination alone are omnipotent. Calvin Coolidge C. Course Content: Dancing is a physical activity. The better shape you’re in, the easier dancing will be. All body motions in dancing are governed entirely by the movement of your feet and the placement of your weight. Movement of the feet and the placement of the weight are two factors that should be concentrated in order to acquire the correct dancing appearance. Basic things like aerobic fitness, flexibility, and some endurance in your legs and torso help. HOW TO BECOME A DANCER 1. You have to move your body in time to the beat of the music. 2. It takes practice. 3. Dance with experienced dancers. 4. Don’t panic, think smooth and love it. 5. Avoid complaining, making excuses and negativity 6. Always work on improving fitness. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  71. 71. 60 THE SECRETS OF LEADING (MAN) In dancing the girls expect their partners to set the pace and to choose the steps. The man should be certain with his step pattern so he can move with assurance and with confidence. POINTERS FOR A GOOD LEADER 1. At the beginning of each dance, position yourself and your partner. Listen to the music and make sure of your timing before starting to dance. 2. When dancing with a new partner, start with simple steps to acquaint yourselves with each own steps in dancing. 3. Have a mental plan of the succession of steps. Each step should be ledat least twice in succession. It gives you time to plan a more graceful sequence of step pattern. Avoid making rush, quick and jerky step. 4. Be definite with your hand commands as leading in instructions andyour partner will follow correctly. 5. Hold your partner in front but a bit to your right, so you can have a clear view of your way as you dance by. 6. Hold your partner’s arm lightly but firmly with your left arm in an easy graceful curve. Extend both arms to guide your way to the dance floor andavoid collision with other people. 7. Hold your partner firmly enough to guide her. Place your hand ata comfortable height at the middle of her back. THE SECRETS OF FOLLOWING (WOMAN) A woman who knows her own part in dance floor is fun to have as a partner. She can step out rhythmically and exactly at the same time as her partner. The more steps she knows, the more freedom and spontaneity she can show in her dancing. POINTERS FOR A GOOD FOLLOWER 1. It will be easier to follow and dance your own part if you also know the man’s part. 2. Learn to match your steps with your partner. Learn to dance with a short or tall partner or one who takes small steps and one who uses longstrides. 3. Learn to adopt the correct dance position. Always make a step with the big toes on the lead. When the toe leading your step becomes long and free moving and your foot looks graceful. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  72. 72. 61 4. Practice to balance your weight. To have good balance while dancing, take a firm hold with your left hand, just at the back of man’s right shoulder. 5. A woman who knows the man’s part in dancing can follow twice aslightly and twice as well. HOW TO EXUDE CHARM AND PERSONALITY IN CHARMING Dancing is an expression of one’s personality. Make your dancing personality colorful and attractive. The purpose of the trick is to give accent to your dancing. Accent the beat and rhythm of the music. Accenting the dance steps make dancing more fun, exciting and attractive to on lookers. Example of Various Dancing Personalities: 1. Dancers “who love themselves” – point their toes too gracefullyand taking really good care of their ten little toesies. 2. “Cuddly couples”– fun to watch. The never seem to outgrow the “urge”. 3. “Bully Type” – meanders around the floor, pushing his partner into everything that comes his way. He swings his partner around fast furiously,with complete disregard for her clothes, hair and general well- being. 4. “Casual Dancers” – the girl shows that sloppy “I don’t care” postureand the man just shuffle along. 5. The “Possessive Man” – cups his hands tightly on his partner’s back. His posture is crouching as though ready for a springing pounce. 6. The “Jealous Girl” – clings to her partner’s arm like glue, looks up in his eyes and is always tremendously attentive. 7. “Timid Souls” – could almost sink to the floor. The girl takes uncertain steps, droops their arms and gets an “until-death-do-us-part-grip” on their partner’s left thumb. The masculine variety has a low- slung elbow, an apologetic manner, and a “handog” expression. He takes faltering steps and barely touches partner. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  73. 73. 62 F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  74. 74. 63 Activity # 11 (to be submitted to the teacher) Name: Class Time Score Self -Check Test: A. Write the correct various dancing personalities being described in each of the following. Write your answers on the space provided. 1. Fun to watch. The never seem to outgrow the “urge”. 2. Meanders around the floor, pushing his partner into everything that comes his way. 3. The girl shows that sloppy “I don’t care” posture and the man just shuffles along. 4. Cups his hands tightly on his partner’s back. His posture is crouching as though ready for a springing pounce. 5. Clings to her partner’s arm like glue, looks up in his eyes and is always tremendously attentive. B. Essay: (10 points) What are the steps on becoming a good dancer? F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  75. 75. 64 F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  76. 76. 65 THE IMPORTANCE OF A WARM-UP AND A COOL-DOWN IN DANCE by Laura Stanyer A Warm –up- prepares the body for physical exertion It aims to: 1. Raise internal body by 1-2 degrees. 2. Increase heart rate and blood flow to the muscles. 3. Mobilize the body to increase the synovial fluid. 4. Raise speed of transmission of nerve impulses. 5. Prepare us to be mentally and physically ready for dance. A Cool down is important after each practice. The body must make a number of adaptations during the recovery period before it returns to normal. It aims to: 1. Gradually reduce the intensity of activity for 10 minutes. 2. Remobilize joints to help flush out the waste products (lactic acid). 3. Perform static stretches of major muscle groups held for 15 seconds normally done on the floor. BENEFITS OF COOL DOWN IN DANCE PRACTICE 1. It decreases body temperature and remove waste products. 2. It prevents symptoms such as light- headedness and dizziness caused by the pooling venous blood at the extremities. 3. It prevents muscle soreness and delayed onset of musclesoreness (DOMS). 4. It promotes relaxation. EXERCISES TO IMPROVE DANCING -Stretching- A. FOR THE HAMSTRING AND INCREASING FLEXIBILITY a) Lay down, one knee up; make sure your hips stay planted on the floor. b) Slowly and carefully pull your legs in the air, holding your legs completely straight, toes pointed. c) Hold your leg behind your thigh, or your shin, which takes some skillin flexibility. d) Do not hold your leg with your hands behind knee, as this causes an injury to the hamstring. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  77. 77. 66 e) Hold your leg there for two sets of 8 counts, not bending your kneeat all. f) Slowly pull your leg back in, holding the knee for 8 counts. Withthat same leg, hold your leg out beside you, like you are doing a sort of straddle split with one leg. Again, do not hold behind your knee. g) Pull down your leg as far as it will go. Hold this position for 8counts, and slowly bring your leg back in for 4 counts. B. FOR THE SHOULDERS AND ABDOMINALS (for increased flexibility, as used). a) Sit in butterfly position (cross), with legs held attitude (bent), your feet facing each other. b) Slowly, holding your feet, drop your head touching your feet, andhold for two sets of 8 counts. c) Rise up, contract your back, drop your head again, and hold. d) Do this stretch 5 times, contracting your back before you drop.This stretch should only take 1 minute or less to perform. C. FOR THE ARM MUSCLES (for increased flexibility, as well) a) Stand up in ballet position. b) With both arms arched above you, bend down, letting your armsbrush against your toes. c) Hold this position for two sets of 8 counts. d) Then, in second position, reach down, putting your hands on the floor at the middle. e) Hold for a few seconds. f) After that, bend your arm, putting it behind your back. g) Using your free arm, hold your elbow and pull it to the direction of the other side (for example, the left arm is bent behind your back, theright hand pulling to the right.) (Repeat with the other arm. This will take 3 minutes) D. FOR LOOSENING THE NECK AND CLEARING YOUR HEAD/MIND a) Be in 2nd position with your hands. Down by your sides. b) Slowly, to the beat of your music, bend (side to side) your head to each beat. Do this for 8 counts. c) Start nodding to the beat (up and down) for 8 counts. d) Roll your head slowly, feeling the occasional pop or two. Roll theother way. This should take 2-3 minutes. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  78. 78. 67 E. FOR THE LEGS (WORKING ON YOUR SPLITS) a) Get on one knee, and slowly straighten both of your legs. b) With one hand on either side, slowly and carefully slide all theway down, as far as you can go. c) Repeat this procedure with the other leg. d) For a straddle split, sit in your wide straddle and lift up. Make sure your toes are pointed the whole time. ROCK YOUR BODY WARM UP (Move to the beat of the music) A. CATCH STEP Goal: Warm-up and learn this “Home Base” position Starting Position: Face forward with your legs slightly more than shoulder- width apart and knees slightly bent. Time to Move: Curl your arms in front of your torso, and leaning slightly to the left, rock your torso twice to the left, then twice to the right, as you pump your arms up and down keeping them bent at the elbow. How Many Times? Eight times (left and right is one set) return to this step between each of the following movements, maintaining your own movement to the music so the warm-up routine becomes one fluid dance. B. SHOULDER ROLLS Goal: Warm up the shoulder and neck area. Starting Position: Face front, legs slightly more than shoulder – width apart knees slightly bent. Time to Move: Slowly roll your shoulders forward then up, then back in one smooth, circular motion in time to the music. How Many Times? 16 times C. Walk and Shoulder Dips Goal: Begin moving your whole body while warming up your shoulders. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  79. 79. 68 Starting Position: Face forward, feet together. Time to Move: Walk forward starting on the leftfoot. • Left foot, right foot, left foot,right. • Then tap your left foot forward while dipping your left shoulder down toward the right foot. • Step together. Repeat on the right side • Now travel backward starting with your left foot for 4 counts. Repeat the left and right foot tapping and shoulder dipping. How many times? Complete the full movement forward and backward four times. D. SOUL TRAIN Goal: get the blood circulating in your legs and increase your heart rate so you’re ready to dance! Starting Position: Face forward Time to Move: keep your center of gravity low and your knees slightly bent as you step to the side with your left foot, then step behind with your right foot, then out again with your left in a “Move –Your- Groove” grapevine, swinging your arms opposite the movement of your feet. ● Now tap your right foot together with your left, but don’t, put your weight on your right foot because you’ll be stepping out on thatfoot next. ● Repeat the movement moving to right side, starting with your right foot. ● Repeat to the left How Many Times? Perform the full sequence (grapevine, stepping out left, right) twice. E. GUITAR MOVE Goal: Warm up your entire torso and arm. Do not rush this movement, do it slowly and steadily. Starting Position: Stand diagonally facing right, feet apart. Time to Move: turn your left knee slightly inward while extending your right arm out and up as if you’re holding a giant guitar. - swing your left arm down across your body in a giant circular motion, then return your arm to the starting position. Your right arm never moves. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  80. 80. 69 - repeat on the right side How many Times? 8 sets (one set is right and left) F. TORSO STRETCH Goal: To stretch your torso. Starting Position: face forward, legs slightly bent and feet shoulder- width apart, with your hand on your legs slightly above your knees. Time to Move: moving to the rhythm, move your left shoulder down toward your right knee, then up, repeating the full down/up /down/up movement 8 times ● Now lean your right shoulder down toward your left knee, then up, again 8 times. That’s one full repetition. How many Times? 8 to the right 8 to the left 4 to the right 4 to the left 2 to the right 2 to the left Then slowly roll up back to starting position. HOW IMPORTANT IS COOL DOWN? Many people dismiss the cool down as a waste of time, or simply unimportant. In reality the cool down is just as important as the warmth- up. The main aim of the cool down is to promote recovery and return the body to a pre exercise, or pre work out level. A. Arm Stretch (Tricep) a) Step out with you right foot, take a deep breath and swing both arms above your head. Slowly bend your left elbow and use your right hand to gently pull your left arm down for a good stretch. Hold the stretch for 16 beats. b) Repeat on the left side, this time stretching your right arm. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  81. 81. 70 B. Arm Cross (Deltoid) a) Use your right hand to pull your left arm by the elbow across yourchest at shoulder-level. b) Repeat on the other side. Hold each stretch for 16 beats. c) Release and drop your arms and walk in a circle to the left for eight beats (L-R, L-R, L-R). d) At the end of the circle walk, tap your right foot close to your left and end up with your body facing to the left so you’re ready for transition to the next step. C. Cross- Step – Cross Open a) Now facing front, cross your right leg forward over your left, leaning forward with your left arm across your chest and your right arm behind you. b) Then step out with your left foot, your left arm across your chestand right arm behind. Travel forward with 16 beats. c) Starting with the right foot, march backward for 8 beats. d) Complete for sequences (the entire sequence begins with crossingyour right foot over your left and ends with the background march). e) Finish facing forward and step together. Take a deep breath, dropone arm, leaving the other above your head and take a bow. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  82. 82. 71 Activity #12 (to be submitted to the teacher) Name: Class Time Date Score Self-Check Test: A. Give at least 5 benefits of Dancing, Cool-down and Warm-up Dancing Cool-down Warm-up 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. B. What are the steps or exercises to improve dancing? F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  83. 83. 72 F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  84. 84. 73 Activity # 13 Application (to be submitted to the teacher) Name: Class Time Date General Instruction: Dance Exercises Guidelines: 1. Interpret the warm up and cooldownexercises in your book, follow the instructions given. 2. Choose any song of your choice for 4-5 minutes, you can remix more than 2- 5 songs. 3. Wear proper PE attire, video yourself and submit the link through canvasto your teacher. 4. No need to edit the video. Criteria/Rubric: 1. Execution...................................................................................40% Correct interpretation of the warm-up and cool down exercises and effort 2. Mastery......................................................................................40% Projection, creativity, confidence 3. Music and Timing…......................................................................20% Choice of music/song, timing TOTAL: 100% Name: Class Time Date Score Warm -up and Cooldown Exercises Score Execution.....................................................................40% Mastery........................................................................40% Music and Timing……………………………………………………. 20% TOTAL F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  85. 85. 74 F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  86. 86. 75 UNIT V DANCE AS AN EXPRESSION (Philippine Folk Dance and Foreign Dances) A. Desired Learning Outcomes: At the end of the term, the students must have: 1. discussed briefly the background of the dances in terms of their country of origin, costumes, formation, counting and step patterns used; 2. showed appreciation through learning the basic dance steps ofeach genre in this unit; 3. created simple choreographed dance piece of Tango, Zumba,Samba, Belly Dance, and Bollywood Dance (all the dances in the unit), and 4.applied different dance terms and step pattern of Philippine folkdance through simple dance choreography. B. Values and Thought Focus: Values: Cooperation, consideration, appreciation, patience, respect, fulfillment. Thought: “Live your truth. Express your love Share your enthusiasm Take action towards your dream. Walk your talk. Dance and sing to your music, Embrace your blessings. Make today worth remembering” – Steve Maraboli on Reflections of Life and the Human Experience C. Course Content: Dance as an Expression: Dance is a type of art that generally involves movement of the body, often rhythmic and to music. It is performed in many cultures as a form of emotional expression, social interaction or exercise. I. Philippine Folk Dances Dance is one art form that Filipinos excel in. It is one great source of the country’s cultural tradition. Dance was used to please or appease the gods; to communicate with the mighty powers that dominated the realm of our forefathers. The dance of ancient times reflected the heart and soul of humanity. Filipinos pose natural grace and dancing. It is ingrained in most of them F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  87. 87. 76 FUNDAMENTAL ARMS AND FEET POSITION Fundamental Position of the Feet First Position Heels close together, toes apart with an angle of about 45 degrees. Second Position Feet apart sideward of about a pace distance. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  88. 88. 77 Third Position Heel of one foot close (R/L) to in-step of other foot. Fourth Position One foot (R/L) in front of other foot of a pace distance. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  89. 89. 78 Fifth Position Heel of the R/L foot touches the toes of the R/L foot in a rear position. FUNDAMENTAL POSITION OF THE ARM First Postion Both arms raised in front of chest with the finger tips about an inch apart. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  90. 90. 79 Seond Position Both raised sideward with a graceful curve at shoulder level. Third Position One arm (R/L) raised in front as in 2nd position; the other arm raised upward (R/L) F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  91. 91. 80 Fourth Position One arm (R/L) raised in front as in 1st position; the other arm raised overhead (R/L). Fifth Position Both arms raised overhead F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  92. 92. 81 Activity # 14 Application (to be submitted to the teacher) Name: Class Time Date Score General Instruction: Execution of the Fundamental Arms and Feet Position Guidelines: 1. Video yourself doing the Fundamental Arms, Feet Position anda combination of feet and arms. 2. No need to edit the video. 3. Submit the link in canvas. Criteria /Rubric: Content ..................................................................................40% Correct mechanics Execution............................................................................... 40% Correct execution Presentation........................................................................... 20% Exhibition of confidence, enthusiasm and expressions Total: 100% Name: Class Time Date Warm -up and Cooldown Exercises Score Execution.....................................................................40% Mastery........................................................................40% Music and Timing……………………………………………………. 20% TOTAL F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  93. 93. 82 F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  94. 94. 83 DANCE TERMS COMMON TO PHILIPPINE FOLK DANCES 1. Abrasete - Girl at the right side, holds R arm of partner with her L hand, free hands down at the sides. This term is a Spanish origin and is used in Rigodon and in other dance. 2. Arms in Lateral Position - Both arms are at one side, eithersideward right or left. This may be at done at shoulder, chest, or waist level. 3. Arms in Reverse “T” - Arms are side horizontal, elbows bent at right angles, forearms parallel to head, palms forward or facing inward, fists loosely closed. 4. Bilao - To turn palms of hands up and down alternately, hands at waist level in front, elbows close to waist. 5. Brush - Weight on one foot, hit the floor with the ball or heel of the other foot (the free foot) after which that foot is lifted from the floor to any direction. 6. Cabeceras - When dancers are in square formation, the couples occupying the width of the hall are called “cabeceras” or headcouples. This is of Spanish origin. 7. Costados - When dancers are in square formation, the couples occupying the length of the hall are called “costados” or side pairs. This is of Spanish origin. 8. Clockwise - Like the motion of the hands of a clock. R shoulders toward the center of an imaginary circle. When facing center, the movement is toward the left. 9. Counterclockwise - The reverse direction of clockwise. L shoulder is toward the center of an imaginary circle. When facing center, the movement is toward the right. 10. Crossed Arms - Partners are facing each other or standing side by side, girl at the right of boy. They join their L and R hands together; either R over L or L over R hands. 11. Cut - To displace quickly one foot with the other, thus completely taking off the weight of the body from the displaced foot. 12. Do-si-do (“Dos-A-Dos”) - The vis-à-vis (opposites) both advance forward, pass each other’s right or left side, step across to the right or left, move backward without turning around pass each other’s left or right side to proper places. This is a foreign origin and is used inmany Philippine dances. 13. Draw - To pull one foot along the floor close to the other which hasthe weight of the body. The weight may or may not be transferred. 14. Free Foot - The foot not bearing the weight of the body. 15. Free Hand - The hand not placed anywhere or not doing anything. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  95. 95. 84 16. Hands on waist - Place hands on waist line (at the smallest part ofthe trunk). Knuckles in, fingers pointing in rear. 17. Hayon- hayon - To place one forearm I front and the other at the back of the waist. This is a Visayan term. 18. Hop - A spring from one-foot landing on the same foot in place orin any direction. The other foot may be raised in any direction. 19. Inside Foot - The foot nearest one’s partner, when partners standside by side. 20. Inside Hand - The hand nearest one’s partner, when partners stand side by side. 21. Kumintang - Moving the hand from the wrist either in a clockwiseor counter Clockwise direction. This is an Ilocano term 22. Outside Foot - The foot away from one’s partner, when partnersstand side by side. 23. Outside hand - The hand away from one’s partner, whenpartners stand side by side. 24. Place - To put foot in a certain or desired position withoutputting weight on it. The sole of the foot rests on the floor. 25. Pivot - To turn with the ball heel, or whole foot, on a fixed placeor point. 26. Point - Touch the floor lightly with the toes of one foot, weight ofthe body on the other foot. 27. Saludo - Partners bow to each other, to the audience opposite dancers, or to the neighbors with feet together. This term is a Spanish origin and is used in almost all Philippine dances. 28. Set - A dance formation like a square or a unit formation composedof two or more pairs. 29. Stamp - To bring down the foot forcibly and noisily on thefloor (like doing a heavy step) with or without transfer of weight. 30. Step - To advance or recede by raising or moving one foot to another resting place. There is a complete transfer of weight from one foot to another. 31. Supporting Foot - The foot that bears the weight of the body. 32. Tap - To rap slightly with the ball or toe of the free foot, flexing the ankle joint keeping weight of the body on the other foot. There is no change or transfer of weight. 33. Whirl - To make fast turns by executing small steps in place to right or left. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  96. 96. 85 Basic steps in Philippine Folkdance and It’s dance pattern Basic Steps in 2 4 Time Signature Basic Step Step Pattern Count Pattern 1. Step close step, close 1,2 2. Step point step, point 1,2 3. Step swing step, swing 1,2 4. Step brush step, brush 1,2 5. Step raise step, raise 1,2 6. Step hop step, hop 1,2 7. Touch step point, close 1,2 8. Bleking heel-place, close 1,2 9. Slide step slide, close 1,2 10. Cross step cross, step or step cross 1,2 11. Change step step, close, step 1 and 2 12. Cross change step Cross-step, close, step 1 and 2 13. Contraganza Leap, cross-step, step 1 and 2 14. Habanera step step, close, step 1, 2 and 15. Plain Polka step, close, step, pause 1 and 2 and 16. Hop Polka hop- step, close, step 1 and 2 and 17. Heel and toe change step Heel-place, toe-point, step, close, step 1,2, 1 and 2 (2M) 18. Mincing steps With heels raise, take as many steps as desired 1,2 19. Shuffling steps With both feet flat on the floor, take tiny slide steps as many as desired 1,2 20.Chasing steps With one foot leading, take successive close steps as many as desired in any direction 1,2 Basic Steps in 3 4 Time Signature 1. Native waltz step, close, step 1,2,3 2. Cross waltz cross-step, close, step 1, 2,3 3. Mazurka slide, cut, hop 1,2,3 4. Redoba slide, cut, cut 1,2,3 5. Waltz balance step, close-heels raise, heels down 1,2,3 F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  97. 97. 86 6. Sway balance with a raise step, cross-step, step, raise 1-2,3 1,2-3 (2M) 7. Sway balance with a brush step, cross-step, step, brush 1-2,3 1-2,3 (2M) 8. Sway balance with a point step, cross-step, step, point 1-2,3 1,2-3 (2M) 9. Sway balance with a hop step, cross-step, step, hop 1-2,3 1,2-3 (2M) 10. Sway balance with a close step, cross-step, step, close 1-2,3 1,2-3 (2M) 11. Engaño step with a close step, cross-step, step, close 1-2,3 1,2-3 (2M) Basic Steps in 4 4 Time Signature 1. Schottiche step, close, step, hop (raise foot in front) 1,2,3,4 2. Escotis Step, close, step, hop (raise foot in rear) 1,2,3,4 3. Chotis Brush, raise, brush, raise, step, step, step, close 1,2,3,4 1,2,3,4 (2M) Suggestions in Teaching and Learning the Dance Steps 1. Teach the step by command or by explanation and demonstrationfirst. Explain the terms used. The learner must observe first. 2. Give the rhythm and manner of counting of music by clapping handsor beating. The students may follow. 3. Teach and learn the step by counts. 4. Then, execute and follow the step with the music. 5. Lastly, teach, learn and explore the step with the arm movements most appropriate for the step. F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  98. 98. 87 4, 4 4 Activity # 15 Application (to be submitted to the teacher) Name: Class Time Date Score General Instruction: Execution of the Basic Dance steps and Dance pattern Guidelines: 1. Create your own original choreography applying the dance pattern and dance terms in 2 3 and 4 time signature. Include entrance and exit. 2. Choose any folkdance music for 3-4 mins. 3. Video yourself and submit the link in canvas. Criteria/Rubric: Choreography ............................................................................ 40% Originality and correct interpretation of the dance pattern Mastery ..................................................................................... 40% Projection, creativity and mastery of the steps Presentation/Timing ....................................................................20% Exhibition of confidence, enthusiasm and expressions and timing Total: 100% Name: Class Time Date Score Dance Pattern Score Choreography .............................................................40% Mastery........................................................................40% Presentation/Timing......................................................20% TOTAL F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  99. 99. 88 F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  100. 100. 89 Activity # 16 (to be submitted to the teacher) Name: Class Time Date Score Self-Check Test: Direction. Encircle the letter of the correct answer 1. What do you call the foot not bearing the weight of the body? A. free foot B. free hand C. supporting foot D. inside foot 2. A Visayan term, to place one forearm infront and the other at the back ofthe waist is called ? A. do-si-do B. hayon-hayon C. hands on waist D. kumintang 3. Moving the hand from the wrist either in a clockwise or counter Clockwise direction is called ? A. inside hand B. kumintang C. pivot D. bilao 4. To make fast turns by executing small steps in place to right or left. A. whirl B. point C. tap D. shuffle 5. Both arms are at one side, either sideward right or left. This may be atdone at shoulder, chest, or waist level is called ? A. bilao B. brush C. Arms in lateral position D. reverse T 6. To turn palms of hands up and down alternately, hands at waist level infront, elbows close to waist is called ? A. free hand B. bilao C. kumintang D. hayon-hayon 7. Partners are facing each other or standing side by side, girl at the right ofboy. They join their L and R hands together; either R over L or L over R hands is called ? A. crossed arms B. cut C. crossed arms D. joining both hands 8. The foot away from one’s partner, when partners stand side by side is called? A. inside foot B. free foot C. outside foot D. supporting foot 9. A dance formation like a square or a unit formation composed of two or more pairs. A. costados B. set C. cabesera D. pair/partner 10. The hand not placed anywhere or not doing anything is called ? A. free hand B. inside hand C. kuminatang D. hands on skirt F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y
  101. 101. 90 II.Write the step pattern of the following dance terms. 1. Change steps 2. Mazurka 3. Redoba 4. Heel and toe Polka 5. Bleking 6. Cross change step 7. Habanera 8. Sway balance with a point 9. Chotis 10. Native waltz F O R C P U S T U D E N T U S E O N L Y