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HBSC Report 2010

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HBSC Report 2010

  1. 1. The Irish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Study 2010
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  3. 3. 1 The Irish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Study 2010 February 2012 Colette Kelly, Aoife Gavin, Michal Molcho and Saoirse Nic Gabhainn. Health Promotion Research Centre National University of Ireland, Galway www.nuigalway.ie/hbsc
  4. 4. 2 The Irish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Study 2010 © Copyright 2012 Health Promotion Research Centre, National University of Ireland, Galway Department of Health, Government of Ireland, Dublin Published by the Department of Health and National University of Ireland, Galway. ISBN: 978-1-908358-02-8 A version of the report in Irish is available online at: www.nuigalway.ie/hbsc
  5. 5. 3 Foreword..............................................................................4 Introduction........................................................................5 Executive Summary...........................................................6 Methodology.......................................................................9 Results.................................................................................11 General Health.............................................................13 Smoking.........................................................................19 Alcohol...........................................................................23 Drug Use........................................................................27 Food and Dietary Behaviour.....................................29 Exercise and Physical Activity..................................41 Self-care.........................................................................47 Injuries...........................................................................51 Physical Fighting and Bullying.................................53 Sexual Health Behaviours.........................................57 Appendix............................................................................59 Project Team......................................................................62 Acknowledgements..........................................................63 Contents Entries below are clickable links.
  6. 6. 4 Foreword Once again, we have been given a window into the health behaviours of school-going children – an insight that is invaluable for how we approach policy in various domains. This adds to the body of research already available on the lifestyles and health behaviours of Irish people; and we use this information with one aim in mind: To improve and protect the health of the Irish population. The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey provides us with a roadmap for the future direction of policy to improve and protect the health of the nation: It tells us the areas where policy needs to adjust and focus; the future trends in relevant behaviours; so as to assist Government in addressing the behavioural trends that are a source of concern, or indeed to prevail with existing policy where encouraging positive behaviour trends have been reported. The context of this research study is the World Health Organization: HBSC is a cross-national research study conducted in collaboration with the WHO Regional Office for Europe that has 43 participating countries and regions; and this is the fourth time that my Department has funded the Irish phase of the study. This gives us the opportunity to continue monitoring and identifying health behaviour trends in a way that is comparable with other participating countries. The survey describes health behaviours in children aged between 9 to 18 years. While some responses from children indicate little change from those reported in 2006, other data are encouraging: I am heartened that the proportion of children who have smoked tobacco has decreased, similar to the trend in alcohol consumption and use of cannabis; nutrition and dietary trends also appear to be – on balance – positive with more children eating vegetables and a decrease in the consumption of sweets and soft drinks; but I am disheartened to note that an overall increase has been reported in the proportion of children who report experiencing hunger. Finally, for the first time, the study includes the sexual health behaviours of children aged between 15 and 17 years. Overall the survey provides us with essential lifestyle information that my Department will use in promoting healthy lifestyles in health and other sectors. I wish to acknowledge the work of the Health Promotion Research Centre at the National University of Ireland, Galway in compiling this study. Finally I would like to thank all those students who took time to complete the questionnaires, their parents and the staff from the participating schools for their support. Dr James Reilly Minister for Health
  7. 7. 5 Introduction This report presents data from the HBSC Ireland 2010, the Irish Health Behaviour in School- aged Children survey. The 2010 HBSC survey is the fourth time that data of this kind have been collected from young people across the Republic of Ireland; previous surveys were conducted in 2006, 2002 and 1998 (www.nuigalway.ie/hbsc). HBSC is a cross-sectional research study conducted in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe. The HBSC international survey runs on an academic 4-year cycle and in 2009/2010 there were 43 participating countries and regions (www.hbsc.org). The overall study aims to gain new insight into, and increase our understanding of young people’s health and well-being, health behaviours and their social context. As well as serving a monitoring and a knowledge-generating function, one of the key objectives of HBSC has been to inform policy and practice. Cross-nationally, HBSC collects information on the key indicators of health, health attitudes and health behaviour, as well as the context of health for young people. HBSC is a school- based survey with data collected through self-completion questionnaires administered by teachers in the classroom. The HBSC survey instrument is a standard questionnaire developed by the international research network. The areas of interest are chosen in collaboration with the WHO and are designed to help assist developments at a national and international level in relation to youth health. The issues identified for inclusion in this first report from the 2010 Irish survey mirror the 2006 national HBSC report and were identified by the Advisory Board and within key national Strategy documents. These include general health, smoking, use of alcohol and other substances, food and dietary behaviour, exercise and physical activity, self-care, injuries and bullying. In addition, children aged 15 and over were also asked, for the first time in the Irish HBSC survey, to report their sexual health behaviours and these data are presented here. Statistically significant differences by gender, age and social class are presented in this report. The HBSC study was funded by the Department of Health and the Department of Children and Youth Affairs. The survey and analyses were carried out at the Health Promotion Research Centre, National University of Ireland, Galway (NUI Galway).
  8. 8. 6 Executive Summary A summary of the main findings from HBSC Ireland 2010 is provided below: General Health Overall, the proportion of children who report excellent health (33%), feeling very happy (50%) and high life satisfaction (76%) remains stable from HBSC 2006. In general, younger children and boys are more likely to report positive health. Children from lower social class groups are less likely to report excellent health and high life satisfaction. The proportion of 3rd and 4th class children who report excellent health (39%) and feeling very happy (70%) remains stable from 2006. There are no significant differences across gender or social class groups. Substance use Overall, there is a decrease from 2006 in reports of tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use among school children in Ireland. Smoking Reports of current smoking (12%) and having ever smoked (27%) have declined since 2006 (15% and 36% respectively). Differences by age and social class are evident for both measures of smoking, with older children and those from lower social classes more likely to report both behaviours. Boys are more likely to report having ever smoked than girls, with a notable drop in ever smoking among older girls (47% in 2010 vs. 57% in 2006). The proportion of 3rd and 4th class children who report that they have ever smoked (3%) has decreased from 2006 and reports of current smoking status remains the same (1%) as in 2006. Boys are more likely than girls to report such behaviours. There are no significant differences across social class groups. Alcohol Reports of alcohol consumption have decreased among school children in Ireland since 2006 with 46% of children reporting ever drinking (53% in 2006) and 21% reporting being current drinkers (26% in 2006). Rates of drunkenness (28% in 2010 vs. 32% in 2006) and reports of been drunk in the last 30 days (18% in 2010 vs. 20% in 2006) have also decreased. Age and gender differences are observed for all four measures of alcohol consumption, with older children and boys more likely to report drinking and drunkenness. Children from lower social classes are more likely to report having been ‘really drunk’. Drug Use Reported cannabis use, both in the past 12 months (8% in 2010 vs. 16% in 2006) and in the past 30 days (5% in 2010 vs. 7% in 2006), has decreased. Boys and older children are more likely to report use of cannabis. No social class differences are evident.
  9. 9. 7 Food and Dietary Behaviour Food (e.g., vegetable) and dietary behaviours (e.g., dieting to lose weight) among school children in Ireland have improved or remain stable since HBSC 2006. Food consumption Overall,20%ofchildrenreportthattheyconsumefruitmorethanonceaday(19%in2006)and 20%reporteatingvegetablesmorethanonceaday(18%in2006).Girls,youngerchildrenandthose fromhighersocialclassesaremorelikelytoreportregularfruitandvegetableconsumption. Overall the proportion of children who report eating sweets daily or more often (37% in 2010 vs. 39% in 2006), and who report soft drink consumption daily or more often (21% in 2010 vs. 26% in 2006) have decreased from 2006. Older children and children from lower social class groups are more likely to report regular consumption of sweets and soft drinks. Gender differences are also observed, with girls more likely to report frequent sweet consumption (39% girls vs. 34% boys) and boys more likely to report frequent intake of soft drinks (23% boys vs. 19% girls). Similar patterns are evident among 3rd and 4th class children, with an increase in vegetable consumption (26% in 2010 vs. 21% in 2006), no change in fruit intake (30%) or sweets consumption (28%), and a decrease in soft drink consumption (15% in 2010 vs. 18% in 2006). Food behaviours Reports of never having breakfast on weekdays have not changed from 2006 (13% in 2010 vs. 14% in 2006). Girls, older children and those from lower social class groups are more likely to report that they never have breakfast on weekdays. The proportion of 3rd and 4th class children who report never having breakfast on weekdays also remains stable from 2006 (2%). Children were asked to report how often they go to school or to bed hungry because there was not enough food at home. Overall, 21% of children report ever going to school or to bed hungry, an increase from 2006 (17%). Boys, younger children and those from lower social classes are all more likely to report going to school or to bed hungry. Reports of dieting (or doing something else) to lose weight in 2010 (13%) remain stable from 2006 (12%). Girls and older children are more likely to report dieting (or trying) to lose weight. Exercise and physical activity There has been little change in reported frequency of exercise, physical activity and inactivity in HBSC 2010. Overall 51% of children report exercising four or more times a week (53% in 2006), 9% of children report participating in vigorous exercise less than weekly (10% in 2006) and 25% of children report being physically active on 7 days in the last week (27% in 2006). With each of these three measures, gender and age group differences are evident. In general, boys and younger children are more likely to be active. Children from lower social classes are
  10. 10. 8 The Irish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Study 2010 more likely to report inactivity and those from middle social classes are more likely to report being physically active on 7 days in the last week. Among 3rd and 4th class children 70% report exercising four or more times a week (72% in 2006) and 7% report participating in vigorous exercise less than weekly (8% in 2006). Self-care Self-reported tooth brushing, at a frequency of more than once a day (67%), remains stable from 2006 (63%), with the same pattern evident among 3rd and 4th class children (66% in 2010 vs. 64% in 2006). Girls and children in higher social class groups are more likely to report brushing their teeth more than once a day. There are no significant differences across age groups. Children were asked how often they use a seatbelt when in a car. Overall, 81% of children report always wearing a seatbelt, which remains stable from 2006 (79%). Girls and younger children are more likely to report always using a seatbelt. Injuries There is an overall decrease in the number of children who report being injured and needing medical attention once or more in the last 12 months (37% in 2010 vs. 43% in 2006). Boys and older children are more likely to report ever being injured. Of those reporting an injury, 57% report that they missed 3 or more days of usual activity in the past year due to injury (56% in 2006). Gender and age differences are similar to those reported for injury prevalence, with no social class effect observed. Bullying The rates of children reporting ever being bullied remain unchanged since 2006 at 24%. However, the proportion of children reporting bullying others in the past couple of months has decreased (17% in 2010 vs. 22% in 2006). Boys are more likely to report both ever being bullied and that they have bullied others. Younger children are more likely to report having been bullied, while older children are more likely to report bullying others. There are no differences across social class groups. The percentage of 3rd and 4th class children who report ever being bullied (37%) remains unchanged from 2006. There are no significant differences across gender or social class groups. Sexual Behaviour Overall, 27% of 15-17 year olds report that they have ever had sex. Boys and those from lower social class groups are more likely to report ever having sex. Of those who report ever having had sex, 93% report using a condom the last time they had sex and 59% report that they had used the birth control pill. Girls are more likely to report using the birth control pill as a form of contraceptive with no gender differences in reports of condom use as a form of contraceptive. There are no differences across social class groups.
  11. 11. 9 Methodology HBSC 2010 & Middle Childhood Survey The HBSC survey is a WHO (European) collaborative study. Principal investigators from all countries/regions co-operate in relation to survey content, methodology and timing, and an international protocol is developed. Strict adherence to the protocol is required for inclusion in the international database and this has been achieved with the current study. In the Republic of Ireland, sampling was conducted in order to be representative of the proportion of children in each of the 8 geographical regions. The objective was to achieve a nationally representative sample of school-aged children, and the procedures employed were the same as those for the 1998, 2002 and 2006 HBSC Ireland surveys. Data from the 2006 census was employed to provide a picture of the population distribution across geographical regions. The sampling frame consisted of primary and post-primary schools, lists of which were provided by the Department of Education and Science. A two-stage process identified study participants. Individual schools within regions were first randomly selected and subsequently, class groups within schools were randomly selected for participation. In primary schools classes from 3rd to 6th class groups were included, while in post-primary schools all classes, with the exception of Leaving Certificate groups (i.e., final year examination classes) were sampled. School principals were first approached by post and when positive responses were received, HBSC questionnaires in Irish or English were offered, along with blank envelopes to facilitate anonymity, parental consent forms, information sheets for teachers and classroom feedback forms. All returns were facilitated through the provision of FREEPOST envelopes. In order to maximise response rates, postal reminders were sent to schools, followed by telephone calls from research staff at the Health Promotion Research Centre, NUI Galway. Data entry was conducted according to the International HBSC protocol. A summary of the methodology employed can be found in Table 1. Data were collected from children in 3rd and 4th class, using an abbreviated version of the main HBSC questionnaire. Data on sexual health behaviours were only collected from the older age group.
  12. 12. 10 The Irish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Study 2010 Table 1: Summary of methodology for the HBSC Survey Population School going children aged 9-18 years Sampling Frame Department of Education and Science school lists Sample Cluster sample of students in a given classroom Stratification Proportionate to the distribution of pupils across geographical regions Survey Instrument Self-completion questionnaire Delivery/Reminders Postal delivery via principals and teachers, letter and telephone reminders Return Freepost addressed envelopes provided Response Rate 67% of invited schools / 85% of students Obtained Sample 256 schools / 16,060 pupils Data Quality Data were entered according to the HBSC international protocol Ethics Full ethical approval was granted by the National University of Ireland, Galway Research Ethics Committee Details of the demographic representativeness of the sample can be found in the Appendix. The results section outlines children’s perceptions and behaviours relating to health. Data are presented for HBSC and Middle Childhood studies seperately. Data are illustrated by gender, age and social class (SC). Social class is represented by SC 1-2, SC 3-4 and SC 5-6 corresponding to high, middle and low social classes, respectively. The categories used for social class are standard and were determined by parental occupation. Social class 1 represent professional occupations (i.e., solicitor, doctor), social class 2 represent managerial occupations (i.e., nurse, teacher), social class 3 represent non-manual occupations (i.e., sales person, office clerk), social class 4 represent skilled-manual occupations (i.e., hairdresser, carpenter), social class 5 represent semi-skilled occupations (i.e., postman, driver), social class 6 represent unskilled occupations (i.e., cleaner, labourer). Statistical analysis Statistical analyses were carried out to determine if differences by gender, age group and social class were statistically significant. Differences at p<0.05 are described in the report.
  13. 13. 11 Results
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  15. 15. 13 General Health Children were asked a number of general questions concerning their lives and perceived health. Excellent Health Children were asked to rate their health as excellent, good, fair or poor. Overall, 33% of children aged 10-17 report that they would say their health is excellent with a further 55% that it is good. Figure 1: Percentages of boys who report their health is excellent 60 50 40 (%) 30 20 10 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 42 38 34 42 39 33 40 33 35 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 200644 40 49 46 35 39 40 34 33 Figure 2: Percentages of girls who report their health is excellent 60 50 40 (%) 30 20 10 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 38 35 40 33 29 24 23 20 18 42 39 37 39 31 30 25 19 18 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 There are statistically significant differences by gender, age group and social class. Overall, 38% of boys report excellent health compared to 27% of girls. Younger children are significantly more likely to report excellent health compared to older children and children from higher social class groups are more likely to report excellent health than those from
  16. 16. 14 The Irish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Study 2010 other social class groups. The proportion of children who report that their health is excellent remains unchanged from 2006 (33% in 2006). Excellent Health – Middle Childhood Study Overall, 49% of 3rd and 4th class children report that they would say their health is excellent. There are no statistically significant gender or social class differences. The proportion of children that report excellent health remains stable from 2006 (47% in 2006). Figure 3: Percentages of 9 year old boys and girls who report their health is excellent 60 50 40 (%) 30 20 10 0 SC1-2 2006 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2006 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2006 SC5-6 2010 Boys Girls Gender 46 50 40 47 48 42 45 47 46 49 52 49 The Irish Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study 2010
  17. 17. 15 Life at present (happiness) Children were asked to report how they feel about their life at present. Overall, 50% of children report feeling very happy with their lives at present with a further 41% reporting feeling quite happy. Figure 4: Percentages of boys who report feeling very happy about their lives at present 80 (%) 40 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 70 60 50 30 20 10 62 65 59 54 55 54 46 45 46 64 67 68 55 55 57 44 46 40 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 Figure 5: Percentages of girls who report feeling very happy about their lives at present 80 (%) 40 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 70 60 50 30 20 10 64 66 68 55 49 51 44 36 35 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 68 67 66 52 55 53 36 32 39 There are statistically significant differences by gender and age group. Overall, 52% of boys compared to 49% of girls report feeling very happy with their lives and younger children are more likely to report feeling very happy with their lives than older children. There are no statistically significant differences across social class groups. The proportion of children who report feeling very happy with their lives remains unchanged from 2006 (50% in 2006). General Health
  18. 18. 16 The Irish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Study 2010 Life at present (happiness) – Middle Childhood Study Overall, 70% of 3rd and 4th class children report feeling very happy with their lives at present. There are no statistically significant differences by gender or social class. The proportion of children who report feeling very happy with their lives remains stable from 2006 (72% in 2006). Figure 6: Percentages of 9 year old boys and girls who report feeling very happy about their lives at present 80 (%) 40 0 70 60 50 30 20 10 SC1-2 2006 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2006 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2006 SC5-6 2010 Boys Girls Gender 68 71 69 67 70 71 67 77 76 73 71 71 The Irish Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study 2010
  19. 19. 17 Life satisfaction Children were asked to report where they feel they stand at the moment on a scale from 0 to 10. Overall, 76% of children report high life satisfaction (rank 7 or higher on the scale). Figure 7: Percentages of boys who report high life satisfaction 100 (%) 50 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 90 80 70 60 40 30 20 10 87 85 81 84 82 79 75 73 67 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 86 87 91 84 81 82 78 75 70 Figure 8: Percentages of girls who report high life satisfaction 100 (%) 50 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 90 80 70 60 40 30 20 10 86 86 89 81 74 73 71 67 60 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 89 86 91 79 79 78 69 62 67 Statistically significant gender differences are apparent with fewer girls (74%) than boys (79%) reporting high life satisfaction. There are also statistically significant differences across age groups with younger children more likely to report high life satisfaction than older children, and across social class groups, with those from lower social class groups less likely to report high life satisfaction than those from other social class groups. The proportion of children who report high life satisfaction remains stable from 2006 (77% in 2006). General Health
  20. 20. 18 The Irish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Study 2010The Irish Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study 2010
  21. 21. 19 Smoking Children were asked about two aspects of smoking tobacco: having ever smoked and current smoking behaviour, which was defined as smoking tobacco monthly or more frequently. Ever smoked tobacco Overall, 27% of children report that they have ever smoked tobacco, with statistically significant differences across age groups. There are statistically significant gender differences, with more boys (27%) than girls (26%) reporting having ever smoked tobacco. There are also statistically significant differences across social class groups; those from the lower social class groups are more likely to report having ever smoked tobacco compared to other social class groups. There is an overall decrease in the proportion of children who report that they have ever smoked tobacco from 2006 (36% in 2006). Figure 9: Percentages of boys who report ever smoking tobacco 70 (%) 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 60 50 40 30 20 10 2 6 10 15 18 23 43 48 43 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 13 9 9 27 30 30 52 48 48 Figure 10: Percentages of girls who report ever smoking tobacco 70 (%) 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 60 50 40 30 20 10 2 3 7 13 17 21 43 46 52 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 5 7 9 24 28 29 54 59 57
  22. 22. 20 The Irish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Study 2010 Ever smoked tobacco – Middle Childhood Study Overall, 3% of 3rd and 4th class children report that they have ever smoked tobacco. There are statistically significant gender differences with 5% of boys compared to 2% of girls reporting that they have ever smoked tobacco. The proportion of 3rd and 4th class children who report that they have ever smoked tobacco is similar to 2006 (4% in 2006). Figure 11: Percentages of 9 year old boys and girls who report ever smoking tobacco 70 (%) 0 60 50 40 30 20 10 SC1-2 2006 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2006 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2006 SC5-6 2010 4 3 4 6 3 4 1 1 3 1 2 3 Boys Girls Gender The Irish Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study 2010
  23. 23. 21 Current smoking status Overall, 12% of children report that they are current smokers. Smoking is more prevalent among older than younger children and this difference is statistically significant. Overall, there are statistically significant differences across social class groups in current smoking status, with children from higher social class groups less likely to report current smoking behaviour. There are no statistically significant differences by gender. There is an overall decrease in the proportion of children who report that they are current smokers from 2006 (15% in 2006). Figure 12: Percentages of boys who report that they are current smokers 40 (%) 20 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 30 10 1 5 6 7 7 16 22 19 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 1 5 3 8 10 10 18 22 23 1 Figure 13: Percentages of girls who report that they are current smokers 40 (%) 20 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 30 10 2 1 2 5 8 6 19 23 25 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 1 2 1 10 11 13 24 30 28 Smoking
  24. 24. 22 The Irish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Study 2010 Current smoking status – Middle Childhood Study Overall, 1% of 3rd and 4th class children report that they are current smokers. There are statistically significant gender differences with 2% of boys and 1% of girls reporting that they are current smokers. There are no statistically significant social class differences. Overall, the proportion of 3rd and 4th class students who report that they are current smokers remains stable from 2006 (1% in 2006). Figure 14: Percentages of 9 year old boys and girls who report that they are current smokers 40 (%) 20 0 30 10 SC1-2 2006 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2006 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2006 SC5-6 2010 Boys Girls Gender 1 1 2 3 2 2 0 1 1 0 1 1 The Irish Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study 2010
  25. 25. 23 Alcohol Never drinking Overall, 54% of children report that they have never had an alcoholic drink. There are statistically significant differences by gender and age group. Girls are more likely than boys to report never drinking (57% and 52% respectively), and younger children are more likely to report never drinking than older children. Social class differences are not evident. There is an overall increase in the proportion of children who report that they have never had an alcoholic drink from 2006 (47% in 2006). Figure 15: Percentages of boys who report never having had an alcoholic drink 100 (%) 50 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 90 80 70 60 40 30 20 10 79 79 81 63 63 61 31 30 33 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 67 67 70 53 52 54 28 25 23 Figure 16: Percentages of girls who report never having had an alcoholic drink 100 (%) 50 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 90 80 70 60 40 30 20 10 88 91 89 71 72 65 29 27 25 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 89 88 84 65 62 61 28 20 26
  26. 26. 24 The Irish Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study 2010 Had an alcoholic drink in the past month Current drinkers are defined as those who report having had an alcoholic drink in the past month. Overall, 21% of children report having had an alcoholic drink in the past month. Figure 17: Percentages of boys who report having had an alcoholic drink in the last month 60 50 40 (%) 30 20 10 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 1 2 4 10 10 11 39 42 39 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 3 5 2 16 15 14 46 48 49 Figure 18: Percentages of girls who report having had an alcoholic drink in the last month 60 50 40 (%) 30 20 10 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 0 1 0 8 9 11 38 41 40 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 1 2 1 12 13 11 44 51 45 There are statistically significant gender differences with 22% of boys and 19% of girls who report they are current drinkers. Older children are significantly more likely to report having had an alcoholic drink in the past month, with 2% of 10-11 years olds and 40% of 15-17 year olds reporting this behaviour. There are no statistically significant differences across social class groups. Overall, there is a decrease in the proportion of children who report having had an alcoholic drink in the past month from 2006 (26% in 2006).
  27. 27. 25 Drunkenness In addition to alcohol consumption, children were asked if they had ever had so much alcohol that they were ‘really drunk’. Overall, 28% of children report having been ‘really drunk’. Figure 19: Percentages of boys who report having been ‘really drunk’ 70 (%) 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 60 50 40 30 20 10 5 4 6 14 18 19 49 55 53 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 5 7 5 17 22 21 53 58 56 Figure 20: Percentages of girls who report having been ‘really drunk’ 70 (%) 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 60 50 40 30 20 10 3 2 2 12 14 20 47 53 55 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 1 2 0 15 17 15 51 60 55 There are statistically significant gender, age group and social class differences. More boys (29%) than girls (26%) report having been ‘really drunk’ and reports of drunkenness are higher among older children: 4% of 10-11 year olds, 16% of 12-14 year olds and 52% of 15- 17 year olds. Children from lower social class groups are more likely to report having been ‘really drunk’ than those from other social class groups. There is an overall decrease in the proportion of children who report having been ‘really drunk’ from 2006 (32% in 2006). Alcohol
  28. 28. 26 The Irish Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study 2010 Been drunk in the last 30 days Children were also asked if they have been drunk in the last 30 days. Overall, 18% of children report that they have been drunk in the last 30 days with statistically significant gender differences: 19% of boys and 17% of girls overall reporting this behaviour. There are also statistically significant differences across age groups but not across social class groups. Overall, the proportion of children who report having been drunk in the last 30 days remains stable from 2006 (20% in 2006). Figure 21: Percentages of boys who report having been drunk in the last 30 days 50 (%) 0 40 30 20 10 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 2 3 3 7 9 10 34 40 33 1 3 2 8 10 11 36 37 37 Figure 22: Percentages of girls who report having been drunk in the last 30 days 50 (%) 0 40 30 20 10 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 0 1 1 7 7 10 33 38 40 1 1 0 7 10 12 34 41 36
  29. 29. 27 Drug Use Cannabis in the last 12 months Overall, 8% of children report using cannabis in the last 12 months, with statistically significant gender and age group differences. More boys than girls report using cannabis in the last 12 months (10% vs. 6%). Additionally, older children are more likely to report cannabis use in the last 12 months: 1% of 10-11 year olds vs. 17% of 15-17 year olds. There are no statistically significant differences across social class groups. Overall, there is a decrease in the proportion of children who report using cannabis in the last 12 months from 2006 (16% in 2006). Figure 23: Percentages of boys reporting cannabis use in the last 12 months SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 30 20 (%) 10 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 0 0 01 2 0 4 4 5 6 8 7 17 21 17 22 24 24 Figure 24: Percentages of girls reporting cannabis use in the last 12 months SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 30 20 (%) 10 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 0 0 11 0 0 2 2 3 4 6 5 11 12 1817 22 20
  30. 30. 28 The Irish Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study 2010 Cannabis use in the last 30 days Children were asked to report on using cannabis in the last 30 days. Overall, 5% of children aged 10-17 report using cannabis in the last 30 days. There are statistically significant gender and age group differences. More boys (7%) than girls (3%) and older children compared to younger children are more likely to report using cannabis in the last 30 days. There are no statistically significant differences across social class groups. Overall, there is a decrease in the proportion of children who report cannabis use in the last 30 days from 2006 (7% in 2006). Figure 25: Percentages of boys reporting cannabis use in the last 30 days SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 20 (%) 10 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 0 0 11 2 0 2 3 33 4 5 10 13 9 10 13 15 Figure 26: Percentages of girls reporting cannabis use in the last 30 days SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 20 (%) 10 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 0 0 11 0 0 1 1 2 3 3 2 6 6 88 11 10
  31. 31. 29 Food and Dietary Behaviour Fruit Overall, 20% of children report that they consume fruit more than once a day. There are statistically significant differences by gender, age group and social class. A higher proportion of girls report eating fruit more than once a day compared to boys (22% and 18% respectively). Younger children (24% of 10-11; 20% of 12-14; 19% of 15-17) and those from higher social classes are more likely to report eating fruit more than once a day compared to older children and those from other social classes, respectively. The proportion of children who report eating fruit more than once a day remains stable from 2006 (19% in 2006). Figure 27: Percentages of boys who report eating fruit more than once a day 40 (%) 20 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 30 10 22 14 22 15 13 19 16 18 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 17 21 17 18 16 16 19 12 15 23 Figure 28: Percentages of girls who report eating fruit more than once a day 40 (%) 20 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 30 10 26 24 25 20 16 26 21 16 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 38 23 29 25 18 22 25 23 19 30
  32. 32. 30 The Irish Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study 2010 Fruit – Middle Childhood Study Overall, 30% of 3rd and 4th class children report that they eat fruit more than once a day. There are no gender differences but there are statistically significant differences across social class groups. The proportion of children that report eating fruit more than once a day remains unchanged from 2006 (30% in 2006). Figure 29: Percentages of 9 year old boys and girls who report eating fruit more than once a day 40 (%) 20 0 30 10 SC1-2 2006 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2006 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2006 SC5-6 2010 Boys Girls Gender 27 30 24 35 23 25 32 31 33 34 29 29
  33. 33. 31 Vegetables Overall, 20% of children report eating vegetables more than once a day. Statistically significant gender differences are evident with fewer boys (19%) than girls (22%) reporting eating vegetables more than once a day. There are also statistically significant differences across age and social class groups with younger children and those from higher social classes more likely to report eating vegetables more than once a day than older children and those from other social class groups, respectively. There is an increase in the proportion of children that report eating vegetables more than once a day from 2006 (18% in 2006). Figure 30: Percentages of boys who report eating vegetables more than once a day 40 (%) 20 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 30 10 19 17 25 18 15 19 17 19 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 13 19 11 19 14 15 16 16 12 21 Figure 31: Percentages of girls who report eating vegetables more than once a day 40 (%) 20 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 30 10 20 24 26 22 15 23 19 21 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 26 19 24 23 19 18 26 19 17 26 Food and Dietary Behaviour
  34. 34. 32 The Irish Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study 2010 Vegetables – Middle Childhood Study Overall, 26% of children in 3rd and 4th class report eating vegetables more than once a day. Gender differences are statistically significant, with girls more likely to report eating vegetables more than once a day then boys (29% and 23% respectively). There are no significant social class differences. There is an increase in the proportion of children who report eating vegetables more than once a day from 2006 (21% in 2006). Figure 32: Percentages of 9 year old boys and girls who report eating vegetables more than once a day 40 (%) 20 0 30 10 SC1-2 2006 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2006 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2006 SC5-6 2010 Boys Girls Gender 21 23 19 27 21 19 24 25 23 28 31 31
  35. 35. 33 Sweets Children were asked to report on frequency of consuming sweets. Overall, 37% of children report eating sweets once a day or more. There are statistically significant differences by gender, age group and social class. Overall, 39% of girls report eating sweets once a day or more compared to 34% of boys. Older children and children from lower social class groups are significantly more likely to report eating sweets once a day or more compared to younger children and those from other social class groups, respectively. There is an overall decrease in the proportion of children who report eating sweets once a day or more from 2006 (39% in 2006). Figure 33: Percentages of boys who report eating sweets daily or more 60 50 40 (%) 30 20 10 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 30 32 40 37 41 45 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 25 28 25 33 37 34 39 43 45 24 26 37 Figure 34: Percentages of girls who report eating sweets daily or more 60 50 40 (%) 30 20 10 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 34 42 42 41 45 39 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 25 34 35 38 44 45 39 45 44 30 35 34 Food and Dietary Behaviour
  36. 36. 34 The Irish Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study 2010 Sweets – Middle Childhood Study Overall, 28% of 3rd and 4th class children report eating sweets once a day or more. There are no statistically significant differences by gender or social class. The proprotion that report eating sweets once a day or more remains unchanged from 2006 (28% in 2006). Figure 35: Percentages of 9 year old boys and girls who report eating sweets daily or more 60 50 40 (%) 30 20 10 0 SC1-2 2006 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2006 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2006 SC5-6 2010 Boys Girls Gender 23 31 27 27 31 24 22 30 28 26 23 35
  37. 37. 35 Soft Drinks Overall, 21% of children report drinking soft drinks daily or more. There are statistically significant differences by gender, age group and social class. Overall, 23% of boys report drinking soft drinks daily or more compared to 19% of girls. Older children and those from lower social class groups are also significantly more likely to report drinking soft drinks daily or more. There is an overall decrease in the proportion of children who report drinking soft drinks daily or more from 2006 (26% in 2006). Figure 36: Percentages of boys who report drinking soft drinks daily or more 50 (%) 0 40 30 20 10 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 13 18 18 23 29 21 25 33 15 20 23 28 30 29 37 38 13 10 Figure 37: Percentages of girls who report drinking soft drinks daily or more 50 (%) 0 40 30 20 10 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 15 21 12 19 24 14 21 26 11 17 16 23 26 15 29 27 23 10 Food and Dietary Behaviour
  38. 38. 36 The Irish Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study 2010 Soft drinks – Middle Childhood Study Overall, 15% of 3rd and 4th class children report drinking soft drinks daily or more. Boys (18%) are significantly more likely than girls (13%) to report drinking soft drinks daily or more. There are no statistically significant differences across social class groups. Overall, there is a decrease in the proportion of 3rd and 4th class children who report drinking soft drinks daily or more from 2006 (18% in 2006). Figure 38: Percentages of 9 year old boys and girls who report drinking soft drinks daily or more SC1-2 2006 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2006 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2006 SC5-6 2010 Boys Girls Gender 12 19 21 17 20 12 9 17 22 10 12 15 50 (%) 0 40 30 20 10
  39. 39. 37 Not having breakfast Overall, 13% of children aged 10-17 report that they never have breakfast during weekdays. There are statistically significant differences by gender, age group and social class. Overall, 15% of girls report that they never have breakfast during weekdays compared to 11% of boys. Older children and those from lower social class groups are significantly more likely to report that they never have breakfast during weekdays compared to younger children and children from other social class groups, respectively. Overall, the proportion of children who report that they never have breakfast during weekdays remains stable from 2006 (14% in 2006). Figure 39: Percentages of boys who report not having breakfast on weekdays 40 (%) 20 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 30 10 6 8 8 10 14 11 14 15 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 4 6 3 8 9 10 11 16 18 5 Figure 40: Percentages of girls who report not having breakfast on weekdays 40 (%) 20 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 30 10 5 7 11 16 17 15 24 23 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 5 8 16 12 17 16 16 28 25 5 Food and Dietary Behaviour
  40. 40. 38 The Irish Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study 2010 Not having breakfast – Middle Childhood Study Overall, 2% of 3rd and 4th class children report not having breakfast on any day of the week. There are no statistically significant differences by gender or social class. The proportion of children who report not having breakfast on any day of the week remains unchanged from 2006 (2% in 2006). Figure 41: Percentages of 9 year old boys and girls who report not having breakfast during the week or the weekend 40 (%) 20 0 30 10 SC1-2 2006 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2006 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2006 SC5-6 2010 Boys Girls Gender 2 3 2 2 3 2 1 3 2 2 2 2
  41. 41. 39 Going to school/bed hungry Children were asked to report how often they go to school or to bed hungry because there was not enough food at home. Overall, 21% of children report ever going to school or to bed hungry. There are statistically significant differences by gender, age group and social class. Overall, 22% of boys report ever going to school or bed hungry compared to 19% of girls. Younger children and children from lower social class groups are significantly more likely to report ever going to school or to bed hungry than older children and those from other social class groups, respectively. There is an overall increase in the proportion of children who report ever going to school or bed hungry from 2006 (17% in 2006). Figure 42: Percentages of boys who report ever going to school/bed hungry 40 (%) 20 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 30 10 27 27 20 22 24 19 18 24 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 23 23 16 13 19 17 15 18 16 28 Figure 43: Percentages of girls who report ever going to school/bed hungry 40 (%) 20 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 30 10 22 20 18 19 20 15 18 23 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 14 13 19 12 15 14 15 17 18 30 Food and Dietary Behaviour
  42. 42. 40 The Irish Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study 2010 Dieting Children were asked if they were currently trying to lose weight or if they needed to lose weight (but were not currently on such a diet). Overall, 13% report trying to lose weight and an additional 19% report that they needed to lose weight. There are statistically significant differences by gender and age group. Overall, 17% of girls report trying to lose weight compared to 10% of boys, and older children are more likely to report trying to lose weight compared to younger children. There are no statistically significant differences across social class groups. Overall, the proportion of children who report currently trying to lose weight remains stable from 2006 (12% in 2006). Figure 44: Percentages of boys who report currently trying to lose weight SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 30 20 (%) 10 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 8 11 5 6 10 8 9 11 9 7 10 10 9 10 77 10 9 Figure 45: Percentages of girls who report currently trying to lose weight SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 30 20 (%) 10 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 12 11 6 4 9 12 13 16 18 13 12 16 21 23 24 22 20 16
  43. 43. 41 Exercise and Physical Activity Children were asked about their participation in exercise in their free time. They were asked the frequency with which they exercised so much that they get out of breath or sweat. Presented here are data illustrating the percentages reporting that they exercise in such a way four or more times a week and those reporting that they exercise less than weekly. Vigorous exercise ≥ 4 times/week Overall, 51% of children report exercising four or more times a week. There are statistically significant differences by gender and age group. Overall, 60% of boys report exercising four or more times a week compared to 40% of girls. Younger children are significantly more likely to report exercising four or more times a week compared to older children (62% of 10-11; 54% of 12-14; 41% of 15-17). There are no statistically significant differences across social class groups. Overall, the proportion of children who report exercising four or more times a week remains stable from 2006 (53% in 2006). Figure46: Percentagesofboyswhoreportparticipatinginvigorousexercisefourormore timesperweek 80 (%) 40 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 70 60 50 30 20 10 64 67 68 67 65 59 55 51 58 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 68 74 73 71 65 69 55 55 56 Figure47: Percentagesofgirlswhoreportparticipatinginvigorousexercisefourormore timesperweek 80 (%) 40 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 70 60 50 30 20 10 60 56 64 45 44 38 31 27 28 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 200661 56 57 50 51 53 29 27 27
  44. 44. 42 The Irish Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study 2010 Vigorous exercise ≥ 4 times/week – Middle Childhood Study Overall, 70% of 3rd and 4th class children report exercising four or more times a week, with statistically significant gender differences (72% of boys and 67% of girls). There are no statistically significant differences across social class groups. The proportion of children who report exercising four or more times a week remains stable from 2006 (72% in 2006). Figure 48: Percentages of 9 year old boys and girls who report participating in vigorous exercise four or more times per week 80 (%) 40 0 70 60 50 30 20 10 SC1-2 2006 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2006 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2006 SC5-6 2010 Boys Girls Gender 76 74 74 73 74 69 69 70 71 72 65 66
  45. 45. 43 Physical inactivity Overall, 9% of children report participating in vigorous exercise less than weekly. There are statistically significant differences by gender, age group and social class. Overall 6% of boys report participating in vigorous exercise less than weekly compared to 13% of girls. Older children and children from lower social class groups are more likely to report participating in vigorous exercise less than weekly compared to younger children and those from other social class groups, respectively. The proportion of children who report being inactive remains stable from 2006 (10% in 2006). Figure 49: Percentages of boys who report participating in vigorous exercise less than weekly SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 30 20 (%) 10 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 4 5 3 9 6 6 4 4 55 4 4 6 9 8 7 9 11 Figure 50: Percentages of girls who report participating in vigorous exercise less than weekly SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 30 20 (%) 10 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 5 6 9 7 8 9 8 9 13 8 9 7 13 22 22 19 22 26 Exercise and Physical Activity
  46. 46. 44 The Irish Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study 2010 Physical inactivity - Middle Childhood Study Overall, 7% of 3rd and 4th class children report participating in vigorous exercise less than weekly with no statistically significant gender differences. Children from lower social class groups are significantly more likely to report inactivity than those from other social class groups. The proportion of children who report inactivity remains stable from 2006 (8% in 2006). Figure 51: Percentages of 9 year old boys and girls who report participating in vigorous exercise less than weekly 30 20 (%) 10 0 SC1-2 2006 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2006 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2006 SC5-6 2010 Boys Girls Gender 6 6 7 6 6 11 3 5 5 3 7 9
  47. 47. 45 Physically active on 7 days in the last week Overall, 25% of children report being physically active on 7 days in the last week. There are statistically significant differences by gender, age group and social class. Overall, 31% of boys report being physically active on 7 days in the last week compared to 18% of girls. Younger children are more likely to report being physically active on seven days in the last week compared to older children. Overall, the proportion of children who report being physically active on 7 days in the last week remains stable from 2006 (27% in 2006). Figure 52: Percentages of boys who report being physically active on 7 days in the last week 70 (%) 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 60 50 40 30 20 10 41 44 38 31 34 34 24 23 20 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 44 53 50 39 38 37 22 22 24 Figure 53: Percentages of girls who report being physically active on 7 days in the last week 70 (%) 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 60 50 40 30 20 10 30 29 37 18 20 21 9 9 13 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 35 36 41 23 22 23 9 9 10 Exercise and Physical Activity
  48. 48. 46 The Irish Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study 2010
  49. 49. 47 Self-care Tooth-brushing Children were asked to report how often they brush their teeth. Overall, 67% of children report brushing their teeth more than once a day, with a further 27% brushing their teeth once a day. There are statistically significant differences by gender and social class. Overall, 77% of girls compared to 59% of boys, and children in higher social class groups compared to other social class groups, are more likely to report brushing their teeth more than once a day. There are no statistically significant differences across age groups. The proportion of children who report brushing their teeth more than once a day remains stable from 2006 (63% in 2006). Figure 54: Percentages of boys who report brushing their teeth more than once a day 100 (%) 50 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 90 80 70 60 40 30 20 10 60 69 70 60 60 54 61 58 52 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 63 56 52 55 50 54 57 55 53 Figure 55: Percentages of girls who report brushing their teeth more than once a day 100 (%) 50 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 90 80 70 60 40 30 20 10 73 72 68 77 77 73 80 80 76 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 200675 66 64 73 68 72 78 79 74
  50. 50. 48 The Irish Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study 2010 Tooth-brushing – Middle Childhood Study Overall, 66% of 3rd and 4th class children report brushing their teeth more than once a day. There are statistically significant differences by gender with 69% of girls compared to 63% of boys who report that they brush their teeth more than once a day. There are no statistically significant differences across social class groups. The proportion of children who report brushing their teeth more than once a day remains stable from 2006 (64% in 2006). Figure 56: Percentages of 9 year old boys and girls who report brushing their teeth more than once a day 100 (%) 50 0 90 80 70 60 40 30 20 10 SC1-2 2006 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2006 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2006 SC5-6 2010 Boys Girls Gender 61 59 56 63 63 65 70 69 66 68 72 66
  51. 51. 49 Seatbelt use Children were asked to report how often they use a seatbelt when in a car. Overall, 81% of children report always wearing a seatbelt when in a car. There are statistically significant differences by gender and age group. Overall, 84% of girls compared to 79% of boys report always wearing a seatbelt when in a car and younger children are more likely to report this behaviour compared to older children. There are no statistically significant differences across social class groups. Overall, the proportion of children who report always wearing a seatbelt when in a car remains stable from 2006 (79% in 2006). Figure 57: Percentages of boys who report always wearing a seatbelt 100 (%) 50 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 90 80 70 60 40 30 20 10 80 86 77 78 78 77 80 80 79 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 200676 88 90 76 78 75 76 76 74 Figure 58: Percentages of girls who report always wearing a seatbelt 100 (%) 50 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 90 80 70 60 40 30 20 10 88 92 87 84 84 80 84 84 84 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 89 88 90 81 82 84 81 83 83 Self Care
  52. 52. 50 The Irish Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study 2010 Seatbelt use – Middle Childhood Study Overall, 87% of 3rd and 4th class children report always wearing a seatbelt when in a car. There are statistically significant differences by gender with 90% of girls compared to 85% of boys who report always wearing a seatbelt when in a car. There are no statistically significant differences across social class groups. Overall, the proportion of children who report always wearing a seatbelt when in a car remains stable from 2006 (88% in 2006). Figure 59: Percentages of 9 year old boys and girls who report always wearing a seatbelt 100 (%) 50 0 90 80 70 60 40 30 20 10 SC1-2 2006 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2006 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2006 SC5-6 2010 Boys Girls Gender 86 87 85 85 87 82 89 91 89 91 89 90
  53. 53. 51 Injuries Ever injured Overall, 37% of children report being injured once or more in the last 12 months, and requiring medical attention. There are statistically significant differences by gender and age group. Overall, boys and older children, compared to girls and younger children respectively, are more likely to report ever being injured. There are no statistically significant differences across social class groups. There is an overall decrease in the proportion of children who report being injured from 2006 (43% in 2006). Figure 60: Percentages of boys who report ever being injured in the last 12 months 60 50 40 (%) 30 20 10 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 43 45 40 46 48 45 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 38 45 47 52 52 52 51 53 50 38 45 45 Figure 61: Percentages of girls who report ever being injured in the last 12 months 60 50 40 (%) 30 20 10 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 30 32 29 28 30 30 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 31 30 37 34 36 37 33 32 28 25 25 24
  54. 54. 52 The Irish Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study 2010 Loss of activity due to injury Children were further asked to report on how many days of activity they lost as a consequence of their most severe injury, in the past year. Of those reporting an injury, 57% report that they missed 3 or more days of usual activity due to injury. There are statistically significant differences by gender and age group. Overall, 58% of boys compared to 50% of girls report that they missed 3 or more days of activity due to injury and older children are significantly more likely to report missing 3 or more days compared to younger children. There are no statistically significant differences across social class groups. The proportion of children who lost 3 or more days of activity due to injury remains stable from 2006 (56%). Figure 62: Percentages of boys who report that they have missed 3 or more days of usual activities due to injury in the last year 80 (%) 40 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 70 60 50 30 20 10 53 57 55 59 57 55 62 63 67 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 46 54 44 58 56 58 56 61 64 Figure 63: Percentages of girls who report that they have missed 3 or more days of usual activities due to injury in the last year 80 (%) 40 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 70 60 50 30 20 10 53 49 43 48 47 45 60 60 52 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 33 42 44 52 49 48 57 61 47
  55. 55. 53 Physical Fighting and Bullying Physical fight Children were asked if they had been in a physical fight in the last 12 months. Overall, 35% of children report having been in a physical fight during the last 12 months. Gender and social class differences are statistically significant. Overall, boys (48%) compared to girls (20%), and children from lower social classes compared to other social class groups, are significantly more likely to report fighting. There are no statistically significant differences across age groups. Overall, the proportion of children who report being in a physical fight remains stable from 2006 (38% in 2006). Figure 64: Percentages of boys who report ever being in a physical fight in the last 12 months 70 (%) 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 60 50 40 30 20 10 49 48 47 49 47 49 44 44 52 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 200651 51 36 54 56 56 42 48 53 Figure 65: Percentages of girls who report ever being in a physical fight in the last 12 months 70 (%) 0 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) 60 50 40 30 20 10 13 17 15 17 22 20 18 24 21 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 17 21 24 20 26 26 21 26 27
  56. 56. 54 The Irish Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study 2010 Being bullied Children were asked to report how often they have been bullied in school in the past couple of months. Overall, 24% of children report ever being bullied. There are statistically significant differences by gender and age group. Overall, 26% of boys report ever being bullied compared to 23% of girls and younger children are more likely to report ever being bullied compared to older children. There are no statistically significant social class differences. Overall, the proportion of children who report ever being bullied remains unchanged from 2006 (24% in 2006). Figure 66: Percentages of boys who report ever being bullied in the past couple of months 50 (%) 0 40 30 20 10 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 28 32 27 25 26 24 22 2829 30 31 27 30 22 21 23 21 23 Figure 67: Percentages of girls who report ever being bullied in the past couple of months 50 (%) 0 40 30 20 10 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 30 23 23 24 27 16 18 22 29 31 25 22 24 21 19 18 28 33
  57. 57. 55 Being bullied – Middle Childhood Study Overall, 37% of 3rd and 4th class children report ever being bullied in school in the past couple of months. There are no statistically significant differences across gender and social class groups. The proportion of children who report ever being bullied remains unchanged from 2006 (37% in 2006). Figure 68: Percentages of 9 year old boys and girls who report ever being bullied in the past couple of months SC1-2 2006 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2006 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2006 SC5-6 2010 Boys Girls Gender 38 38 40 33 36 32 37 35 36 40 38 35 50 (%) 0 40 30 20 10 Physical Fighting and Bullying
  58. 58. 56 The Irish Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study 2010 Bullied others Children were also asked to report how often they took part in bullying another student at school in the past couple of months. Overall, 17% of children report ever bullying others at school. Gender and age group differences are statistically significant with more boys than girls reporting that they have bullied others (22% and 10% respectively) and older children more likely to report bullying others than younger children. There are no statistically significant differences across social class groups. There is a decrease in the proportion of children who report bullying others from 2006 (22% in 2006). Figure 69: Percentages of boys who report ever bullying others in the past couple of months 50 (%) 0 40 30 20 10 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 15 21 21 21 20 24 23 25 27 21 29 29 29 30 32 35 15 15 Figure 70: Percentages of girls who report ever bullying others in the past couple of months 50 (%) 0 40 30 20 10 10-11 12-14 15-17 Age Group (Years) SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 SC1-2 2006 SC3-4 2006 SC5-6 2006 9 9 11 10 9 8 10 9 11 15 12 16 15 12 14 1112 10
  59. 59. 57 Sexual Health Behaviours Children aged 15-17 years old were asked several questions about their sexual health behaviours. They were asked about engaging in sexual intercourse and use of the birth control pill and condoms as methods of contraception at last intercourse. Sexual Activity Overall, 27% of 15-17 year olds report that they have ever had sex. There are statistically significant differences by gender and social class. Overall, boys are more likely than girls to report ever having sex (31% and 23% respectively), as are those from lower social class groups. Figure 71: Percentages of 15–17 year olds who report having ever had sex, by gender 40 (%) 20 0 30 10 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 Boys Girls Gender 25 32 30 18 26 28
  60. 60. 58 Use of birth control pill Of those who report ever having had sex, 59% report that they used the birth control pill as a form of contraceptive at last intercourse. Gender differences are statistically significant with girls more likely to report using the birth control pill as a form of contraceptive than boys. There are no statistically significant differences across social class groups. Figure 72: Percentages of 15–17 year olds who report using the birth control pill, by gender (of those who have ever had sex). 100 (%) 50 0 90 80 70 60 40 30 20 10 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 Boys Girls Gender 57 51 39 68 61 72 Condom use Ofthosewhoreporteverhavinghadsex,93%reportthattheyusedcondomsasaformofcontraceptive atlastintercourse.Therearenostatisticallysignificantdifferencesbygenderorsocialclass. Figure 73: 15–17 year olds who report using condoms, by gender (of those who have ever had sex) 100 (%) 50 0 90 80 70 60 40 30 20 10 SC1-2 2010 SC3-4 2010 SC5-6 2010 Boys Girls Gender 94 92 97 98 94 93 The Irish Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study 2010
  61. 61. 59 Appendix Demographic Representativeness of Respondents: HBSC 2010 Survey The gender breakdown of the HBSC 2010 participants revealed that 51% were male and 49% were female. Those who participated were compared to data from the 2006 census for region and social class. Table 2 presents the final numbers for each geographical region and the percentage of the total sample that this represents. The sixth column presents the percentages of 7-11 year olds recorded in the regions during the 2006 census. The data are representative of the population distribution across regions with slight variations from the 2006 census. Table 2: Comparison of the location of 2006 and 2002 HBSC respondents to the 2006 census n % % Health Board Area HBSC 2006 HBSC 2010 HBSC 2006 HBSC 2010 Census 2006 East 3055 3869 30 32 33 North East 633 753 6 6 10 South East 1646 919 16 8 12 North West 704 665 7 6 6 South 1450 2760 14 23 15 Mid West 914 1155 9 10 9 West 1427 947 14 8 10 Midlands 395 1132 4 9 7 In addition social class was compared with those presented in the 2006 census, as shown in Table 3. It should be noted that slight variations would be expected here because the census reports all persons by social class, not all of whom would be parents or guardians of children in these age groups. Table 3: Comparison of the social class of 2006 and 2010 HBSC respondents to the 2006 census Social Class HBSC 2006 (%) HBSC 2010 (%) Census 2006 (%) Professional 4 7 7 Managerial 23 30 26 Non-manual 8 13 17 Skilled manual 29 21 17 Semi-skilled 11 10 11 Unskilled 5 2 4 Unclassifiable - 1 - Unknown 20 16 18
  62. 62. 60 Table 4 below presents the percentages of HBSC respondents across gender, age group and social class. Table 4: Distribution of 2006 and 2010 HBSC respondents by gender, age group and social class SC 1-2 (%) SC 3-4 (%) SC 5-6 (%) n HBSC 2006 HBSC 2010 HBSC 2006 HBSC 2010 HBSC 2006 HBSC 2010 HBSC 2006 HBSC 2010 BOYS 10-11 years 26 41 53 44 21 15 498 644 12-14 years 33 41 47 44 20 14 2184 2557 15-17 years 36 46 43 40 20 14 1801 1953 GIRLS 10-11 years 24 39 51 46 26 15 713 687 12-14 years 31 43 47 43 23 15 2064 2464 15-17 years 37 48 43 37 21 15 1665 1832 Middle Childhood Study Table 5: Comparison of the location of 2006 and 2010 HBSC respondents to the 2006 census n % % Health Board Area Middle Childhood Survey 2006 Middle Childhood Survey 2010 Middle Childhood Survey 2006 Middle Childhood Survey 2010 Census 2006 East 1313 974 39 39 33 North East 189 154 6 6 10 South East 542 160 16 6 11 North West 136 166 4 7 6 South 470 419 14 17 14 Mid West 225 163 7 7 9 West 363 177 11 7 9 Midlands 116 261 4 11 7 The Irish Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study 2010
  63. 63. 61 Table 6: Comparison of the social class of 2006 and 2010 HBSC respondents to the 2006 census Social Class HBSC 2006 (%) HBSC 2010 (%) Census 2006 (%) Professional 6 6 7 Managerial 20 23 26 Non-manual 14 13.5 17 Skilled manual 21 20 17 Semi-skilled 21 14.5 11 Unskilled 4 2 4 Unclassifiable 2.5 Unknown 14 18 18 Table 7: Distribution of 2006 and 2010 HBSC respondents by gender and social class SC 1-2 (%) SC 3-4 (%) SC 5-6 (%) n HBSC 2006 HBSC 2010 HBSC 2006 HBSC 2010 HBSC 2006 HBSC 2010 HBSC 2006 HBSC 2010 BOYS 9 year olds 32 36 39 44 29 20 1490 921 GIRLS 9 year olds 27 37 43 40 30 23 1435 1035 Appendix
  64. 64. 62 Project Team Health Promotion Research Centre, National University of Ireland, Galway Dr Saoirse Nic Gabhainn Principal Investigator, HBSC Ireland Dr Michal Molcho Deputy Principal Investigator, HBSC Ireland Dr Colette Kelly Project Manager/Senior Researcher, HBSC Ireland Ms Aoife Gavin Researcher Ms Natasha Clarke Researcher Ms Katie Murphy Researcher Dr Amanda Fitzgerald Researcher Dr Siobhan O’Higgins Researcher Ms Larri Walker Research Assistant Ms Christina Costello Administrative Support Dr Viv Batt Administrative Director Advisory Committee Mr Robbie Breen Department of Health Ms Annemarie Brooks Department of Children and Youth Affairs Mr Seán Denyer Health Service Executive Dr John Devlin Department of Health Dr Sinead Hanafin Department of Health / Children and Youth Affairs Mr Hugh Magee Department of Health Mr Liam McCormack Department of Health Mr Shay McGovern Department of Health Dr Brian Neeson Health Service Executive Ms Ursula O’Dwyer Department of Health Dr Stephanie O’Keefe Crisis Pregnancy Agency Ms Biddy O’Neill Health Service Executive Ms Claire O’Reilly Department of Health
  65. 65. 63 Acknowledgements The parents and children who consented and participated. The Management Authorities, Principals and Teachers in all schools who participated. International Co-ordinator: Prof Candace Currie, University of St. Andrews, Scotland. International Databank Manager: Prof Oddrun Samdal, University of Bergen, Norway. The Department of Health; The Department of Children and Youth Affairs; The Department of Education and Science We would also like to thank Gail Cummins, Emiliano Curetti, Priscilla Doyle, Marie Galvin, Yetunde John-Akinola, Samantha Loughrey, Amy Magill, Peter Manley, Joe Mullen, Christina Murphy, Geraldine Nolan, Brían O’Connor, Ronan O’Connor, Ailbhe Spillane, Susan Spillane, Aisling Walsh and all other NUI Galway staff and services. Data Entry: e-Celtic, Co. Dublin and Larri Walker. Design and layout: Rob Smyth.
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