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Salman31(proximate analysis).pdf

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Salman31(proximate analysis).pdf

  1. 1. Fisheries and Marine Science Lab Report On Proximate Analysis of Carcass Feed Ingredients & Compounded Feed Samples, Protein, Lipid, Ash, Fiber and Moisture. Course Title: Fish Nutrition Lab/Field Work Course Code: FIMS 2110 Submitted to Dr. Md. Anisuzzaman Associate Professor Dr. Shyamal Kumar Paul Assistant Professor FIMS, NSTU Submitted BY Md. Salmanur Rahman Roll: ASH1902031M Year: 02; Term: 01 Session: 2018-19 Submission Date: 5TH December, 2021 Noakhali Science and Technology University Sonapur, Noakhali-3814
  2. 2. Introduction Aquaculture became focus point worldwide as a means of improving world fish production that is presently on decline position due to dwindling output from capture fishery. The people of Bangladesh depend on fish for 58% of their animal protein requirement and fish consumption rate is currently 17.52 kg/ people/ year while demand of fish is 20.44 kg/ year/ people and total demand of fish is 29.74 MT per year. With the increasing demand for food fish and the decline in capture fisheries production, aquaculture in Bangladesh is heading towards intensification. This shift from low density to high density culture traditional to semi intensive or intensive culture is consequently leading to an unprecedented rise in the demand for feeds more than that of fertilizers. Farmers shift gradually from no feed, through the use of farm-made feeds, to factory-made feeds. One of the major problems is the need to obtain a balance between rapid fish growth and optimum use of the supplied feed. Proximate composition Proximate composition is the term usually used in the field of feed and means the 6 components of. moisture, crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, crude ash and nitrogen free extracts, which are. expressed as the content in the feed, respectively. An aquaponic system shows evidence of increasing economic efficiency and environmental sustainability. An efficient aquaponic system is heavily dependent on the quality of aquatic life in it. In order to ensure the quality of the aquatic life, the quality of its feed must be ensured as well. This lab work uses proximate analysis to analyze fish feed in terms of percent moisture, fat content, crude fiber extraction and crude protein extraction and correlate these with fish body composition as well. Proximate analysis  Moisture content  Ash content  Protein content  Lipid/ Fat content  Crude fiber content  Nitrogen free extracts (Uric acid)
  3. 3.  Experiment no: 01  Name of the experiment : Estimate the moisture content of carcass feed ingredients and compounded feed samples. Moisture  Fish feeds contain about 8 – 10% moisture and the ingredients that are used for the production of fish feeds contain usually 7 – 12% moisture.  The moisture content should not be too high since a high moisture content can result in moulding, shorten the shelf life and fungal infaction. Moisture determination  Moisture contents in the feed were determined by the oven method. Materials  Drying Oven (100-1000℃).  Analytical balance. (3 digit)  Porcelain crucible  Desiccators. Fig: Drying oven. Fig: Analytical balance. Fig: Desiccators. Procedure  First of all take the crucible and weigh it.
  4. 4.  Then wash the crucible.  Dry the crucible in oven (in 105-110℃ for 2 hours).  Then again take weigh with crucible lid.  Collect the sample in the crucible (Each crucible 20-50g fish flesh or feed).  Then weigh the crucible with sample.  Then dry the sample in 105-110℃ for 12 hours.  Then put the sample in desiccator.. Formula % of Moisture = × 100.  Experiment no: 02  Name of the experiment : Estimate the ash content of carcass feed ingredients and compounded feed samples. Ash Ash is the residues of the inorganic matter (mineral) of the sample after burning. If the sample in a muffle furnace at 600ºc the organic matter is evaporate and residues are called ash. Ash content of each feed was estimated by following incineration method. Material  Muffle furnance  Crucible  Analytical balance  Dessicator Fig: Muffle furnance Fig: Analytical balance Fig: Crucible
  5. 5. Procedure  Firstly, a clean porcelain crucible was heated in an oven are 105ºc for 2 hours.  Weigh the crucible.  Take the sample into the crucible.  Weight the crucible with sample.  Mark the crucible.  Then take the crucible into the muffle furnance.  Dried it at 550℃ for 12 hours.  Cool the sample in the decicattor.  Then weigh the crucible. Formula % of ASH = × 100.  Experiment no: 03  Name of the Experiment: Estimate the protein content of carcass feed ingredients and compounded feed samples. Protein determination  According to Kjeldhal methods proteins are hydrolyzed to amino and with H2SO4.  Further heating decomposes the amino acid releasing- Ammonia which immediately trapped on (NH4)2SO4 and water. Micro kjeldhal method was to determine the crude protein. Equipment  Filter paper.  Kjeldhal flask.  Kjeldhal distillation unit.  Kjeldhal digestion unit.  Conical flask.  Analytical balance.
  6. 6. Fig: Kjeldhal flask. Fig: Kjeldhal distillation unit Fig: Kjeldhal digestion unit Reagents  Concentration H2SO4/ HCl.  Digestion mixture (CuSO4+K2SO4=1:4).  NaOH (40%).  Punic stone chips.(For reducing bumping).  Boric acid (4%).  Mixed indicator.  HCl (0.1 N). Procedure Digestion unit  First of all sample (10-20 g) take into filter paper.  Then take it into the kjeldhal flask and 25-30 ml HCl and digestion mixture are also mixed with the sample.  Boiling the sample for 6 hours. Punic stone chips also be added to reduced the bumping.  After then sample is turn into greenish blue coloured.  Then it is cooled by tape water.  Then 150 ml H2O and 2 drops indicator are used. Distillation unit  150 ml boric acid and 1 drops mixed indicator are used in distillation unit.  Set the kjeldhal flash in the distillation unit.  Add 40% NaOH.  Heat up to two layer are seen in the distillation unit.  Form two layer.  4% boric acid added.  Titration by 0.1N HCl.
  7. 7. Formula % of Nitrogen = 100. % of Protein = % of Nitrogen 6.25.  Experiment no: 04  Name of the Experiment: Estimate the fat content of carcass feed ingredients and compounded feed samples. Fat  Fat is examined with low boiling organic solvent (petroleum ether) by soxhlet extraction and the extract thus obtained weighed after recovery of the solvent.  Crude fat was determined through Soxhlet extraction technique using hexane (65 ºC-70 ºC) as the solvent. Equipment  Soxhlet extracting apparatus.  Extracting thimble.  Drying oven.  Analytical balance. Fig: Soxhlet extracting apparatus Fig: Extracting thimble Reagent
  8. 8.  Petroleum ether (99% alcohol). Procedure  Weigh of the empty Soxhlet.  Weigh of the thimble.  Set the Soxhlet and thimble.  Take the sample in the Soxhlet.  Take petroleum ether in the sample.  Heat it in 105℃.  Fat form Soxhlet. Formula % of Fat/Lipid = × 100.  Experiment no: 05  Name of the experiment: Estimate the crude fiber content of carcass feed ingredients and compounded feed samples. Crude fiber  The amount of crude fiber in fish feeds is usually less than 7 percent of the diet to limit the amount of undigested material entering the culture system. Reagent  0.255N H2SO4.  0.313N NaOH.  Anti foam ( Octyl alcohol or Silicon).  Ethyle alcohol at 95%  Petrolium ether.  HCl at 1% distilled water. Equipment  600ml flat bottom flask with roughed neck.  Condensation unit for 3 flask (keto zeto flask).
  9. 9.  Rubens cones.  Crucible.  Whitman Ashless filter paper.  Dryer.  Lab kiln.  Crucible furnance. Fig: Lab kiln Fig: Crucible Procedure  Take 2-3 g of the sample.  Placed the sample in the flask and 200 ml H2SO4/HCl acid solution.  Attached with condenser.  Boiling the condenser 2 minutes.  Then add the antifoam.  Add distilled H2O and boil it 30 minutes.  Wash by the filter paper with boiling H2O.  Transfer the tonic flask using 200 ml boil NaOH (30minutes, 3 step)  Preheated the crucible and filter the hydrolyzed mixture.  Wash residue with boiling H2O and added HCl then boil it.  Wash by the petroleum ether.  Heat the residue in crucible 105℃ at 12 hours.  Then tunic at 530℃ for 3 hours. Formula % of Crude fiber = × 100.

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