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  1. 1. Algae Procaryotic, eucaryotic, photosynthetic micro and macro organism Unicellular, microscopic and macroscopic
  2. 2. Algae
  3. 3. Sea weeds
  4. 4. Biological and Economic importance of Algae 1. Primary produce- • most are aquatic • Floating phytoplankton- food for aquatic life 2. Commercial products- a. agar- well known solidifying agent used in microbiology laboratory • Obtained from red algae (marine)-Geledium and Gracilaria • Used in food industries for making pudding, processed cheese, mayonnaise, jellies
  5. 5. Biological and Economic importance of Algae • Used as a carrier for drug in pharmaceutical industry • Lotion and creams also contain agar b. Alginic acid and its salt obtained fron brown algae, eg. Macrocystis, Agarum • Alginates- added in ice creams for smooth consistency • Also in cheese and bakery products • Paper manufacturing • Printing of fabrics, paint thickening
  6. 6. Biological and Economic importance of Algae c. Carrageenan- polymer of galactose with sulfate group Extracted from red algae- Chondrus Used as a stabiliser or emulsifier in icecream and other milk products Used as a thickening agent in shaving creams, lotion and in the soap Useful in textile and paper industries d. Diatomaceous earth- composed of millions of diatoms
  7. 7. Biological and Economic importance of Algae • Used in filters, non reactive chemically • Finely divided- one gram is having 120sq mt surface area • Also used for polishing delicate surface area 3. Algae as food- Porphyra used in Japan(called nori served with fish) (red algae)
  8. 8. Chondrus
  9. 9. Palmeta
  10. 10. Gracilaria-red algae (china)
  11. 11. Chlorella
  12. 12. Advantages of algal food • Rich source of proteins with all amino acids essential for growth • Good source of carbohydrate and fats as well • Can be grown on waste materials
  13. 13. Algae and diseases • Prototheca-1.human skin infection • 2. bursitis- joint pain
  14. 14. Cephaleuros- plant pathogen
  15. 15. Characteristics of Algae • Morphology- wide range • Spherical, rod shaped, club shaped, spindle shaped(single celled sp) • Multicellular – complex, group of same cells or different cells (may resemble higher plants) • Cell wall- thin and rigid. • Diatoms have silica and therefore thick and very rigid. • The motile algae have flexible cm called periplast • Some have an outer matrix secreted through cw
  16. 16. Unicellular algae
  17. 17. Algal pigments • Chlorophyll-a,b,c,d,e, • a is present in all
  18. 18. Carotenoid • Carotene- unsaturated hydrocarbon • Xanthophyll- oxygenated derivative
  19. 19. Biloprotein (phycobilin) • Water soluble pigment- phycocyanin and phycoerythrin
  20. 20. Motility • Motile algae- swimming algae • Flagella-in pairs, clusters • Types- whiplash (cylindrical and smooth), tinsel (cylindrical and hair like), ribbon or strap like • Some don’t have means of motility • Carried about by currents, tides, waves • Some spores are motile- zoospore • Other structures- eye spot, knob like structure, gelatinous stalk
  21. 21. classification • Based on- • Nature and properties of pigments • Chemistry of reserve food material • Types or number of flagella, morphology and insertion • Life history, reproductive structures, and methods of reproduction • Eg. Geledium • Very useful commercially
  22. 22. Rhodophycophyta • Chlorophyll a, b and phycoerythrin • Cell wall- cellulose • Reserve food- starch • Red algae • Marine forms • Asexual reproduction- non motile spore • Sexual reproduction- heterogamous • (spermatia and carpogonia)
  23. 23. Xanthophycophyta(yellow-green algae)
  24. 24. • Chlorophyll a, c rarely e • Found in temperate environment(fresh water and marine), also in soil • Occur as single cell, colonies, branched and unbranched filaments • Flagella of unequal length • Zoospores • Asexual reproduction by cell division and fragmentation • Sexual reproduction rare • Cell wall- cellulose, pectin • Reserve food material- chrysolaminarin(branched glucan), oil • Eg Vaucheria
  25. 25. Chrysophycophyta- golden algae • Chlorophyll a and c • Beta carotene and fucoxanthin • Predominantly flagellate • Some have pseudopodia • Some are non-motile • Most forms are unicellular and form colonies • Reserve food material- chrysolaminarin(branched glucan), oil • Eg. Ochromonas
  26. 26. Phaeophycophyta- brown algae • Chlorophyll a and c • Multicellular, brown pigment • Found in marine environment • Quite complex(some have several feet height) • Eg brown sea weed • Have holdfast and air bladder (give buoyancy) • Asexual reproduction- zoospore • Sexual reproduction- isogamous and heterogamous • Commercial uses-food, source of iodine and mineral salt • Eg. Sargasso
  27. 27. Sea of Sargasso
  28. 28. Bacillariophycophyta-the Diatoms • Chlorophyll a and c • Found in fresh water, salt water, soil • Abundant in cold water • Plentiful form of plankton in Arctic • Wide range of shape • Unicellular, colonial and filamentous forms • Produce shell (CW) containing silica • These shells over the period give rise to diatomaceous earth, commercially very important
  29. 29. Euglenophycophyta-euglenoid • Chlorophyll a and b • Unicellular, actively motile • Interesting example is Euglena (animal as well as plant features) • Photosynthetic and contractile vacuole • No cell wall, having periplast • Anterior gullet and red eyespot • Reproduction by binary fission • Dormant cyst like structure is produced • Paramylon, oils as reserve material
  30. 30. Chlorophycophyta- green algae • Chlorophyll a and b • Freshwater • Some in marine and terrestrial environment • One chloroplast per cell, laminate, cup shaped and reticulate • Chloroplast has pyrenoid- a site of starch synthesis • Single celled and colonial forms • Some has holdfast for attachment • Produce zoospore • Binary fission and isogamous, heterogamous reproduction
  31. 31. chlamydomonas
  32. 32. spirogyra
  33. 33. volvox
  34. 34. Cryptophycophyta • Chlorophyll a and c • Biflagellate organisms, two unequal flagella, tinsel type • Cells slipper shaped • Some have only plasmalemma • One or two plastids with or without pyrenoid • Reproduction by binary fission, zoospore and cyst • Sexual reproduction is seen in some
  35. 35. Cryptomonas
  36. 36. Pyrrophycophyta- the Dinoflagellate • Chlorophyll a and c • Plant and animal like features • Flagella are in girdle, one flagellum is encircling and one trailing • Plasmalemma and some have cellulose plates in plasmalemma (thecal plate) • Can produce red pigment, Gonyaulax (red tide) • Simple cell division and occasionally sexual reproduction
  37. 37. group chlorophyll carotenoid biloprotein Storage products Rhodophycophyta Red algae a, rarely d Beta carotene Zea xanthin Alpha carotene Phycoerythrin phycocyanin Starch, oil Xanthophycophyta Yellow- green algae a, c, rarely e Beta carotene Diadinoxanthin Heteroxanthin Chrysolaminarin, oils Chrysophycophyta Golden algae a, c Beta carotene fucoxanthin Chrysolaminarin, oils Phaeophycophyta Brown algae a,c Beta carotene Alpha carotene fucoxanthin laminarin, oils, carbohydrate Bacillariophycophyta Diatoms a, c Beta carotene Alpha carotene fucoxanthin Chrysolaminarin, oils Euglenophycophyta Euglenoid a, b Beta carotene Alpha carotene Diadinoxanthin Paramylon, oils
  38. 38. group chlorophyll carotenoid biloprotein Storage products chlorophycophyta Green algae a, b Beta carotene Alpha carotene lycopene Starch, oil Cryptophycophyta Cryptomonad a,c Beta carotene Alpha carotene alloxanthin Phycoerythrin phycocyanin Starch, oil Pyrrophycophyta dinoflagellate a,c Beta carotene Alpha carotene Peridenin Starch, oil