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Lsn1303 r evision material for final exam

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Lsn1303 r evision material for final exam

  1. 1. LSN1303 Health and Wellness Revision Lecture. Summary of the Course
  2. 2. National Health Agenda 2021 of the UAE:  Part of a seven-year initiative launched by His Highness Shaikh Mohammad Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, the UAE Prime Minister and Ruler of Dubai.  Major key performance indicators have been identified to meet the NHA: Cardiovascular disease: from 211/100,000 deaths to 158.2/100,000 (reduction by 25%) Diabetes: current statistics is 19% of emiratis have DM II; reduction to 16.3% by 2021 Average Healthy Life Expectancy: current (WHO) is 67 years; Target in the UAE is to increase to 73 years. Cancer: Current is 78 deaths/100,000 population; target is 54.2 deaths /100,000 or reduction by 18% Prevalence of Using Tobacco-products: current (WHO) 19% men and 2% women are smokers; target is to reduce rates by 15%, i.e., 16% in men and 1.7% in women. Childhood obesity: Current (WHO, 2014) 14.4% of children in the UAE were found to be obese; target is to reduce to 12% (reduction by 17%)
  3. 3. HEALTH • The overall condition of a persons body or mind and the presence or absence of illness or injury. • What influences HEALTH: genes, age, family history, risk factors, lung cancer.
  4. 4. What is wellness? • Wellness is optimal health and vitality encompassing the six dimensions of well-being • (compare this to health which is just absence of disease) • Making conscious decisions to control risk factors. E.g.: Stop smoking to prevent lung cancer 7 Dimensions
  5. 5. Health/Wellness Dimensions Physical Emotional Intellectual Interpersonal Spiritual Environmental Occupational
  6. 6. PHYSICAL WELLNESS Overall body’s condition, absence of disease , fitness level and ability to care for yourself. EMOTIONAL WELLNESS Ability to understand and deal with your feelings. INTELLECTUAL WELLNESS Seeking out new experiences and challenges. INTERPERSONAL WELLNESS Ability to develop and maintain satisfying and supportive relationships SPIRITUAL WELLNESS To possess a set of guiding beliefs, principles or values that give meaning and purpose for your life ENVIRONMENTAL WELLNESS Livability of your surroundings OCCUPATIONAL WELLNESS Level of happiness and fulfillment you get through work
  7. 7. What kind of qualities and behaviors are associated with high wellness • Physical Health :eating well, exercising, going to doctor regularly, recognizing signs of disease…. • Emotional : Self esteem, trust, understanding others and accepting owns feeling, optimism… • Intellectual: openness to new ideas, capacity to question • Interpersonal : ability to have support from friends, communicate with friends and family
  8. 8. Continued… • Communication skills, having intimate relationships. • Spiritual; capacity to love, have compassion and forgive…. • Environmental: Having abundant clean resources, reducing pollution…… • Occupational: Enjoyable work, job satisfaction, recognition and acknowledgement from managers and colleagues
  9. 9. Behaviors that Contribute to Wellness These are some behaviors that contribute to physical wellness: 1) Be physically active 2) Choose a healthy diet 3) Maintain a healthy body weight 4) Manage stress 5) Avoid tobacco (including sheesha), drug, alcohol use. 6) Protect yourself from diseases and injury. 7) Maintain meaningful relationships.
  10. 10. Choose a Healthy Diet To have a healthy diet you must eat a balanced diet. That means you must eat a diet with the right amounts of each type of food and food groups. Your diet should contain: • Complex carbohydrates (bread, rice, pasta, potatoes, etc) • Fruits and Vegetables • Milk or milk products • Proteins (meat, poultry, fish, nuts, lentils) • Only a small amount of added fats/oils and sugars. Ideally, 50-60% of body energy needs SHOULD come From complex carbohydrates – wholemeal bread, pasta, brown rice
  11. 11. Maintain a Healthy Body Weight: BMI (Body Mass Index) should be between 18 and 24.9 When BMI is between 25 and 30 the person is overweight; When BRMI is over 30 the person is obese BMI = weight in kilograms height in meters²
  12. 12. Manage Stress Many people do not cope properly with stress in their lives. You can reduce stress through: - Exercise - Relaxation/meditation techniques - Talking about problems with friends or relatives. - Talking about problems with a health professional. - Prayer
  13. 13. Develop Meaningful Relationships If you develop healthy relationships with family, friends, husband or wife, it helps you to feel happier and can reduce stress in your life. Reducing stress helps to reduce the chance of sickness and high blood pressure.
  14. 14. Important definitions • Risk factor: a condition that causes increased chance of disease or injury. • Infectious disease : can spread from person to person caused by bacteria or virus • Chronic disease : a disease that develops and continues over a long period of time • Life style choice: a conscious behavior that can increase or decrease chances of disease.
  15. 15. Risk factors : Controllable: your lifestyle choices, e.g. sun exposure, alcohol intake, healthy/unhealthy food; sedentary/active lifestyle Uncontrollable: Family history
  16. 16. • Physical fitness: A set of physical attributes that allow the body to respond or adapt to the demands and stress of physical effort. • Sedentary life style : Physically inactive, literally, sitting.
  17. 17. What are the killers diseases today? Life style diseases • 1. Heart disease • 2. Cancer • 3. Stroke Leading cause of death in the world – heart disease. Connected to life style
  18. 18. Five leading causes of Death in UAE(Gulf News, 28 August 2016) 1. Obesity. The obesity rate is about double of the world average; 2. Diabetes. About 19% Emiratis have diabetes. Type 2 diabetes — often linked to factors such as obesity and a sedentary lifestyle — accounts for about 90 per cent of cases worldwide. . 3. Cardiovascular diseases Diabetes, hypertension, smoking, high cholesterol, obesity and a family history of cardiovascular disease are all risk factors.
  19. 19. Leading causes of death in the UAE • 4. Cancer • • 4 leading cancers in UAE: breast, colorectal, lung and cervical cancer. • • According to Health Authority Abu Dhabi (HAAD) statistics for 2014 — the most recent figures available — women accounted for 45 per cent of all cancer-related deaths, with breast cancer being the third most common cancer-related deaths for both genders, behind lung and blood cancers. • • According to HAAD, tobacco use is the most important risk factor for cancer, causing 22 per cent of global cancer deaths and 71 per cent of worldwide lung cancer deaths. • • 5. Mental health • • Mental health has been identified as a top priority, yet stigma lingers for those who experience symptoms of depression or other psychological disorders. •
  20. 20. Risk factors for these diseases • Diet (too much fat, meat and junk food, not enough veg and fruit) • Not doing exercise (sedentary lifestyle) • Smoking • Alcohol
  21. 21. CARDIOVASCULAR (cardiorespiratory) fitness Is the ability to perform prolonged, large-muscle, aerobic (dynamic) exercise at a moderate to high level of intensity. It depends on things like: 1. How well your heart can pump blood to the muscles 2. How well your lungs deliver oxygen to your blood 3. How well your body uses its fuel. AN EXAMPLE OF CARDIOVASCULAR fitness IS: long distancerunning long distanceswimming
  22. 22. MUSCULAR ENDURANCE - • The ability of the muscle to remain contracted or to contract repeatedly (over and over again) for a long period of time. • It is very important for good posture and for preventing injury. • Depends on things such as: 1. the size of the cells in your muscles 2. How well your muscles store fuel 3. How well blood is supplied to your muscles. AN EXAMPLE OF MUSCULAR ENDURANCE IS: ROWING
  23. 23. MUSCULAR STRENGTH • The amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum effort. • We need strong muscles for everyday activities! • Strength depends on: 1. the size of our muscles cells 2. How well our nerves activate our muscles cells. AN EXAMPLE OF MUSCULAR STRENGTH IS: WEIGHT LIFTING (STRENGTH) JUMPING (POWER)
  24. 24. The Cardiovascular System • Also called Circulatory system • Its main role is to circulate gases (Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide), nutrients, and waste materials • Three organs: • Heart • Blood vessels • Blood • https://youtu.be/oHMmtqKgs50
  25. 25. The Human Heart • The pumping organ • Muscular organ (cardiac muscle) • Contracts involuntarily • About the size of your clenched fist
  26. 26. Blood Vessels • The conducting system (this is where the blood passes through to supply oxygen, nutrients and collect waste) • Three types: • Arteries: bring blood away from the heart. Carries blood rich in oxygen. • Veins: bring blood toward the heart. Carries blood that contains very little oxygen. • Capillaries: joins arteries to veins. Where nutrients, gases and wastes are exchanged between the blood and body cells • https://youtu.be/CjNKbL_-cwA
  27. 27. Blood • The delivery organ • Carries with it gases, nutrients, and wastes • 4 to 6 liters • Functions also for body defense (white blood cells), blood clotting (platelets).
  28. 28. The Cardiovascular System and Exercise The cardiovascular system serves five important functions (1) during exercise: 1) Delivers oxygen to working muscles 2) Oxygenates blood by returning it to the lungs 3) Transports heat (a by-product of activity) from the core to the skin 4) Delivers nutrients and fuel to active tissues 5) Transports hormones
  29. 29. The Skeleton (skeleton system) • What the skeleton does? • The skeleton is the basic framework of the body. It has four major functions • SHAPE AND SUPPORT • MOVEMENT • PROTECTION • BLOOD PRODUCTION SHAPE AND SUPPORT - the skeleton provides us with our shape, without it our body would have no framework to support itself on. The skeleton also
  30. 30. gives the body its size and in some cases can influence overall bodyweight. MOVEMENT - some of the bones of the body are held together by freely moveable joints. This means you are able to bend your body and move about. PROTECTION - The skeleton also protects the vital soft tissue organs of the body. The most important are: • the rib cage - protects the heart and the lungs • the pelvic girdle - protects the abdomen • the spinal column chord - protects the spinal chord • the skull - protects the brain.
  31. 31. • BLOOD PRODUCTION - blood is made in the bone marrow, particularly in the marrow of the long bones of the body. Blood contains both red and white blood cells. The red blood cells carry oxygen to muscles and the white blood cells fight infection in the body.
  32. 32. CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS • Exercises for Cardiorespiratory Fitness • Swimming • Cycling • Jogging • In-line Skating
  33. 33. Fitness Program Components • Warm up and Stretch • Prepare body for exercise and provide a transition from rest to physical activity • 5-minute Brisk walk as warm-up • 5-10 minutes stretching • Resistance Training • Consider your age, fitness level, and personal goal • Done in set, or a single series of multiple resistance using the same resistance • For men and women under 50, one set of eight to ten different exercises 2 to 3 days per week. • Use lighter weights in the beginning to allow 10 to 15 repetitions • Allow one day rest and recovery in between workouts.
  34. 34. Fitness – Related Injury • Traumatic injuries: injuries that are accidental and occur suddenly and violently. • Overuse injuries: injuries that result from the cumulative effects of day-after-day stresses placed on tendons, muscles and joints. • Runner’s knee • Shin splints • Plantar Fascitis • Tennis elbow
  35. 35. Essential Nutrients • Essential nutrients • Are those nutrients that a person must obtain from food because the body cannot produce them in large enough quantities. Rules for identifying an essential nutrient:  It must have a biological function in the body.  If it is removed from the diet it has a negative effect on one or more biological functions.  If it is replaced in the diet it will restore the biological functions for which it is required.
  36. 36. Nutrients have several uses in the body:  Provide energy.  Provide materials for building, maintaining and repairing body tissues.  Provide factors that regulate chemical reactions in the body. Uses of Nutrients
  37. 37. The body is made up of: - 60% water. - 23 to 31% fat for young women. - 9 – 17% carbohydrates, proteins, minerals, vitamins for young women. Our diets provide these materials that make up the body. Body Composition Carbohydrates Proteins Vitamins Minerals Fat Water
  38. 38. Nutrients in the diet can be classified as:  Energy yielding: These include carbohydrates, fats and proteins. They release energy when broken down by the body.  Vitamins  Minerals  Water Vitamins, Minerals and Water: Do not provide energy for the body Types of Nutrients
  39. 39. CALORIES The energy in food is measured in calories or kilocalories.  A calorie is the amount of heat needed to raise 1g water by 1o C  In books or magazines when the term calorie is used it really means kilocalorie (kcal) “C” = 1 kilocalorie = 1,000 calories https://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/eating-and-exercise
  40. 40. • CHO--- made of carbons, oxygen and hydrogen; simple or complex based on the number of sugar molecules present; 45- 55% of total calories • Functions: • Major source of energy (glucose). 1 g of carbohydrate = 4 calorie • Provides fibre • Changed to protein- used to make tissues • Excess is stored as fat, produce heat • Sources: bread & cereal; pasta & rice; potato, lima beans, corn; dried beans and peas; fruit, vegetables & milk; sugar, syrup, jelly, jam, honey Carbohydrates
  41. 41. Complex Carbohydrates • Are starches. • Provide vitamins, minerals and fiber as well as carbohydrates. • Include dry beans, starchy vegetables like potatoes, corn, and peas; rice, pasta, oatmeal; bread and cereal.
  42. 42. Fiber  Plant materials that are not digested completely by the body.  Keeps the digestive system healthy.  Reduces the risk of cancer and heart disease.  1 g of fibre = 1.5 calorie Sources of Fiber: Most Fruit and Vegetables – both dry and fresh; Whole wheat and bran; Pulses – peas and beans
  43. 43. Sources of Fiber
  44. 44. Saturated and Unsaturated Fats • We hear the term saturated fats and unsaturated fats in the media. • Saturated fats ( BAD) can raise blood cholesterol (animal fat and butter are saturated fats). These can clog up the arteries. • Many (but not all) oils are partly or mostly unsaturated( GOOD) so are better for us. Examples: Fish Oil (omega 3 and 6); olive oil.
  45. 45. Proteins Proteins are made up amino acids which contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and also nitrogen. Amino acids are small molecules which are joined together by bonds to make proteins. The body contains 20 amino acids.
  46. 46. VITAMINS The body makes some vitamins (Vit D and K) but most vitamins come from food. Kinds of vitamins: • Vit A: prevents night blindness, skin diseases • Vit D: increases Ca and P absorption (helps in building and repairing bone). • Vit E: increase Fe absorption • Vit K: blood clotting
  47. 47. Vitamin A is needed for night vision. What other foods provide Vitamin A?Carrot Eggs
  48. 48. Vitamin C is needed for the maintenance of healthy skin. What other foods provide Vitamin C? Orange Kiwi Answer: all green vegetables – spinach, broccoli, green cabbage etc
  49. 49. Sources of vitamin B group
  50. 50. Action of vitamins: - Vitamins act by helping chemical reactions to occur or to happen faster. - They do not provide energy for the body but they help the body to release energy from other nutrients.
  51. 51. MINERALS Minerals are inorganic compounds which means that they do not contain carbon. • Macrominerals (minerals that are found in amounts larger than 5 grams): Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cl • Trace minerals (minerals needed in daily quantities of less than 100 mg) Fe, Cu, Se, I, Mn, Mo, Zn, Cr, F
  52. 52. WATER • The human body is made up of about 63% water. • Need 2.5 to 3 litres of water/day, but drink only about 2.0 to 2.5 litres. • Where do we get the rest?? The foods we eat contain water. For example lettuce is 95% water.
  53. 53. Functions of water It acts as a solvent. (dissolves materials) Transports food substances to cells. Removes waste. Regulates temperature and metabolic rate (rate of chemical reactions in body).
  54. 54. FOOD Pyramid: how much and which foods to eat? Ideally 50-60% of energy should come from complex carbohydrates
  55. 55. • Suffering health consequences – • Deficiency diseases • Marasmus • Scurvy • Anemia • Osteoporosis • Rickets • Afflictions of affluence • Obesity Not meeting nutritional needs in younger/older years leads to:
  56. 56. Adulthood Nutritional Stages • 19 – 30 Young (early) adulthood • 31 – 50 • 51 – 70 Middle adulthood (middle age) • Beyond 70 Older adulthood (elderly)
  57. 57. • http://www.nutritionmd.org/consumers/general_n utrition/all_stages.html
  58. 58. • Nutrition is one of the key factors in ensuring normal fetal development, and protecting the health of the mother. • Extra nutrients and energy are needed: • * for fetal growth and development • * to support the changes in the mother that • help support the pregnancy.
  59. 59. Increased nutrient needs: Increased energy needs: Approximately 300kcal extra needed in 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Protein intake is especially important, and should be at least 60g/day.
  60. 60. Erikson’s Psychosocial Development theory: personal development in 8 stages
  61. 61. Stage 1. Trust vs. Mistrust. Baby up to 1.5 years • Baby (infant) basic needs are met by parents. • If baby gets attention and love then he/she will trust the world. • If baby is neglected and mistreated a sense of mistrust will result. • Mistrust leads to frustration, suspicion, withdrawal, and lack of confidence • .
  62. 62. Stage 2. Autonomy vs. Shame. Toddler. 1.5 – 3 years • . The child (toddler ) learns about the world around. Parents’ patience and encouragement helps foster autonomy in the child. Toddler’s learns basic skills – to eat, to dress, to maintain personal hygiene Develops sense of autonomy – can do things by himself. If not encouraged or shamed or not allowed to do things may develop lack of self-confidence
  63. 63. Stage 3. Initiative vs. Guilt. Pres- school: 3 - 5 years. • The child develops more skills, but not all goes to plan… • The child wants to begin and complete his own actions for a purpose. • Guilt is a confusing new emotion.
  64. 64. Stage 5. Ego Identity vs. Role Confusion. Teenagers: 13 – 18 years. • Transition into adulthood. Finding who you are. • Fitting in with peers. • Experimentation can lead to role confusion.
  65. 65. Stage 6. Intimacy vs. Isolation. Young adulthood: 18 - 40 years • Forming intimate relationships with others, building family, having children of one’s own. • Reciprocal relationships • Commitment, responsibility
  66. 66. Adolescence: 13- 18 years • Marks the transition from childhood to adulthood. • Bridge between childhood and adulthood.
  67. 67. Changes in Adolescence: becoming an adult • Biological • Changes in body shape, appearance, and function: hormones kick in... • Psychological • Changes in the way of thinking about oneself and the ability to think about the world. • Social • How one relates to families, other young people and the outside world.
  68. 68. Central concern during adolescence • Search for Identity. • Identity Crisis: desire to fit in with peers; denial of traditional values, search for purpose in life…
  69. 69. Most important psychological and psychosocial changes in adolescens • Emergence of abstract thinking • The growing ability of absorbing the perspectives or viewpoints of others • An increased ability of introspection • The development of personal and sexual identity • The establishment of system of values • Increasing autonomy from family and more personal independence • Greater importance of peer relationships • Emergence of skills and coping strategies to overcome problems and crises.
  70. 70. Primary Social Tasks Adolescents must Accomplish • To standout: to develop an identity and pursue autonomy • To fit in: to find comfortable affiliations and gain acceptance from peers. • To measure up: to develop competence and find ways to achieve. • To take hold: to make commitments to particular goals, activities, and beliefs.
  71. 71. Psychosocial Development in Young Adults (18 -40 years) • Interests broaden into community and world affairs. • Chooses, prepares for and practices a career. • Becomes independent of parents. • Adjusts to marriage or other intimate love relationship. • Childbearing and child rearing are major concerns of those who have children. • Is continually adjusting to stress and satisfaction of work, spouse, parents, and children. • Establishes a personal set of values and formulates a meaningful philosophy of life. • Need for ability to cope with change. • Period of reaching psychosocial maturity.
  72. 72. PSYCHOSOCIAL HEALTH • Encompasses the mental, emotional, social & spiritual dimensions of health. • It is the result of a complex interaction between a person’s history and his or her thoughts about and interpretations of the past and what it means to the present.
  73. 73. Traits of a psychosocially healthy personality • Extroversion: the ability to adapt to a social situation and demonstrate assertiveness as well as power or interpersonal involvement. • Agreeableness: the ability to conform, be likable, and demonstrate friendly compliance as well as love. • Openness to experience: the willingness to demonstrate curiosity and independence (also referred to as inquiring intellect) • Emotional stability: the ability to maintain social control. • Conscientiousness: the qualities of being dependable and demonstrating self-control, discipline, and need to achieve • Resiliency: the ability to adapt to change and stressful events in healthy and flexible ways.
  74. 74. Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • Psychologists have long argued that before one can achieve any of the abovementioned characteristics of psychologically and social healthy people, basic needs must be met first
  75. 75. MENTAL HEALTH (The Thinking You) • The successful performance of mental function and results in productive activities, fulfilling relationships, and the ability to cope with life’s challenges.
  76. 76. FACTORS AFFECTING PSYCHOSOCIAL HEALTH • Personality • Unique mix of characteristics that distinguish you from others. • It determines how we react to challenges of life, interpret our feelings, and resolve our conflicts.
  77. 77. Traits of a psychosocially healthy personality • Extroversion