Health and Wellness
Summary of the Course
National Health Agenda 2021 of the UAE:
Part of a seven-year initiative launched by His Highness Shaikh
Mohammad Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, the UAE Prime Minister and
Ruler of Dubai.
Major key performance indicators have been identified to meet the NHA:
Cardiovascular disease: from 211/100,000 deaths to 158.2/100,000
(reduction by 25%)
Diabetes: current statistics is 19% of emiratis have DM II; reduction to
16.3% by 2021
Average Healthy Life Expectancy: current (WHO) is 67 years; Target in
the UAE is to increase to 73 years.
Cancer: Current is 78 deaths/100,000 population; target is 54.2 deaths
/100,000 or reduction by 18%
Prevalence of Using Tobacco-products: current (WHO) 19% men and 2%
women are smokers; target is to reduce rates by 15%, i.e., 16% in men
and 1.7% in women.
Childhood obesity: Current (WHO, 2014) 14.4% of children in the UAE
were found to be obese; target is to reduce to 12% (reduction by 17%)
• The overall condition of a persons
body or mind and the presence or
absence of illness or injury.
• What influences HEALTH:
genes, age, family history, risk factors,
What is wellness?
• Wellness is optimal health and vitality
encompassing the six dimensions of well-being
• (compare this to health which is just absence of
• Making conscious decisions to control risk factors.
E.g.: Stop smoking to prevent lung cancer
PHYSICAL WELLNESS Overall body’s condition, absence
of disease , fitness level and
ability to care for yourself.
EMOTIONAL WELLNESS Ability to understand and deal
with your feelings.
INTELLECTUAL WELLNESS Seeking out new experiences and
INTERPERSONAL WELLNESS Ability to develop and maintain
satisfying and supportive
SPIRITUAL WELLNESS To possess a set of guiding beliefs,
principles or values that give
meaning and purpose for your life
ENVIRONMENTAL WELLNESS Livability of your surroundings
OCCUPATIONAL WELLNESS Level of happiness and
fulfillment you get through work
What kind of qualities and behaviors are
associated with high wellness
• Physical Health :eating well, exercising, going to
doctor regularly, recognizing signs of disease….
• Emotional : Self esteem, trust, understanding others
and accepting owns feeling, optimism…
• Intellectual: openness to new ideas, capacity to
• Interpersonal : ability to have support from friends,
communicate with friends and family
• Communication skills, having intimate relationships.
• Spiritual; capacity to love, have compassion and
• Environmental: Having abundant clean resources,
• Occupational: Enjoyable work, job satisfaction,
recognition and acknowledgement from managers
Behaviors that Contribute to
These are some behaviors that contribute
to physical wellness:
1) Be physically active
2) Choose a healthy diet
3) Maintain a healthy body weight
4) Manage stress
5) Avoid tobacco (including sheesha), drug,
6) Protect yourself from diseases and injury.
7) Maintain meaningful relationships.
Choose a Healthy Diet
To have a healthy diet you must eat a balanced diet.
That means you must eat a diet with the right amounts of each type
of food and food groups.
Your diet should contain:
• Complex carbohydrates (bread, rice, pasta, potatoes, etc)
• Fruits and Vegetables
• Milk or milk products
• Proteins (meat, poultry, fish, nuts, lentils)
• Only a small amount of added fats/oils and sugars.
Ideally, 50-60% of body energy needs SHOULD come
complex carbohydrates – wholemeal bread, pasta,
Maintain a Healthy Body Weight:
BMI (Body Mass Index) should be between 18
When BMI is between 25 and 30 the person
When BRMI is over 30 the person is obese
BMI = weight in kilograms
height in meters²
Many people do not cope properly with stress in
You can reduce stress through:
- Relaxation/meditation techniques
- Talking about problems with friends or relatives.
- Talking about problems with a health
Develop Meaningful Relationships
If you develop healthy relationships with family,
friends, husband or wife, it helps you to feel
happier and can reduce stress in your life.
Reducing stress helps to reduce the chance of
sickness and high blood pressure.
• Risk factor: a condition that causes
increased chance of disease or
• Infectious disease : can spread from person to
person caused by bacteria or
• Chronic disease : a disease that develops and
continues over a long period
• Life style choice: a conscious behavior that can
increase or decrease chances
Risk factors :
your lifestyle choices, e.g. sun exposure, alcohol intake,
healthy/unhealthy food; sedentary/active lifestyle
Uncontrollable: Family history
• Physical fitness:
A set of physical attributes that
allow the body to respond or adapt to the
demands and stress of physical effort.
• Sedentary life style :
Physically inactive, literally, sitting.
What are the killers diseases today?
Life style diseases
• 1. Heart disease
• 2. Cancer
• 3. Stroke
Leading cause of death in the world – heart disease.
Connected to life style
Five leading causes of Death in
UAE(Gulf News, 28 August 2016)
1. Obesity. The obesity rate is about double of the world average;
About 19% Emiratis have diabetes. Type 2 diabetes — often linked to factors
such as obesity and a sedentary lifestyle — accounts for about 90 per cent
of cases worldwide.
3. Cardiovascular diseases
Diabetes, hypertension, smoking, high cholesterol, obesity and a family
history of cardiovascular disease are all risk factors.
Leading causes of death in the UAE
• 4. Cancer
• 4 leading cancers in UAE: breast, colorectal, lung and cervical cancer.
• According to Health Authority Abu Dhabi (HAAD) statistics for 2014 — the
most recent figures available — women accounted for 45 per cent of all
cancer-related deaths, with breast cancer being the third most common
cancer-related deaths for both genders, behind lung and blood cancers.
• According to HAAD, tobacco use is the most important risk factor for cancer,
causing 22 per cent of global cancer deaths and 71 per cent of worldwide
lung cancer deaths.
• 5. Mental health
• Mental health has been identified as a top priority, yet stigma lingers for
those who experience symptoms of depression or other psychological
Risk factors for these diseases
• Diet (too much fat, meat and junk food, not
enough veg and fruit)
• Not doing exercise (sedentary lifestyle)
CARDIOVASCULAR (cardiorespiratory) fitness
Is the ability to perform prolonged, large-muscle,
aerobic (dynamic) exercise at a moderate to high
level of intensity. It depends on things like:
1. How well your heart can pump blood to the
2. How well your lungs deliver oxygen to your blood
3. How well your body uses its fuel.
AN EXAMPLE OF CARDIOVASCULAR fitness IS:
MUSCULAR ENDURANCE -
• The ability of the muscle to remain contracted or to
contract repeatedly (over and over again) for a long period
• It is very important for good posture and for preventing
• Depends on things such as:
1. the size of the cells in your muscles
2. How well your muscles store fuel
3. How well blood is supplied to your muscles.
AN EXAMPLE OF MUSCULAR ENDURANCE IS:
• The amount of force a muscle can produce with a single
• We need strong muscles for everyday activities!
• Strength depends on:
1. the size of our muscles cells
2. How well our nerves activate our muscles cells.
AN EXAMPLE OF MUSCULAR STRENGTH IS:
WEIGHT LIFTING (STRENGTH)
The Cardiovascular System
• Also called Circulatory system
• Its main role is to circulate gases (Oxygen and Carbon
Dioxide), nutrients, and waste materials
• Three organs:
• Blood vessels
The Human Heart
• The pumping organ
• Muscular organ (cardiac
• Contracts involuntarily
• About the size of your
• The conducting system (this is
where the blood passes
through to supply oxygen,
nutrients and collect waste)
• Three types:
• Arteries: bring blood away from
the heart. Carries blood rich in
• Veins: bring blood toward the
heart. Carries blood that
contains very little oxygen.
• Capillaries: joins arteries to
veins. Where nutrients, gases
and wastes are exchanged
between the blood and body
• The delivery organ
• Carries with it gases,
nutrients, and wastes
• 4 to 6 liters
• Functions also for body
defense (white blood
cells), blood clotting
System and Exercise
The cardiovascular system serves five important
functions (1) during exercise:
1) Delivers oxygen to working muscles
2) Oxygenates blood by returning it to the lungs
3) Transports heat (a by-product of activity) from
the core to the skin
4) Delivers nutrients and fuel to active tissues
5) Transports hormones
The Skeleton (skeleton system)
• What the skeleton does?
• The skeleton is the basic framework of the body. It has four
• SHAPE AND SUPPORT
• BLOOD PRODUCTION
SHAPE AND SUPPORT - the skeleton provides us with our shape,
without it our body would have no framework to support itself
on. The skeleton also
gives the body its size and in some cases can influence
MOVEMENT - some of the bones of the body are held
together by freely moveable joints. This means you are able
to bend your body and move about.
PROTECTION - The skeleton also protects the vital soft
tissue organs of the body. The most important are:
• the rib cage - protects the heart and the lungs
• the pelvic girdle - protects the abdomen
• the spinal column chord - protects the spinal chord
• the skull - protects the brain.
• BLOOD PRODUCTION - blood is made in the bone marrow,
particularly in the marrow of the long bones of the body.
Blood contains both red and white blood cells. The red
blood cells carry oxygen to muscles and the white blood
cells fight infection in the body.
Fitness Program Components
• Warm up and Stretch
• Prepare body for exercise and provide a transition
from rest to physical activity
• 5-minute Brisk walk as warm-up
• 5-10 minutes stretching
• Resistance Training
• Consider your age, fitness level, and personal goal
• Done in set, or a single series of multiple resistance
using the same resistance
• For men and women under 50, one set of eight to
ten different exercises 2 to 3 days per week.
• Use lighter weights in the beginning to allow 10 to
• Allow one day rest and recovery in between
Fitness – Related Injury
• Traumatic injuries: injuries that are
accidental and occur suddenly and
• Overuse injuries: injuries that result from
the cumulative effects of day-after-day
stresses placed on tendons, muscles and
• Runner’s knee
• Shin splints
• Plantar Fascitis
• Tennis elbow
• Essential nutrients
• Are those nutrients that
a person must obtain
from food because the
body cannot produce
them in large enough
Rules for identifying an
It must have a biological
function in the body.
If it is removed from the diet it
has a negative effect on one or
more biological functions.
If it is replaced in the diet it will
restore the biological functions
for which it is required.
Nutrients have several uses in the body:
Provide materials for building,
maintaining and repairing body
Provide factors that regulate chemical reactions in the
Uses of Nutrients
The body is made up of:
- 60% water.
- 23 to 31% fat for young women.
- 9 – 17% carbohydrates, proteins, minerals, vitamins
for young women.
Our diets provide these materials that
make up the body.
Nutrients in the diet can be classified as:
These include carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
They release energy when broken down by the body.
Vitamins, Minerals and Water:
Do not provide energy for the body
Types of Nutrients
The energy in food is measured
in calories or kilocalories.
A calorie is the amount of
heat needed to raise 1g
water by 1o C
In books or magazines when
the term calorie is used it
really means kilocalorie
“C” = 1 kilocalorie = 1,000
• CHO--- made of carbons, oxygen and hydrogen; simple or
complex based on the number of sugar molecules present; 45-
55% of total calories
• Major source of energy (glucose). 1 g of carbohydrate = 4 calorie
• Provides fibre
• Changed to protein- used to make tissues
• Excess is stored as fat, produce heat
• Sources: bread & cereal; pasta & rice; potato, lima beans, corn;
dried beans and peas; fruit, vegetables & milk; sugar, syrup,
jelly, jam, honey
• Are starches.
• Provide vitamins, minerals and
fiber as well as carbohydrates.
• Include dry beans, starchy
vegetables like potatoes, corn,
and peas; rice, pasta, oatmeal;
bread and cereal.
Plant materials that are
completely by the
Keeps the digestive
Reduces the risk of
cancer and heart
1 g of fibre = 1.5
Sources of Fiber:
Most Fruit and Vegetables
– both dry and fresh;
Whole wheat and bran;
Pulses – peas and beans
Saturated and Unsaturated Fats
• We hear the term saturated fats and
unsaturated fats in the media.
• Saturated fats ( BAD) can raise blood cholesterol
(animal fat and butter are saturated fats). These can
clog up the arteries.
• Many (but not all) oils are partly or mostly
unsaturated( GOOD) so are better for us.
Examples: Fish Oil (omega 3 and 6); olive oil.
Proteins are made up amino acids which contain
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and also nitrogen.
Amino acids are small molecules which are joined
together by bonds to make proteins.
The body contains 20 amino acids.
The body makes some vitamins (Vit D and K) but most
vitamins come from food.
Kinds of vitamins:
• Vit A: prevents night blindness, skin diseases
• Vit D: increases Ca and P absorption
(helps in building and repairing bone).
• Vit E: increase Fe absorption
• Vit K: blood clotting
Vitamin A is needed for night vision.
What other foods
Vitamin C is needed for the maintenance of
What other foods
provide Vitamin C?
Answer: all green
vegetables – spinach,
broccoli, green cabbage
Action of vitamins:
- Vitamins act by helping chemical reactions to occur
or to happen faster.
- They do not provide energy for the body but they
help the body to release energy from other
Minerals are inorganic compounds which means
that they do not contain carbon.
• Macrominerals (minerals that are found in amounts
larger than 5 grams):
Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cl
• Trace minerals (minerals needed in daily quantities of less
than 100 mg)
Fe, Cu, Se, I, Mn, Mo, Zn, Cr, F
• The human body is made up of about 63% water.
• Need 2.5 to 3 litres of water/day, but drink only about 2.0
to 2.5 litres.
• Where do we get the rest??
The foods we eat contain water.
For example lettuce is 95% water.
Functions of water
It acts as a solvent.
Transports food substances to cells.
Regulates temperature and metabolic
(rate of chemical reactions in body).
FOOD Pyramid: how much
and which foods to eat? Ideally 50-60% of energy should come
from complex carbohydrates
• Suffering health consequences –
• Deficiency diseases
• Afflictions of affluence
Not meeting nutritional needs in
younger/older years leads to:
• Nutrition is one of the key factors in ensuring
normal fetal development, and
protecting the health of the
• Extra nutrients and energy are needed:
• * for fetal growth and development
• * to support the changes in the mother that
• help support the pregnancy.
Increased nutrient needs:
Increased energy needs:
Approximately 300kcal extra needed in 2nd and 3rd
Protein intake is especially important, and should be at
Erikson’s Psychosocial Development theory:
personal development in 8 stages
Stage 1. Trust vs. Mistrust.
Baby up to 1.5 years
• Baby (infant) basic needs are
met by parents.
• If baby gets attention and
love then he/she will trust
• If baby is neglected and
mistreated a sense of
mistrust will result.
• Mistrust leads to frustration,
suspicion, withdrawal, and
lack of confidence
Stage 2. Autonomy vs. Shame.
Toddler. 1.5 – 3 years
The child (toddler ) learns about the world
Parents’ patience and encouragement helps
foster autonomy in the child.
Toddler’s learns basic skills – to eat, to
dress, to maintain personal hygiene
Develops sense of autonomy – can do
things by himself.
If not encouraged or shamed or not
allowed to do things may develop lack of
Stage 3. Initiative vs. Guilt. Pres-
school: 3 - 5 years.
• The child develops more skills, but
not all goes to plan…
• The child wants to begin and
complete his own actions for a
• Guilt is a confusing new emotion.
Stage 5. Ego Identity vs. Role
Confusion. Teenagers: 13 – 18
• Transition into
adulthood. Finding who
• Fitting in with peers.
• Experimentation can lead
to role confusion.
Stage 6. Intimacy vs. Isolation.
Young adulthood: 18 - 40 years
• Forming intimate
relationships with others,
building family, having
children of one’s own.
• Reciprocal relationships
• Commitment, responsibility
Adolescence: 13- 18 years
• Marks the transition from
childhood to adulthood.
• Bridge between childhood
Changes in Adolescence:
becoming an adult
• Changes in body shape, appearance, and
function: hormones kick in...
• Changes in the way of thinking about oneself
and the ability to think about the world.
• How one relates to families, other young
people and the outside world.
Central concern during
• Search for Identity.
• Identity Crisis: desire to fit in with peers;
denial of traditional values, search for purpose
Most important psychological
and psychosocial changes in
• Emergence of abstract thinking
• The growing ability of absorbing the perspectives or
viewpoints of others
• An increased ability of introspection
• The development of personal and sexual identity
• The establishment of system of values
• Increasing autonomy from family and more personal
• Greater importance of peer relationships
• Emergence of skills and coping strategies to overcome
problems and crises.
Primary Social Tasks Adolescents
• To standout: to develop an identity and pursue
• To fit in: to find comfortable affiliations and
gain acceptance from peers.
• To measure up: to develop competence and find
ways to achieve.
• To take hold: to make commitments to
particular goals, activities, and beliefs.
Psychosocial Development in
Young Adults (18 -40 years)
• Interests broaden into community and world affairs.
• Chooses, prepares for and practices a career.
• Becomes independent of parents.
• Adjusts to marriage or other intimate love relationship.
• Childbearing and child rearing are major concerns of
those who have children.
• Is continually adjusting to stress and satisfaction of
work, spouse, parents, and children.
• Establishes a personal set of values and formulates a
meaningful philosophy of life.
• Need for ability to cope with change.
• Period of reaching psychosocial maturity.
• Encompasses the mental, emotional, social &
spiritual dimensions of health.
• It is the result of a complex interaction between
a person’s history and his or her thoughts about
and interpretations of the past and what it
means to the present.
Traits of a psychosocially healthy personality
• Extroversion: the ability to adapt to a
social situation and demonstrate
assertiveness as well as power or
• Agreeableness: the ability to conform,
be likable, and demonstrate friendly
compliance as well as love.
• Openness to experience: the
willingness to demonstrate curiosity
and independence (also referred to as
• Emotional stability: the ability to
maintain social control.
• Conscientiousness: the qualities of
being dependable and demonstrating
self-control, discipline, and need to
• Resiliency: the ability to adapt to
change and stressful events in healthy
and flexible ways.
Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
• Psychologists have long
argued that before one can
achieve any of the
psychologically and social
healthy people, basic needs
must be met first
MENTAL HEALTH (The Thinking
• The successful
performance of mental
function and results in
and the ability to cope
with life’s challenges.
FACTORS AFFECTING PSYCHOSOCIAL HEALTH
• Unique mix of characteristics
that distinguish you from
• It determines how we react to
challenges of life, interpret our
feelings, and resolve our
Traits of a psychosocially healthy personality
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