O slideshow foi denunciado.
Seu SlideShare está sendo baixado. ×

Formulationofproblem-.pptx

Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Próximos SlideShares
Nature and Scope of PA.pptx
Nature and Scope of PA.pptx
Carregando em…3
×

Confira estes a seguir

1 de 23 Anúncio
Anúncio

Mais Conteúdo rRelacionado

Mais recentes (20)

Anúncio

Formulationofproblem-.pptx

  1. 1. Over view  Research Problem – Meaning & Definition, Components  Sources of Problems  Criteria of Selection  Steps in problem identification  Do’s and Don’t in Selecting the Problem  Formulation of a Problem  Importance & Steps in formulation
  2. 2. Research Problem  A research problem is a question that a researcher wants to answer, or a problem that a researcher wants to solve.  A research problem is the situation that causes the researcher to feel apprehensive, confused and ill at ease. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon2008
  3. 3.  Identification & Formulation of research problem is a first step in the research process.  It is believed that most of the good research studies needs lot of time for selection of a research problem. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
  4. 4. RESEARCH PROBLEM- DEFINITION A problem is an interrogative sentence or statement that asks what relation exists between two or more variables. – Kerlinger Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
  5. 5. COMPONENTS OF RESEARCH PROBLEM  There must be an individual or a group which has some difficulty.  There must be some objective(s) to be attained at.If one wants nothing,one cannot have a problem.  There must be alternative means (or the courses of action) for attaining the objectives one wish to attain.This means that there must be at least two means available to a researcher for if he has no choice of means,he cannot have a problem.  There must remain some doubt in the mind of a researcher with regard to the selection of alternatives.This means that research must answer the question concerning the relative efficency of the possible alternatives.  There must be some environment to which the difficulty pertains.
  6. 6. SOURCES OF PROBLEM & CRITERIA OF SELECTION
  7. 7. Steps in Problem Identification  Statement of the problem in general way  Understanding the nature of the problem  Surveying the available literature  Developing the ideas through discussions  Rephrasing the research problem into a working proposition.
  8. 8.  Define the problem in general way Ex: Does negative news interest people more than positive news?  Narrow it down by rethinking over the problem. (Consider feasibility of problem) Ex: Does negative news such as robbery, corruption interest people more than positive news like country economic growth ?  How to define in general way? Study the related subject thoroughly Do preliminary survey or pilot survey
  9. 9. (b) Understanding the nature of the problem  Best way to understand the problem is through discussion.  Discussion with the people who has good knowledge about that problem.
  10. 10. (c) Surveying the available literature Survey all the research which are already undertaken in related problem. It helps to :  Narrow down the problem  To identify research gaps  Gives new ideas in related area  Helps for research design
  11. 11. (D) DEVELOPING THEIDEAS THROUGH DISCUSSIONS  Discussion always produces useful information.  Various new ideas can be developed through such an exercise.  Researcher must discuss his/her problem with his/ her colleagues and others who have enough experience in the same area or in working on similar problems. This is known as experience survey.
  12. 12.  Rephrase the research problem in to operational term.  Initial research question: Why is productivity in Japan so much higher than in India?  After, the problem has understood, available literature has taken place and discussion over the problem has taken place, the question has rephrased.  Rephrased Research question: What factors were responsible for the higher labour productivity of Japan’s manufacturing industries during the decade 1971 to 1980 relative to India’s manufacturing industries?
  13. 13. Do’s and Don’t in Selecting the Problem  Subject which is overdone should not be normally chosen, for it will be a difficult task to throw any new light in such a case.  Controversial subject should not become the choice of an average researcher.  Research Question should be clear. Unclear: Why are social networking sites harmful? Clear: How are online users experiencing or addressing networking sites as privacy issues on such social MySpace and Facebook? ,Who Which social networking site? (My space and Facebook) Type of harm (privacy issues) gets harm? (users)
  14. 14.  Research Question should be focused. Unfocused: What is the effect on the environment from global warming? Focused: How is glacial melting affecting penguins in Antarctica? specific cause (glacial melting) specific place (Antarctica) specific group affected (Penguin)
  15. 15.  The selection of a problem must be preceded by a preliminary study (not necessary if it is already done ) when the field of inquiry is relatively new and does not have available a set of well developed techniques, a brief feasibility study must always be undertaken.  Research Question should be appropriately complex. Too simple: How are doctors addressing diabetes in the India? Appropriately Complex: What are common traits of those suffering from diabetes in India, and how can these commonalities prevention of the be used to aid the medical community in disease? Simple question (if looked up online, get answered immediately. No role of analysis) Complex one require significant investigation and evaluation.
  16. 16. Formulation of a Problem
  17. 17. Formulation means translating and transforming the selected research problem/topic into a scientifically researchable question. It is the demarcation of a problem area within a certain context involving the: WHO WHAT WHERE WHEN and the WHY of the problem situation
  18. 18. A problem well defined is a problem half solved ill defined problem may create hurdleslike:  Whatdataare to be collected?  Whatcharacteristics of dataare relevantand need to be studied?  What relationsare to beexplored.  What techniquesare to be used for the purpose?
  19. 19. WHY IS A GOOD PROBLEM FORMULATION IMPORTANT?  Formulating a Problem formulation is the first and most important step of a research process.  The problem formulation is like an identification of a destination before undertaking a journey.  The research problem serves as a foundation of a research study; like a building and its foundation.  If it is well formulated, you can expect a good study to follow.
  20. 20. Steps in problem formulation  DevelopingTitle  Building a conceptual model  Defining the Objective of thestudy  Setting investigativeQuestions  Formulation of Hypotheses  Operational definition ofConcepts  Delimiting the scope of theStudy.
  21. 21.  Research Problem – Meaning & Definition, Components  Sources of Problems  Criteria of Selection  Steps in problem identification  Do’s and Don’t in Selecting the Problem  Formulation of a Problem  Importance & Steps in formulation

×