Body language is an important aspect of presentation.A positive body language promotes confidence and courage of the presenter.This project focuses on the steps to follow to deliver an effective presentation.
2. RAGHU ENGINEERING COLLEGE
(Approved by AICTE, New Delhi and Affiliated to JNTU, Kakinada)
DAKAMARRI (Visakhapatnam Dt.)
This is to certify that the project work entitled “BODY
LANGUAGE” is the bonafide work of RAMANUJA.SVL(582),
R.DHANUNJAI(584), R.POOJA(585), SAI AKHILESH.G(586),
S.VINDHYA(587), VENKATA RAMANA(588) of B.Tech 1st
COMPUTER SCIENCE ENGINEERING During the academic
Prof. M.Bhanu Kumari
Raghu Engineering College
3. BATCH DETAILS
Ramanuja S.V.L. :- 13981A0582
R.Chaitanya :- 13981A058
R.Dhanunjai :- 13981A0584
R.Pooja :- 13981A0585
Sai Akhilesh.G :- 13981A0586
S.Vindhya :- 13981A0587
S.Venkata Ramana:- 13981A0588
I convey my sincere thanks to our project
guide Professor. Mrs.K.Bhanu Kumari Department of H&S,
Raghu Engineering College, Visakhapatnam for her guidance
and valuable suggestions given to us throughout the
project work “BODY LANGUAGE”.
I would like to thank all my friends and my
parents for their support and encouragement throughout
the project work.
5. TOPIC PAGE NO.
Body Language as a language
Types of body language 3
The Vocabulary of body language
Positive body language 4
Negative body language 6
Role of Eyes in body language
How the eyes communicate 9
Eye Contact 9
Face the human art object
Facial Expressions 11
Smile- Universal Welcome 12
Aspects of body language
Body movements 16
Appearance & Clothing 20
7. Body Language as a Language
Body language refers to various forms of NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION, wherein a
person may reveal clues as to some unspoken intention or feeling through their
physical behavior. These behaviors can include POSTURE, GESTURES, FACIAL EXPRESSIONS,
and EYE MOVEMENTS. Body language also varies depending on the culture. There are a
set of universally recognized gestures but many are influenced by our social settings.
8. Body language is typically subconscious behaviour, and is therefore considered
distinct from sign language, which is a fully conscious and intentional act of
Body language may provide clues as to the attitude or state of mind of a person. For
example, it may indicate aggression, attentiveness, boredom, a relaxed
state, pleasure, amusement, and intoxication.
Each person's body language is a bit different. Keep in mind that certain body
language signals might mean something to one person; and they might mean
something entirely different to someone else. And body language differs culturally,
which adds to the soup.
Body language is the reason why selling face-to-face has a huge advantage over
selling by phone Body language can tell a lot about how you feel and what you are
thinking. Body language is also a way of communication. There are estimates saying
that 90 percent of all information given to others is communicated through body
Our body language will give others an impression of ourselves or show our
emotions. Body language can tell a lot about how you feel and what you are thinking.
Body language is also a way of communication.
“If actions speak louder than words, then body language is
9. According to Albert Mehrabian(1971),one of the foremost experts in non-verbal
communication ,the visual depicts the non-verbal behaviour while speaking.
Mehrabian noted that if the message was inconsistent the impact would be as
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VVIISSUUAALL --- 55% [NNOONN--VVEERRBBAALL PPHHYYSSIICCAALL BBEEHHAAVVIIOOUURR]
The visual is the most controllable yet and yet perhaps the most unconscious
element of message from sender to receiver. If the message is consistent then all
three elements combine effectively. If there is excitement and enthusiasm in the
voice, correlated with an energetic, lively face and body that exudes confidence and
conviction of the message.
Types of Body Language
VOLUNTARY BODY LANGUAGE:-
This is less commonly discussed because it seems unproblematic: it
refers to movement, gestures and poses intentionally made by the person (smiling,
imitating actions) and generally making movements with full or partial intention of
making them and a realization of what they communicate.
INVOLUNTARY BODY LANGUAGE:-
Facial expressions are often a form of involuntary body language and a means of one
to read the expression –and so expressions of another.
10. The Vocabulary Of Body Language
Body language, unlike spoken language, is inexact; so you have to be careful about
you interpret it. A certain movement or facial expression may be quite meaningful, or
may mean nothing at all. As a starting point, the following sections provide you with
some common body language terms and their generally-accepted meanings.
POSITIVE BODY LANGUAGE:-
Positive body language is generally quite reliable as an indicator of a person's
It signals interest in the other person and in the
Relaxed posture: - Comfortably seated, relaxed
Breathing, no visible stiffness or abrupt movements.
These indicate no major barriers to communication.
Arms relaxed - Uncrossed arms and hands open
(Palms up or otherwise visible to the
Other person) are signs of openness.
11. Good eye contact - Looking in the other person's Eyes,
Particularly when they are speaking, indicates interest in that
person. Proper eye contact involves Looking away occasionally to
Taking notes - Shows interest and involvement,
Particularly if notes are on what the
other person is saying.
Smiling/adding humor - This is a very positive sign.
It signals a warm personal relationship.
Leaning closer - Reducing the distance between two
people, particularly when the other person is speaking.
Indicates interest is up and barriers are down.
12. Gesturing warmly - Talking with hands, particularly
with palms open, indicates involvement in the
conversation and openness to the other person. For all
of these positive gestures, moderation is the rule.
When they are exaggerated, they can become more
negative than positive.
NEGATIVE BODY LANGUAGE:-
Negative body language is somewhat less reliable as an indicator of the person's
comfort with the current conversation than positive body language. Actions that are
generally considered negative may just be a matter of comfort for this person, may
indicate that the person is tired, or may result from other matters that are weighing
on this person's mind.
Body tense - Stiffness, wrinkled brow, jerky body motion,
hands clasped in front or palms down on the table. These
can indicate concern with the topic or dealing with the
Arms folded in front - Creates a barrier; can express
Resistance to what is being said.
13. Hand on face - A hand over one's mouth is a closed
gesture. Leaning on one's elbow with the chin in the
hand can communicate boredom.
Fidgeting - Moving around a lot, playing with things
and drumming fingers are usually a sign of boredom,
nervousness or impatience.
Yawning - Boredom, confusion. The other person is talking
too much or in too much technical detail.
Impatience - Trying to interrupt what the other person is saying,
opening one's mouth frequently as if to speak.
Distraction - Eyes flicking about, blank stares, flipping through literature without
really reading it, looking at others in the office, looking at the person's body or
Leaning away - Avoiding moving closer, even when something is handed to the
person, is strongly negative.
Negative facial expressions - These include shaking head, eyes narrowed,
scowling and frowning.
14. ROLE OF EYES IN BODY LANGUAGE:-
The eyes are a part of the face but on account of their critical role in non-verbal
communication they merit special treatment. According to a renowned person
Emerson the eyes converse as much as their tongues, the ocular dialect needs no
dictionary but is understood the world over.
Description of eye’s in Whiteside’s words:-
“The Windows of your soul……
And the mirrors of your heart…..
And the gauges showing fleeting feelings and changes”
Careful observation of a person’s eyes we can deduce his CHARACTER and
ATTITUDE. The eyes can convey messages of intended as well as unintended ones.
The eyes can even Signal:-
Need for approval
A plea for mercy
Attempts to fake
A person’s true mood
State of health
One who maintains direct eye contact with another displays CONFIDENCE and
Avoiding eye contact by looking away displays DISHONESTY.
15. How The Eyes Communicate…..
Analyzing the mass of the data on the eyes there are three ways in which the eyes
are used to communicate:-
Dominance v/s Submission
Involvement v/s Detachment &
Positive v/s Negative Attitude
The study of the eyes will include different aspects of ‘Gaze’ – Pupil Expansion,
looking while listening, Looking while Talking, Mutual Gaze, Length of Gaze, and
Amount of eye opening and so on.
In brief Eye Contact
Conveys a large variety of non-verbal messages to our verbal communication.
Establishes our relationship with the other person.
16. Helps us keep our mind on the message.
Involves us in the emotional and the factual content of what we are saying.
Encourages the other to continue interacting with us.
Reflects our self-confidence.
It reveals other personality Traits.
Moreover eyes express the numerous emotional elements like Anger, Curiosity,
Disappointment, Joy, Love, Pride, Respect, Sadness, Satisfaction, Shock,
Strength, Surprise and Warmth.
In course of eye contact we need to take the following measures:-
If you have trouble looking someone in the eye, simply focus at something on
his or her face.
When Speaking to a group, look at everyone.
Look at key decision-makers or those who hold power.
Look at reactive listeners.
Don’t look at the floor, scripts, or anything that causes you to tilt your head
away from the receiver.
Don’t look at bad listeners who may distract you.
17. “FACE”-THE HUMAN ART OBJECT:-
The Face is the most significant --- and the most photographed---part of the human
body. Face defines a person’s identity. The face 'evolves' with the growth of a person
from infancy, through adolescence, middle age, and old age. The face has been
called 'THE ORGAN OF EMOTION' because it provides vital clues by reacting in
fractions of a second, often unconsciously, revealing attitudes, moods, opinions a
person would rather keep under wraps.
It has been said that:
“Emotionally, the face is mightier than the word”
The face is also the most expressive part of the body. In our daily interaction with
people it is the face that first draws our attention, since it is directly observable.
In our life our facial signals are all too fleeting; they appear and disappear, in a fifth
of a second. The flashes of facial signals are generally spontaneous reactions which
a person finds difficult to hide. It is for this very reason that they are so quick and
instinctive, that they reflect one's true feelings, which may or may not match with
what a person is saying.
Different kinds of Facial Expressions we go
There are number of specific features,
connected with our facial expressions which
are evidenced in our face while we
communicate for instance, we FORROW our
forehead when we are concerned, angry;
RAISE our eyebrows to express astonishment;
FLARE our nostrils while interacting with
someone with whom we are very upset.
18. Facial expressions are a vital part of non-verbal communication. They serve as ' and
necessary cues to those we communicate with. We often favor the company of
people who enthusiastic and lively in their expressions and movements. One reason
for this may be that persons who are lively keep men. Easily bored or inattentive;
their body language and non-verbal communication adds visual appeal to the
Facial expressions which reveal different messages:-
Indicate our respect for others.
Reflect our interest in someone or something.
Show our curiosity in multifarious subjects.
Indicate our enthusiasm for life.
Transmit our positive attitude about people and things.
Convey our ambition as professionals.
Express our compassion for co-workers, family and friends.
Reveal the kind of personality we possess.
Communicate our ability to respond emotionally.
We must also take special care to create a smiling face. The smile has nothing
mysterious about it, but it does have an effect. It is physically caused by muscles,
which can be exercised.
The best way to practice smiling is not by moving your lips into a smile but by raising
your cheekbones. Put muscle into your smile. Remember, a true smile must come
from within; a false one does not work. When we practice and exercise the 'smile
muscle', we are like an athlete who practices and trains his muscles so that they can
be readily used in, response to the impetus of a real situation.
19. Categories of smile:-
Simple smile: - This is when the teeth are not exposed. We generally wear the
simple smile when we are watching something interesting or pleasant but are not
physically involved in the action. We smile to ourselves.
Upper smile: -This smile exposes the upper set of teeth. It is a friendly smile, usually
when we greet someone. It is accompanied by eye contact.
Broad smile: - This smile exposes both sets of teeth, and is usually accompanied by
laughter, often without eye contact.
Characteristics of a Smile
A smile costs nothing, but gives much. It enriches
those Who receive, without making poorer those who
A smile creates happiness in the home, fosters
goodwill in business, countersign of friendship,
It brings rest to the weary, cheer to the discouraged,
sunshine to the s nature's best antidote for trouble.
A gesture is the verbal or non-verbal body movement used to express or
emphasize an idea, an EMOTION, or a STATE OF MIND.
Gesture is defined as
“Visible bodily action by which meaning is represented”.
This includes manual gestures, movements of the whole body (shoulder shrug),
head movements (nodding) and facial expressions (smiling), postures (spatial
distance), and 'clothing cues' (neckwear). Gesticulation is a form of non-verbal
communication. Gestures convey messages. They are voluntary—often even
involuntary—movements we make with the fingers, hands, arms, legs, head,
indeed every part of the body—with the intention to communicate. They usually
serve one of the following purposes.
They can be used to emphasize, clarify, or amplify a verbal message, such as
when we point to a chair while offering someone a seat. They can regulate and
control human interaction, such as a nod of agreement while someone is speaking.
They can also display effect or emotion, like making a fist with one hand and
hammering the open palm of the other to prove insistence.
The sign 'V' with 2 fingers can mean victory, peace, the number 2 or "up yours" in
21. Gestures are often used in conjunction with verbal messages. They are
simultaneous with the words they illustrate, or come slightly before them. Gesture
clusters refer to 'the myriads of attitudes expressed by not one gesture but a series
of related ones . . . called gesture-clusters'.
Gesture clusters, which are groups of non-verbal communication, are related to
different attitudes. We have a cluster when a person talks with his fists clenched,
shakes his index finger, and is blushing either due to heat or anger. Each gesture is
like a word in a language. To understand any language we need to structure the
words into units or sentences to obtain their complete meaning; for, taken by itself,
a word has several meanings. If we isolate the various gestures in a cluster, we will
not find it easy to understand the attitude expressed. Likewise, if we jump to
conclusions on our interpretation of an isolated gesture, we could find ourselves
making a mistake, because it is very important to understand the 'congruence' of
gestures, that is, the harmony of gestures, with one another. We should look for
attitudinal gestures that are so similar that they not only endorse one another but
serve to make a cluster as well. Gestures cannot be separated from their `context'
Evil genius - Hitler taught himself to appear more charismatic in public speaking by
practicing his speeches and using powerful gestures in front of the mirror.
22. Body Movements
We can distinguish four main kinds of gesticulations or body movements: emblem,
illustrator, regulator and self-touching. Emblems are non-verbal acts that have
direct verbal translation and can substitute for words the meanings of which are
well understood by a particular group, class or culture. They originate in learning,
most of which is culture specific, and may be shown in any area of the body.
Examples of emblems are thumbs-up (or -down), the hitch-hike sign, the head nod,
beckoning, pointing, waving to a friend in the distance, and certain rude gestures
like the upward ex-tended index (or middle) finger.
Emblems are not used much in conversation. There are a number of reasons for
using emblems: they can be faster than speech; they are silent (and can therefore
be used for private comments); they have more impact than words; and they can
be received at a greater distance.
Illustrators are non-verbal movements, mainly of the hands, that are directly related
to speech; they serve to illustrate what is verbalized; for example, pointing to
oneself, making a shape with the hands (like describing a spiral staircase), Defining
objects, movements, and relationships, pointing, and as 'batons' to mark new
They are more closely linked to speech than emblems, and serve to clarify that
They add considerably to the amount of information conveyed by speech,
especially about shapes, physical objects, and spatial relationships. Illustrators are
a supplement rather than a substitute for speech.
They are socially learned, usually through imitation by a child or a person of
someone he wishes to emulate.
There are subtle indicators termed 'regulators' which are non-verbal acts that serve
to regulate the flow of conversation between people. Regulators are non-verbal
cues that monitor or control the speaking of another individual. When speaking,
one nods one's head to show understanding or agreement, or when listening, one
looks away or yawns to indicate that one is bored with the speaker. A frown shows
that one either disbelieves or cannot comprehend what the speaker is saying.
23. Regulators are often culture specific. Examples of regulators are the head nod, eye
contact, and shift in body position. Because they are subtle they often tend to lead
to miss communication and inappropriate responses among people of different
cultures and ethnic backgrounds. Self-touching is a body-focused movement.
Touching the face can indicate shame or other negative attitudes about oneself.
Self-touching is associated with hostility and suspicion. It occurs more often under
certain conditions, for instance, during informal and formal interviews, when in
subordinate roles (like being inter-viewed), and in interaction with the opposite sex.
Some typical self-touching gestures are the hand-to-nose (fear) gesture, fingers on
the lips (shame), and making a fist (anger).
Other gestures include covering the eyes, ears or mouth; movements connected
with eating and excretion, grooming, and picking the nose, ears or teeth. These
gestures are mainly used in private or in intimate relationships and are inhibited in
public, where the people present usually ignore them. Fidgeting is an activity that
often involves self-touching.
Body movements form a language but, viewed in isolation, they can be difficult or
even to understand; they take on real significance only when considered alongside
the other elements of the interaction process.
Body movements include the head, eyes, eyebrows, lips, neck, shoulders, arms,
fingers and so on.
Body movements form a language, no doubt, but individual gestures movements,
taken exclusively, are like a letter of the alphabet, or incomplete words; that is, they
are meaningless in themselves.
For instance, some have `natural' smiles, while some others have the habit of
leaning on their hands; all the time, or keeping their legs (and arms) constantly
crossed. 'What is meaningful however a transition from one body position to
another is'. If a person spends most of the time during a meeting leaning forward,
for instance, it may be considered merely as a position of comfort. But if the same
person keeps leaning back and moving forward during the session, he is
communicating non-verbally. If a person is sitting perfectly still and suddenly starts
twitching or moving his eyes, that is a transition. Even a change in the rate of
breathing can be regarded as a transition.
How we hold our bodies can also serve as an important part of body language. The
term posture refers to how we hold our bodies as well as overall physical form of an
individual. Posture can convey a wealth of information about how a person is
feeling as well as hints about personality characteristics, such as whether a person
is confident, open, or submissive.
When we are trying to read body language, we notice some of the signals that a
person's posture can send.
Sitting up straight, for example, may indicate that a person is focused and paying
attention to what's going on. Sitting with the body hunched forward, on the other
hand, can imply that the person is bored or indifferent.
OPEN POSTURE indicates friendliness, openness, and willingness, on the other hand
CLOSED POSTURE is the indicator of hostility, unfriendliness, and anxiety.
“On the way we stand and hold ourselves is - our posture”.
25. In order to maintain a good posture one needs to take care of his upper body and
how he “Stand’s Tall”
Head held high in neutral position with the ears in line with the shoulder line.
The shoulders are resting down.
Open your chest and breath deep into your abdomen. Your chest should be
open, but not puffed up.
Imagine as if you're a marionette and there's a string pulling your chest up
from the center.
It's best to have both of your feet firmly on the ground, distributing the weight
evenly between both heels.
It's important not to overextend the curve of your back or to tense it so you
can barely move.
Some common postures we go across:
26. Appearance & Clothing
Appearance Reflection World
“Appearance alone doesn't make the speaker”
But it does determine the image the audience forms of you and may influence the
effectiveness of your presentation. Dress the way you would like the audience to
perceive you. Follow some basic rules: Be neat. Iron your clothes. Shine your
shoes. Clean and trim your fingernails. Check your makeup. Brush your teeth.
You get the idea.
Be aware that your clothes can project a high authority image, a neutral image,
or a low authority image. Remember to dress for the audience and not for
yourself. This means taking into account the demographics of the audience —
age, level, education, industry — as well as their cultural expectations. A key
guideline is to never dress less formally than your audience. Get to know the
styles, cuts, and colors which flatter your height, weight, and body type. If
necessary, seek the guidance of an image consultant to help you assemble an
appropriate wardrobe and present a more professional image. While it is true that
inner qualities are important, poor first impressions are difficult to erase. When
presenting to international audiences, take cultural differences into account.
Nevertheless, stay true to who you are.
27. For men, appropriate dress means that it is better to
wear a suit and tie. That way, if the audience is dressed
casually you can always take off your jacket, or later,
even your tie. However, you cannot put on an item of
clothing that you do not have! A dark blue suit works
with almost all shades of skin color. A white, or lightly
striped shirt is a good, formal choice. Shirts with
checkered designs come across as more casual.
Similarly, women should select classic business-style
clothing and avoid dressing in ways that draw attention
away from the message of their presentation. In
particular they should stay away from excessive jewelry,
short skids, low necklines or or anything which
compromises their professionalism.
Both men and women should avoid looking too faddish. In a corporate context,
you want to appear reliable and steady, not like someone who changes with the
wind. On the other hand, with a younger audience or in a college or university
setting, you may be able to get away with more fashionable styles that make you
Body language is universal. Everyone has body language; one is born with it. It is
expressed differently from culture to culture, but the innate use of it is common to
all humans on the planet. This form of nonverbal communication is of paramount
importance because it is the most pure of all human expressions. One must have
awareness and be knowledgeable in understanding body language to
successfully maneuver in today’s complex digital society. In this era of so many
forms of non-personal communication for example the wide spread use of like
texting on cell phones, the human interaction is severely diminished. One spends
an estimated ninety percent of verbal communication texting, instead of standing
face to face talking. With all of this actual human contact eliminated the
importance of nonverbal communication and of understanding it is greatly
Communication between cultures can be difficult and confusing because of
complexities in language; however, with the use of body language, messages
become clearer and easily translated because most body language is universal.
Facial expressions are a primary example of the globalization of non verbal
communication, because humans primitively and inherently react to varying facial
expressions. A smile in any language or corner of the world means happiness
and is welcomed, while a frown in any context is more omniscient and troubling
to an observer. Body posture also claims universal meaning; a tall posture with
shoulders tilted back exudes confidence while slumped shoulders do not.
Personal interactions between separate nations and cultures can become
extremely frustrating; however, if the signs of body language are utilized,
understandings can be reached without extensive study of any language other
than the instinct we as humans are born with. The cultures of the world may
contrast greatly, but it is the human form and primitive body language which
connects the globe.
www.google.co.in --- Google
www.study-body-language.com --- Study body language
www.wikipedia.org --- Wikipedia
Body Language (a guide for professionals) by --- HEDWIG LEWIS
Strengthen your communication skills by --- Dr. M. Hari Prasad
Dr. Salivendra J. Raju
Dr. G. Suvarna Lakshmi