2. A research project is a scientific investigation, usually using
scientific methods, to achieve defined objectives.
Some research projects aim at testing and refining existing
knowledge, others at creating new knowledge
3. A research topic is a subject or issue that a researcher is interested in
when conducting research. Choosing a research topic is an ongoing
process by which researchers explore, define and refine their ideas.
The topic must be narrow and focused enough to be interesting, yet
broad enough to find adequate information.
Choose the topic that is manageable
Use Brainstorming technique to generate ideas about the topic
Find the topic where there is unresolved controversy, a gap in
knowledge or an unrequited need
Read a wide range of materials like journals, industry publications,
articles etc. to find a topic.
Being aware of current issues in the chosen topic helps to formulate
the research problem easily
4. A Research Proposal is simply a structured, formal document that
explains what is being researched (i.e. the research topic), why it is being
researched (i.e. the purpose), and how it is being investigated (i.e. the
The purpose of the research proposal is to convince the researcher’s
supervisor, committee or university that the research is suitable (for the
purpose intended) and manageable
5. A Research Problem is the starting point for any research. It should
have the following characteristics:
It should be stated clearly and concisely
It should be significant, but not trivial or copy of previous work
It should be delineated in order to limit its scope to practical
It should enable to obtain the information required to explore the
It must be possible to draw conclusions related to the problem
A research problem is typically a question; it also can have sub-
6. Objectives of the study should reflect the problem statement and hence
should be drawn from it.
Research Objectives describe what a researcher is trying to achieve and
explain why the pursuance of that research is needed. They summarize
the approach and purpose of the project and help to focus on research.
• Establish the scope and depth of the project
• Contribute to the research design
• Indicate how the project will contribute to existing knowledge
7. A Hypothesis states the predictions about what the research will
find. It is a tentative answer to the research question that has not
yet been tested.
A hypothesis should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It
also has to be testable, which means the researcher can either
accept or reject it through scientific research methods (such as
experiments, observations and statistical analysis of data).
A hypothesis forms the basis for collection of data and thereby
8. Research methodology explains how a researcher intends to carry out
the research. It's a logical, systematic plan to resolve a research
It addresses the issues like type of research to be conducted
(Quantitative, Qualitative or Mixed), type of sampling method
(Random or Non-random) to be used, data collection methods
(Interviews, surveys, observations etc.), data analysis method to be
employed (simple percentages, tests of significance etc.)
9. Time frame refers to the time needed to complete each
part of the project
It is very important that the time estimates are realistic;
because the allocation of resources need to be coordinated.
All aspects of project must be included in the time frame.
The longer a project takes, the expensive it becomes;
however a hastened project may not yield reliable results.
11. Research Design is a broad framework that states the total
pattern of conducting research project. It specifies objectives,
data collection and analysis methods, time, costs, responsibility,
probable outcomes, and actions.
12. 1. Statement of research objectives, i.e., why the research project is to be
2. Type of data needed
3. Definition of population and sampling procedures to be followed
4. Time, costs, and responsibility specification
5. Methods, ways, and procedures used for collection of data
6. Data analysis – tools or methods used to analyze data
7. Probable output or research outcomes and possible actions to be taken
based on those outcomes
13. It helps in smooth functioning of various research
It requires less effort, time and money.
It helps to plan in advance the methods and techniques to
be used for collecting and analysing data.
It helps in achieving the objectives of the research with
the availability of staff, time and money.
15. Exploratory Research Design is used to increase familiarity of the analyst
with problem under investigation. This is particularly true when
researcher is new in area, or when problem is of different type.
This design is followed to realize following purposes:
1. Clarifying concepts and defining problem
2. Formulating problem for more precise investigation
3. Increasing researcher’s familiarity with problem
4. Developing hypotheses
5. Establishing priorities for further investigation
16. Exploratory research design is characterized by flexibility to gain
insights and develop hypotheses.
It does not follow a planned questionnaire or sampling.
It is based on literature survey, experimental survey, and analysis of
Unstructured interviews are used to offer respondents a great deal of
No research project is purely and solely based on this design. It is used
as complementary to descriptive design and causal design.
17. Descriptive Research Design aims to accurately and systematically describe
a population, situation or phenomenon. It can answer what, where, when
and how questions, but not why questions.
It is useful when not much is known yet about the topic or problem. Before
you can research why something happens, you need to understand how,
when and where it happens.
Descriptive research is an appropriate choice when the research aim is to
identify characteristics, frequencies, trends, and categories.
18. • How has the Indian stock market changed over the past 20 years?
• Do customers of company X prefer product X or product Y?
• What are the most popular online news sources among under-18s?
• How prevalent is disease A in population B?
19. 1. Quantitative in Nature
Descriptive research involves the collection of quantifiable and systematic data that can be
used for the statistical analysis of the research problem.
2. Uncontrolled Variables
One of the most prominent characteristics of descriptive research is that, unlike in
experimental research, the variables are not controlled or manipulated. Instead, they are
simply identified, observed, and measured.
3. A Basis for Further Research
The data collected in descriptive research provides a base for further research as it helps
obtain a comprehensive understanding of the research question so that it can be answered
4. Cross-sectional Studies
The descriptive method of research is generally carried out through cross-sectional studies.
A cross-sectional study is a type of observational study that involves gathering information
on a variety of variables at the individual level at a given point in time.
20. Longitudinal study Cross-sectional study
Repeated observations Observations at a single point in time
Observes the same group multiple
Observes different groups (a “cross-
section”) in the population
Follows changes in participants over
Provides snapshot of society at a given
Longitudinal Studies and Cross-sectional
studies are two different types of research design. In a
cross-sectional study you collect data from a population at
a specific point in time; in a longitudinal study you
repeatedly collect data from the same sample over an
extended period of time.
21. Experimental research is a scientific approach to research, where one or
more independent variables are manipulated to know the effect on
dependent variables. This effect is observed and recorded over time, to
aid researchers in drawing a plausible conclusion regarding the
relationship between the two.
In general, experiments have two groups:
1. Control group (Receives no treatment)
2. Experimental group (Receives the treatment)
22. 1. Pre-experimental research design
A group, or various groups, are kept under observation after
implementing factors of cause and effect. You’ll conduct this research to
understand whether further investigation is necessary for these
23. 2. True experimental research design
True experimental research relies on statistical analysis to prove or disprove a
hypothesis, making it the most accurate form of research. Of the types of
experimental design, only true design can establish a cause-effect relationship
within a group. In a true experiment, three factors need to be satisfied:
• There is a Control Group, which won’t be subject to changes, and an
Experimental Group, which will experience the changed variables.
• A variable which can be manipulated by the researcher
• Random distribution
24. 3. Quasi-experimental research design
The word “Quasi” indicates similarity. A quasi-experimental design is
similar to experimental, but it is not the same.
The difference between the two is the assignment of a control group.
In this research, an independent variable is manipulated, but the
participants of a group are not randomly assigned.
Quasi-research is used in field settings where random assignment is
either irrelevant or not required.
25. Marketing research is the systematic gathering, recording,
and analysis of qualitative and quantitative data about issues
relating to marketing products and services.
The goal is to identify and assess how changing elements of
the marketing mix impacts customer behavior.
26. The scope of marketing research covers following areas:
1. Research on Products:
Products involve goods and services. This branch of marketing research covers all the
issues related to firm’s products.
2. Research on Market:
This area of marketing research deals with market/consumers. It studies characteristics
and compositions of the target markets. It covers both current as well as potential
3. Research on Sales Methods and Policies:
This area of marketing research, particularly, concerns with study and analysis of the
sales- related activities
27. 4. Research on Advertising
Advertising is one of the powerful methods of market promotion. Major part of promotional
budget is devoted to advertising activities. Therefore, it is imperative to conduct research on
various aspects related to advertising.
5. Research on Pricing:
Price is an important element of marketing mix. Suitable pricing policies and methods can
contribute positively in attainment of marketing goals. It is clear that price has remained a
major determinant of buying decision.
6. Research on distribution
In today’s marketing, distribution has unique role to determine success of product. A
marketer can contribute to total consumer satisfaction by designing appropriate distribution
network. Physical distribution and distribution channel are two important components of
7. Research on Business Environment and Corporate Responsibility:
This area is not concerned with solving any marketing problem directly. In order to collect
and analyze data related to broad business environment, such research is conducted. The
study on the area helps manager formulate strategies for the current and the future market
as well. It also helps assess strengths and weaknesses of marketing department in relation to
business environment. In today’s dynamic business environment, the study on various
economic, social, and cultural variables is extremely important. Similarly, it is necessary to
analyze corporate responsibility.
28. 1. Identifying problem and opportunities in the market
It helps in identifying new market opportunities for existing and new products. It
provides information on market share, nature of competition, customer satisfaction
levels, sales performances and channel of distribution.
2. Formulating market strategies
Today, markets have become global. Manufactures find it difficult to contact customers
and control distribution channels. Competition is equally severe. The consumer needs
are difficult to predict. Market segmentation is a complicated task in such wide markets.
The marketing intelligence provided through marketing research not only helps in
framing but also in implementing the market strategies.
29. 3. Determining consumer needs and wants
Marketing has become customer-centric. However, large-scale production needs intermediaries for
mass distribution. Due to prevalence of multi channels of distribution, there is an information gap.
Marketing research helps in collecting information on consumers from structured distribution research
and helps in making marketing customer oriented.
4. For effective communication mix
In an era of micro- rather than mass-marketing, communication plays a vital role. Marketing research
uses promotional research to study media mix, advertising effectiveness and integrated communication
tools. Research on such aspects will help in promoting effectively a company’s product in the market.
5. Improving selling activities
Marketing research is used to analyse and evaluate performances of a company within a market. It also
studies effectiveness of a sales force. It helps in identifying sales territories. Such information helps the
companies in identifying areas of shortcoming in sales. It also examines alternative methods for
distribution of goods.
6. For sales forecasting
The most challenging task for any production manager is to keep optimum levels of inventory.
However, production is undertaken in anticipation of demand. Therefore, scientific forecast of sales is
required. Marketing research helps in sales forecasting by using market share method, sales force
estimate method and jury method. This can also help in fixing sales quotas and marketing plans.
30. 7. To revitalize brands:
Marketing research is used to study and find out the existing brand position. It finds out the
recall value of brands. It explores the possibilities of brand extension or prospects of
changing existing brand names. The main purpose of marketing is to create brand loyalty.
Marketing research helps in developing techniques to popularize and retain brand loyalty.
8. To facilitate smooth introduction of new products:
Marketing research helps in testing the new products in one or two markets on a small scale.
This helps in finding out consumer response to new product and develop a suitable
marketing mix. It reveals the problems of the customers regarding new products. Thus, it
controls the risk involved in introducing a new product.
9. Determine export potentials:
The development in transport and communication has helped in globalization and
digitalization of world trade. This has helped in boosting the growth of international
markets. Marketing research helps in conducting market survey for export. It. collects
information on marketing environment prevailing in a country. By collecting data on
consumers from different countries, it indicates export potentials.
10. Managerial decision making
Marketing research plays a vital role in the decision-making processes by supplying relevant,
up-to-date and accurate data to the decision-makers. Managers need up-to-date information
to access customer needs and wants, market situation, technological change and extent of
31. The limitations or disadvantages of marketing research are as follows:
1.Marketing research (MR) is a costly affair.
2. It is also lengthy and time-consuming.
3.It has a limited scope.
4.It has a limited practical value.
5.It can't predict consumer behavior.
6.It can't give 100% accurate results.
7.It provides suggestions and not solutions.
8.Non-availability of qualified and experienced staff affects its quality.
9.It can be misused.
10.Non-availability of a reliable data affects it.
11.It is resistant to marketing managers.