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Basic Textile technology for Non-Textile Graduate

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Textiles Basic Processes
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Basic Textile technology for Non-Textile Graduate

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The slides will help someone to know basic things on textile technology. Introductory knowledge on textile technology that will help to get introduction. The slides are prepared for some other engineering working in textile sector, specially for energy and water efficiency.

The slides will help someone to know basic things on textile technology. Introductory knowledge on textile technology that will help to get introduction. The slides are prepared for some other engineering working in textile sector, specially for energy and water efficiency.

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Basic Textile technology for Non-Textile Graduate

  1. 1. Textile Technology for Non-Textile Graduate Engr. Sahadat Hussain Sr. Consultant Environmental and Process Engineering Resources International(ERI) Ltd.
  2. 2. Textile Technology  A textile or cloth is a flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibers often referred to as thread or yarn. Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibers of wool, flax, cotton, or other material to produce long strands. Textiles are formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting, or felting.  The Study area that deal with Textile or Cloth, Fiber, Yarn and Readymade Garments manufacturing and processing are called textile technology.
  3. 3. Textile Technology Textiles are prepared from: Natural Fiber – Cotton, Silk, Wool and Jute Manmade Fiber – Rayon, Polyester, and Nylon Blended - Cellulose + Viscose, Synthetic + Natural.
  4. 4. Textile Technology Fabric Type : Knit fabric –Warp Knit and Weft Knit Example: - T-Shirts, Under-garments and Mosquito Net Woven fabric – Denims, Shirts, Pants and Home Textiles.
  5. 5. Textile Industries
  6. 6. Textile Industries Spinning Mills – Cotton Spinning Mills - Synthetic Spinning Mills Composite Mills – Knit Composite Mills - Woven Composite Mills
  7. 7. Textile Industries  Knit Composite Mills Knitting – Circular or Flat Knitting Machines , Dyeing – Batch Dyeing Machine Finishing – Squeezer, Stenter/Dryer and Compactor Garments – Sewing Machines. Rotary/ Screen Printing (Special case)  Woven Composite Mills- Weaving – Looms or Hand looms Desizing – Scouring & Desizing Machines Dyeing – Continuous Dyeing Machines Garments/ Sewing Section. Rotary/ Screen Printing (Special case)
  8. 8. Textile Wet Processing  Knit Dyeing and Finishing  Woven Dyeing and Finishing  Yarn Dyeing and Finishing  Denim Dyeing and Finishing  Denim Washing and Finishing  Garments Washing  Sweater Washing  Rotary / Screen Printing
  9. 9. Dyeing Process- Depending on Types of Dyes • Acrylic Fiber • Wool • Cotton • Linen • Polyeste r • Acrylic • Nylon • Cotton • Wool • Silk • Nylon Reactive Dyeing Disperse Dyeing Basic Dyeing Acid dyeing
  10. 10. Dyeing Process- Depending on Types of Dyes • Polyester • Acrylic • Cotton • Wool • Cotton • Linen • Cotton • Linen • Rayon Vat /Indigo Dyeing Sulfur Dyeing Gel Dyeing Pigment dyeing
  11. 11. Dyeing Process Pretreatment • To remove Oil stain and other dirt from the fabric • To remove the natural color of cotton • To improve the absorbency of the fiber Dyeing • To add color as per desire shade • Continue the process until the desire shade matching After Treatment • To remove the unbind color and other chemicals • To fix the color for desire wash fastness • To make the fabric neutral
  12. 12. Knit Dyeing and Finishing Process Figure 2-2 : Process Flow Diagram Inputs ReleasesProcess Greige Fabric Storage Batching and Inspection Slitting/Dewatering Conveyor Dryer Compaction Pre - Packing Inspection Final Packing Dispatch Half Bleach Peroxide, Caustic, OBA, Acid, Detergent, Enzyme, Auxiliaries Waste Water with high pH, Temp, BOD, COD Reactive Dyes, Disperse Dyes, Acids, Auxiliaries, Softeners Dyeing Waste Water with high pH, Temp., TSS, TDS, BOD, COD OBA/ Full Bleach Stenter Waste water with low pollution load Electricity, Compressed Air Solid Waste Solid WasteElectricity, Compressed Air Electricity, Compressed Air, Steam, Softener or Other Finishing Agents Electricity, Compressed Air, Steam Condensate Cooling Water Electricity Solid Waste Solid WasteElectricity Nominal amount of waste water ,Hot exhaust (Flue Gases) Nominal amount of waste water ,Hot exhaust (Flue Gases) ,Condensate Electricity, Compressed Air, Steam, Gas, Softener or Other Finishing Agents
  13. 13. Knit Dyeing and Finishing Process OBA / Full Bleach 105 °C , 40 min Cooling 70 °C 60 °C Peroxide OBA Drain 55 °C , 10 min 55 °C , 40 min Acid + Bio polishing 80 °C , 30 min Drain Acid Bio polish chemical Cooling 70 °C Bleaching (Medium/Dark shade) 105 °C , 30 min Cooling 70 °C 60 °C Peroxide Drain 55 °C , 10 min 55 °C , 40 min Acid + Bio polishing 80 °C , 30 min Drain Acid Peroxide Killer Bio polish chemical Cooling 70 °C Dyeing Drain Rinsing 60-80 °C , 40-60 min Cooling 70 °C Drain Drain Rinsing Neutralization Drain 55 °C , 10 min 80-95 °C , 20-30 min Cooling 70 °C Drain Soaping Drain Rinsing Rinsing Fixer + Softener Drain Dyes Auxilliaries
  14. 14. Knit Dyeing and Finishing Machines Dyeing Machine • Pretreatment • Dyeing • After Treatment Squeezer/ Dewatering • To remove water from fabric • To turn the fabric • To make the fabric untwist Stenter/ Dryer • To add softening chemical to the fabric (not for all fabrics) • To adjust the fabric width • To adjust the fabric GSM (Gram per Square Meter) Compactor • To make the fabric soft for desire hand feel • To remove the fly from the fabric and make it smooth • To make the fabric shiny
  15. 15. Woven Process (Additional Singing Process •To remove fly from the fabric surface by using flame Mercerizing Process •To add caustic soda to the fabric for silk-like luster. Cold Pad Batch (CPB) process semi-continuous dyeing that consists of pad-batch, pad-jig, pad-roll the fabric is first impregnated with the dye-liquor in, what is called a padding machine. Then it is subjected to batch wise treatment in a jigger. Curing Process ( for Rotary Printing) Special Heat treatment for printed fabric at certain temperature by using steam
  16. 16. Woven Dyeing and Finishing Process Figure 3-1 : Process Flow Diagram Singe/ Desize Scouring Solomatic bleach/ Bleach Heat Set/ Width Set Fluff Fluff Waste Water with high pH peroxide, caustic, Auxiliaries Greige Fabric Inspection Inputs ReleasesProcess Waste Water with high pH, Temp, BOD, COD Caustic, Auxiliaries MercerizeCaustic Waste Water with high pH, Temp Width Set Waste Water with high pH, TSS, TDS, BOD, COD, TKN Print Dyes, Auxiliaries, Caustic, Salt Dyeing water with high pH, Temp., TSS, TDS, BOD, COD Curing/ Steaming Wetting Agent Waste water with TSS, TDS, temp. Washing Dispatch Waste water, TSS, BOD, CODFinishing Inspection / Folding Binder, Thickener, Ammonia, Dyes
  17. 17. Woven Dyeing and Finishing Process Pretreatment /Scouring Process Reactive Dyeing Process
  18. 18. Woven Dyeing and Finishing Process Pretreatment /Scouring Process Reactive Dyeing Process
  19. 19. Denim Washing Process
  20. 20. Denim Washing Process Timeline diagram for denim washing

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