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Leading Knowledge - John Girard - Abu Dhabi

John Girard's presentation to Abu Dhabi Police and Abu Dhabi Chamber of Commerce, April 2012

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Leading Knowledge - John Girard - Abu Dhabi

  1. 1. www.sscs.ae  or  www.km-­‐me.com   1   A  Leader’s  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management   It  is  all  about  People!   3   Sagology  is  dedicated  to  connec�ng  people  with  people  to   facilitate  collabora�on,  learning,  and  knowledge  sharing   through  keynotes,  workshops,  and  consul�ng.     sagology  [sāj-­‐ol-­‐uh-­‐jee]       -­‐noun         1.  the  study  of  organiza�onal  wisdom  in  all  its  forms,  esp.  with  reference  to   technology,  leadership,  culture,  process,  and  measurement   2.  the  study  of  one  venerated  for  experience,  judgment,  and  wisdom.       Origin:       2008;    Canadian  English,  from  Middle  English  sage  +  -­‐ology.         Sage  [Middle  English,  from  Old  French,  from  Vulgar  La�n  *sapius,  from  La�n  sapere,  to  be  wise;  see  sep-­‐  in  Indo-­‐European  roots.]   -­‐ology  [Middle  English  -­‐logie,  from  Old  French,  from  La�n  -­‐logia,  from  Greek  -­‐logiā  (from  logos,  word,  speech;  see  leg-­‐  in  Indo-­‐ European  roots)  and  from  -­‐logos,  one  who  deals  with  (from  legein,  to  speak;  see  leg-­‐  in  Indo-­‐European  roots).]   A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  www.sscs.ae                        1                                                                                        info@sscs.ae  
  2. 2. Recent  CPA  Ar�cle   5   h�p://incpas.org/Member/Resources/CPAINPerspec�ve.aspx     About  You     1.  Name   2.  Organiza�on   3.  Posi�on   4.  KM  Story    www.sscs.ae                        2                                                                                        info@sscs.ae  
  3. 3. Agenda   7   Part  1  –  8:30  to  10:00     Keys  to  Success   1.  Where  is  the  Knowledge?     1.  Par�cipa�on   2.  Organize  What?   2.  Courtesy   3.  What  Types  of  Knowledge  Exist?   3.  Confiden�ality   4.  Time  L   4.  Simples  Ideas     5.  Do  you  Really  Want  to  Know  What  you  Know?   Part  2  –  10:30  to  12:00   5.  Tools,  Tac�cs,  and  Techniques:  Today  and  Tomorrow   7.  Guiding  Organiza�ons  Into  the  Future   8.  The  Future  is  Just  a  Day  Away   A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   CHAPTER 1 THE WHERE Where is the wisdom we have lost in knowledge? Where is the knowledge we have lost in information? —T. S. Eliot, The Rock (1935)www.sscs.ae                        3                                                                                        info@sscs.ae  
  4. 4. Informa�on  Overload   10   245+ academic papers on Information Overload 1972-2000 (Bawden, 2001) Information Overload Personal Information Overload Information overload occurs A perception on the part of the individual when the amount of input to a (or observers of that person) that the flow system exceeds its of information associated with work tasks is processing capacity. greater than can be managed effectively. (Speier et al, 1999, p. 338) (Wilson, 2001, p. 113) Information Overload Organizational Information Overload Information overload is that A situation in which the extent of state in which available, and perceived information overload is potentially useful, information sufficiently widespread within an is a hindrance rather than a organization as to reduce the overall help. effectiveness of management operations. (Bawden, 2001, p. 6) (Wilson, 2001, p. 113) A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   The  Cost?   11   A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   The  Problem  –  Enterprise  Demen�a   12   2/3 of managers complained of 43% of the managers delayed Information overload (KPMG, 2000) decisions because of too much information. (Wilson, 2001) Managers “dwell on information that is entertaining but not informative, or 38% of the surveyed managers easily available but not of high waste a substantial amount of time quality” (Linden, 2001, p.2) locating information (Wilson, 2001) The number of books published annually has increased exponentially since the 16th century. At present, the prediction is that the number of books doubles every 33 years (Hanka & Fuka, 2000). The total accumulated codified database of the world, which includes all books and all electronic files, doubles every seven years and some predict this will double twice a day by 2010 (Bontis, 2000). A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  www.sscs.ae                        4                                                                                        info@sscs.ae  
  5. 5. The  Future   13   “In  an  economy  where  the   only  certainty  is  uncertainty,   the  only  sure  source  of  las�ng   Ikujiro Nonaka compe��ve  advantage  is   knowledge.”     A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   CHAPTER 2 ORGANIZE WHAT? Generally, management of the many is the same as management of the few. It is a matter of organization. —Sun Tzu (400–320 BC), The Art of War Founda�on  or  Too  Busy   15   A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  www.sscs.ae                        5                                                                                        info@sscs.ae  
  6. 6. Knowledge  Sharing  –  Nothing  New?   16   Knowledge Management is the creation, transfer, and exchange of organizational knowledge to achieve a [competitive] advantage. A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   What  Advantage?   17   A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   History  of  KM:  Academic  Perspec�ve   18   c. 350 BC 17th Century 1950s 1990s Aristotle Sir Francis Bacon Michael Polanyi Ikujiro Nonaka Carla O’Dell Classification of Knowledge Aristotle A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  www.sscs.ae                        6                                                                                        info@sscs.ae  
  7. 7. What  is  knowledge?   19   Data Knowledge Information  knowledge is "defined broadly to include Knowledge: information, data, communication and Concepts, culture" experience, and insight that(p. 293) a framework provide for creating, evaluating and using information (p. 373). A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   The  Cogni�ve  Hierarchy   20   Wisdom Ackoff’s Apex Understanding Knowledge Knowledge Wisdom: Information The collective and individual Data experiences of applying knowledge to the solution of problems (p. 373). A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   The  difference  .  .  .  Data  to  Knowledge   21   October 27, 1917 Q1 - What time is it? Q2 – Where are these people? Q3 – Why is the boy smiling? A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  www.sscs.ae                        7                                                                                        info@sscs.ae  
  8. 8. Data   22   Davenport  &  Prusak  (1998)  define  data  “as  a   set  of  discrete,  objec�ve  facts  about  events”   and  they  suggest,  “in  an  organiza�onal   context,  data  is  most  usefully  described  as   structured  records  of  transac�ons”  (p.  2).     Data   A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Informa�on   23   Peter  F.  Drucker  (1998)  claims  that   "Informa�on  is  data  endowed  with  relevance   and  purpose"   Informa�on   Data   A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Knowledge   24   Authors  Joseph  and  Jimmie  Boye�  (2001)  suggest  "knowledge   is  easy  to  talk  about  but  hard  to  define"     Knowledge   Informa�on   Data   A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  www.sscs.ae                        8                                                                                        info@sscs.ae  
  9. 9. Types  of  Knowledge   25   Easier to document and Explicit share Contributes to Easier to efficiency replicate 20% Leads to competency Michael Polanyi 80% Tacit Carla O’Dell Harder to articulate Harder to steal Higher competitive advantage Harder to transfer O’Dell, C. (2002, May). Knowledge Management New Generation. Presented at the APQC’s 7th Knowledge Conference, Washington, DC. A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Exchange  and  Transfer  of  Knowledge   26   TACIT n Ext tio ern za a i ial liz Soc ati on EXPLICIT TACIT Ikujiro Nonaka on Co ati mb liz a in rn a ti on Inte EXPLICIT A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   The  importance  of  sharing  .  .  .   27   According to Computer Associates . . . http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lH39xjXaLW8   A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  www.sscs.ae                        9                                                                                        info@sscs.ae  
  10. 10. CHAPTER 3 THE TYPES Scientia protenia est (Latin maxim, “For also knowledge itself is power.”) —Sir Francis Bacon, Meditationes Sacrae (1597) KM  Models   29   Developed by Dr Stankosky and his team at George Washington University Webber, F., Wunram, M., Kemp, J., Pudlatz., & Bredehorst, B. (2002). Standardisation in in 1999 knowledge management – Towards a common KM framework in Europe. Proceedings of UNICOM Seminar Towards Common Approaches & Standards in KM. London. Infrastructure Organization Technology Leadership Measures Learning Process Content Culture KM Pillars European Framework DON Balanced KM Enablers of Transfer KM Assessment Tool Bennet, A. & Kantner, J. (2001). Navigating the KM dimension, Next- Generation Knowledge Management: Enabling Business Processes. American Productivity & Quality Center. A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  New  View  of  Knowledge  Management   30   Measurement Leadership Process Technology Culture A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  www.sscs.ae                      10                                                                                          info@sscs.ae  
  11. 11. A  li�le  TLC  goes  a  long  way!   31   Leadership  Transparency  Vision and example Measurement  Resources (including time) Leadership Technology Culture Process Technology  Help or hinder  Need to Share vs Culture Need to Know  Security issues  Privacy  Ease of access  Content Creators  Tending toward free A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   TLC:  Leadership   32   Including Ray Downey, Special Operations Command lost 95 men that day – totaling 1,600 years of experience. (emphasis added) A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Open  Leadership   33   Share  constantly   Respect  that  your   to  build  trust.   customers  and   Nurture  curiosity   employees  have   and  humility.   power.   Hold  openness   Forgive  failure.   accountable.   http://www.charleneli.com/resources/new-­‐rules/   A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  www.sscs.ae                      11                                                                                          info@sscs.ae  
  12. 12. Openness  Audit   34       http://www.slideshare.net/charleneli/openness-­‐audit   A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   TLC:  Culture   35   A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Tribal  Leadership   36   A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  www.sscs.ae                      12                                                                                          info@sscs.ae  
  13. 13. Exchange  and  Transfer  of  Knowledge   37   TACIT n Ext tio ern za a i ial liz Soc ati on EXPLICIT TACIT on Measurement Co Leadership ati mb liz a in a ti Process Technology rn on Inte Culture EXPLICIT A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Measurement   38   APQC Stages of KM Stage 5 Stage 4 Stage 3 Institutionalize Stage 2 Expand Stage 1 Design and Knowledge Develop a and Get Launch a Management Strategy Support Started KM Initiative Remember: Measure the outcome, not the process USAF 5-2-1 A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   CHAPTER 4 SIMPLE IDEAS I believe what I said yesterday.
 I don’t know what I said,
 but I know what I think, and, well,
 I assume it’s what I said.
 —Former U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeldwww.sscs.ae                      13                                                                                          info@sscs.ae  
  14. 14. Complex:  A  Defini�on   40    “a  group  of  obviously  related   units  of  which  the  degree  and   nature  of  the  rela�onship  is   imperfectly  known”   A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Exchange  and  Transfer  of  Knowledge   41   TACIT n Ext tio ern za a i ial liz Soc ati on EXPLICIT TACIT on Measurement C Leadership om ati liz b a in a ti Process Technology rn on Inte Culture EXPLICIT A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Crea�on  and  Transfer  of  Knowledge   42   TACIT n Ext tio ern za a i ial liz Soc ati on EXPLICIT TACIT on Co ati mb liz in na r a ti on Inte Internalization Combination EXPLICIT  Learning by doing  Formal Education (MBA)  Experience  Policies  Values/Ethos  Data mining Teradata, 1991 Wal-Mart, 2004 TYLENOL® crises of 1982 and 1986 A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  www.sscs.ae                      14                                                                                          info@sscs.ae  
  15. 15. Our Credo (Johnson & Johnson) J&J  Credo   We believe our first responsibility is to the doctors, nurses and patients, to mothers and fathers and all others who use our products and services. In meeting their needs everything we do must be of high quality. We must constantly strive to reduce our costs in order to maintain reasonable prices. Customers orders must be serviced promptly and accurately. Our suppliers and distributors must have an opportunity to make a fair profit. We are responsible to our employees, the men and women who work with us throughout the world. Everyone must be considered as an individual. We must respect their dignity and recognize their merit. They must have a sense of security in their jobs. Compensation must be fair and adequate, and working conditions clean, orderly and safe. We must be mindful of ways to help our employees fulfill their family responsibilities. Employees must feel free to make suggestions and complaints. www.jnj.com/our_company/our_credo/ A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   There must be equal opportunity for employment, development and advancement for those qualified. We must provide competent management, and their actions must be just and ethical. We are responsible to the communities in which we live and work and to the world community as well. We must be good citizens – support good works and charities and bear our fair share of taxes. We must encourage civic improvements and better health and education. We must maintain in good order the property we are privileged to use, protecting the environment and natural resources. Our final responsibility is to our stockholders. Business must make a sound profit. We must experiment with new ideas. Research must be carried on, innovative programs developed and mistakes paid for. New equipment must be purchased, new facilities provided and new products launched. Reserves must be created to provide for adverse times. When we operate according to these principles, the stockholders should realize a fair return. http://www.jnj.com/our_company/our_credo/ A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Crea�on  and  Transfer  of  Knowledge   45   Socialization Externalization  Social spaces (Ba)  After action review TACIT  Master/apprentice  Lessons learned  Storytelling  Metaphor n Ext tio ern za a i ial liz Soc ati on EXPLICIT TACIT on Co ati mb liz in na r a ti on Inte Internalization Combination EXPLICIT  Learning by doing  Formal Education (MBA)  Experience  Policies  Values/Ethos  Data mining Teradata, 1991 Wal-Mart, 2004 TYLENOL® crises of 1982 and 1986 A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  www.sscs.ae                      15                                                                                          info@sscs.ae  
  16. 16. The  Knowledge  Edge  –  The  Ul�mate  Goal   46   Kn 14 November 2004 ow le d ge Wisdom “With 3,600 stores in the United States and Ed ge roughly 100 million customers walking Understanding throughKnowledge each week, Wal-Mart has the doors on ati Knowledge access to information about a broad slice of C re America . . . The data are gathered item by ge ed item at the checkout aisle, then recorded, l ow Information Kn mapped and updated by store, by state, by region . . . By its own account Wal-Mart has Data 460 terabytes of data.” ( 750,000 CDs 1 terabyte ~ 1,000,000 MB) Hurricane A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Combina�on:  Not  always  good!   47   HMCS  Toronto  sails  at  the  lead  of  the  starburst  formation  as  nuclear-­‐powered  USS  George  Washington   aircraft  carrier  takes  the  center.  HMCS  Toronto  is  taking  part  in  Operation  Altair,  joining  the  USS  George   Washington  Aircraft  Carrier  Task  Group  to  help  monitor  shipping  in  the  Arabian  Gulf  region.    By  restricting   the  �low  of  weapons,  drugs,  and  other  illicit  trade,  HMCS  Toronto  and  her  crew  are  helping  to  end  terrorism   and  bring  long-­‐term  stability  to  the  area.  Credit:  MCpl  Colin  Kelley,  Formation  Imaging  Services  Halifax   A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Something  to  consider  .  .  .   48   “. . . there are known knowns; there are things we know that we know. There are known unknowns; that is to say there are things that we now know we don’t know. But there are also unknown unknowns — there are things that we do not know we dont know.” A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  www.sscs.ae                      16                                                                                          info@sscs.ae  
  17. 17. Knowns  and  Unknowns   49   Unknown Unknown Knowns Unknowns Known Known Knowns Unknowns AKA Johari Window A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Unknown  unknowns   50   Somewhere on the West Coast A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Knowns  and  Unknowns  Exercise   51   Unknown Knowns Unknown Unknowns 1. Printer/Scanner 1. Data Mining 2. 2. 3. 3. Known Knowns Known Unknowns 1. Competitive Intell 2. 3. A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  www.sscs.ae                      17                                                                                          info@sscs.ae  
  18. 18. A�er  Ac�on  Review   52   1.  What was planned? 2.  What happened? 3.  What is the delta? 4.  What do we do about it? A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   CHAPTER 5 DO YOU REALLY? Yu, shall I teach you what knowledge is? When you know a thing, to hold that you know it; and when you do not know a thing, to allow that you do not know it;—this is knowledge. —Confucius, The Analects, 2:17 Organiza�onal  Forge�ng  (de  Holan  et  al.)   54   From Source of Knowledge Existing Memory Decay Unlearning Stock Newly Avoiding Bad Failure to Capture Innovated Habits Accidental Intentional Mode of Forgetting Figure 7. Forms of Organizational Forgetting (Adapted from de Holan et al.) A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  www.sscs.ae                      18                                                                                          info@sscs.ae  
  19. 19. Energizing  a  Na�on   55   A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   What  do  we  know  40  years  later?   56   A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Organiza�onal  Memory   57   Organiza�onal  memory  is  the  body  of   knowledge,  past,  present,  and  future,   necessary  to  achieve  the  strategic   objec�ves  of  an  organiza�on.    Enabled  by   technology,  leadership,  and  culture,   organiza�onal  memories  include   repositories  of  ar�facts,  communi�es  of   people,  and  organiza�onal  knowledge   sharing  processes,  which  focus  on   achieving  the  organiza�onal  vision.            Girard,  2009   A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  www.sscs.ae                      19                                                                                          info@sscs.ae  
  20. 20. Memory  Test*   58   — Bed   — Slumber   — Rest   — Night   — Pajamas   — Awake   — Pillow   — Blanket   — Snore     — Dream   * Developed by Nancy Dixon A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Broader  Challenge  =  Informa�on  Anxiety   59 Gartner Research’s Information Overload Survey concluded there are four information issues affecting competition: siloed information; too much information; unindexed information; and ineffective searching procedures (Linden et al, 2002) Causes of Cognitive Overload: Components of Information Anxiety: 1.  Too much information 1.  Not understanding information; supply; 2.  Feeling overwhelmed by the amount 2.  Too much information of information to be understood; demand; 3.  Not knowing if certain information 3.  The need to deal with multi- exists; tasking and interruption; and 4.  Not knowing where to find 4.  Wurman     Inadequate workplace information; and (1989)   infrastructure to help reduce 5.  Knowing exactly where to find the metacognition. information, but not having the key to (Kirsh, 2000) access it. (Wurman, 1989, p. 44) A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Informa�on  Anxiety:  A  400  year  dilemma   17th  Century   60    Sir  Francis  Bacon,  a  pioneer  in  the  quest  to  explain  the   rela�onship,  looked  to  King  Solomon’s  biblical  wri�ngs  for   wisdom  “That  in  spacious  knowledge  there  is  much   contrista�on,  and  that  he  that  increaseth  knowledge  increaseth   anxiety”  (1605/1915,  p.  4).          He  countered  King  Solomon’s  council  by  sta�ng  “And  for  the   second  [referring  to  King  Solomon’s  prose],  certain  it  is,  there  is   no  vexa�on  or  anxiety  of  mind  which  resulteth  from  knowledge   Sir  Francis  Bacon   otherwise  than  merely  by  accident”   The     Advancement  Some  four  centuries  a�er  Sir  Francis  challenged  the  ancient   of Learning philosophy  of  King  Solomon  we  appear  closer  to  explaining  this   phenomenon   Francis Bacon A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  www.sscs.ae                      20                                                                                          info@sscs.ae  
  21. 21. CHAPTER 6 THE TOOLS I wish we knew what we know at HP.
 —Lew Platt, Hewlett-Packard KM  Strategies:  Towards  a  Taxonomy   63   —  Michael  Earl  2001,  a�er  five-­‐year  study   —  Genesis:  confusion  amongst  execu�ves   —  Purpose:  to  help  guide  execu�ves  on  choices  to   ini�ate  KM   —  Seven  Schools:   Technocratic   ¡  Systems  School   ¡  Cartographic   Economic   ¡  Process   ¡  Commercial   Behavioral   ¡  Organiza�onal   ¡  Spa�al   ¡  Strategic   A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  www.sscs.ae                      21                                                                                          info@sscs.ae  
  22. 22. Earl’s  Strategies:     Will  they  work  in  a  2.0  world?   64   Technocratic Economic School System Cartographic Engineering Commercial Attribute Focus Technology Maps Processes Income Knowledge Aim Knowledge bases Knowledge flows Knowledge assets directories Philosophy Codification Connectivity Capability Commercialization Behavioral School Organizational Spatial Strategic Attribute Focus Networks Space Mindset Knowledge Knowledge Aim Knowledge pooling exchange capabilities Philosophy Collaboration Contactivity Consciousness A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Earl’s  System  School   65   Focus   Technology    “to  capture  specialist     knowledge  in  knowledge  bases   Aim   Knowledge  bases   which  other  specialist  or   Philosophy   Codifica�on     qualified  people  can  access”   http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,4149,28792,00.asp   A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Earl’s  System  School  2.0   66   h�p://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cY2E7rzutMA   A  Leaders  Guide  to  KM  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  www.sscs.ae                      22                                                                                          info@sscs.ae