Meaning of Economic Reforms
"Economic reform" usually refers to
deregulation, or at times to
reduction in the size of government,
to remove distortions caused by
regulations or the presence of
government, rather than new or
increased regulations or government
programs to reduce distortions
caused by market failure.
Need of Economic Reforms In India
• Increase in Fiscal Deficit
• Increase in adverse balance of Payment
• Gulf Crisis
• Fall in foreign Exchange Reserve
• Rise in Prices
• Poor Performance of Public Sector
Role Of Manmohan Singh
In 1991, when Mr.Singh became the finance
minister, India was on the brink of bankruptcy.
By 1994, when he presented his historic
budget, the economy was well on its way to
Mr.Singh , unshackled the country from the
bureaucratic controls and license-permit raj,
and took the economy to a high growth path
of 6-7 per cent during his five-
year stint at North Block.
Nearly 1 crore (10 million) new jobs were
created, an environment of liberalisation was
set in motion and the foundation of an
information technology and telecom
revolution was laid.
No power on
stop an idea
Main Features Of Economic Reforms
Liberalisation Privatisation Globalisation
• Simply speaking liberalisation means to free to economy
from the controls imposed by the Govt. Before 1991,
Govt. had put many types of controls on Indian economy.
These were as follows:
(a) Industrial Licensing System
(b) Foreign exchange control
(c) Price control on goods
(d) Import License
Steps taken for Liberalization
(i) Independent determination of interest rate
(ii) Increase in the investment limit of the Small
(iii) Freedom to import capital goods
(iv) Freedom to import Technical know-how
(v) Freedom for expansion and production to
(vi) Freedom from Monopolies Act
(vii) Removal of Industrial Licensing and
• Simply speaking, privatisation means permitting the
private sector to set up industries which were previously
reserved for the public sector. Under this policy many
PSU’s were sold to private sector.
• The main reason for privatisation was in currency of
PSU’s are running in losses due to political interference.
The managers cannot work independently. Production
capacity remained under-utilized. To increase
competition and efficiency need of privatisation was felt.
Steps taken for Privatisation
1. Sale of shares
2. Disinvestment in PSU’s
3. Minimization of Public Sector
Number of industries reserved for
public sector was
reduced from 17 to 4.
(a) Transport and railway
(b) Mining of atomic minerals
(c) Atomic energy
(d) Defense equipment
Globalisation means the establishment of relations
of the economy with world economy in regard to
foreign investment, trade, production and financial
Globalisation may be defined as integrating the
economy of a country with the economies of other
countries under conditions of free-flow of trade
and capital and movement of persons across the
borders. Capital and technology will flow from the
developed countries of the world towards India.
Steps taken for Globalisation
(i) Reduction in tariffs
(ii) Long term Trade Policy
(iii) Partial Convertibility
(iv) Increase in Equity Limit of Foreign Investment
Types of Economic Reforms
1. Structural Reforms Initiatives
2. Fiscal Reforms
3. Infrastructure Reforms
4. Capital and Money Market Reforms
Achievements of Economic
Reforms in India
1. Increase in National Product
2. Foreign Investment
3. Agricultural Production
4. Foreign Currency Reserves
5. Fiscal Deficit
7. Deregulation of Interest Rate
8. Control of Inflation
Negative Effect of Reforms
• National sovereignty at stake leads to commercial
and Political Colonialism
• Transfers of natural resources
• Widening gap between rich and poor
• Decline demand for domestic products
• Fail to obey the labor laws
• Social inequality
• Farmer’s suicide rate
• Kills the domestic business
• The answer is quite clear: a glance at the evidence
that has gathered over the past decade-and-a-half of
economic reforms in India indicates that
globalisation and the resulting growth is one thing,
development quite another.
• Yet, it has brought up some challenges for the
country but it can be worked out.
Parece que tem um bloqueador de anúncios ativo. Ao listar o SlideShare no seu bloqueador de anúncios, está a apoiar a nossa comunidade de criadores de conteúdo.
Atualizámos a nossa política de privacidade.
Atualizámos a nossa política de privacidade de modo a estarmos em conformidade com os regulamentos de privacidade em constante mutação a nível mundial e para lhe fornecer uma visão sobre as formas limitadas de utilização dos seus dados.
Pode ler os detalhes abaixo. Ao aceitar, está a concordar com a política de privacidade atualizada.