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SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS FOR CYANOBACTERIA
REDUCTION FOR MUNICIPAL WATER DISTRICTS
SADIE GOODRUM, JONAH LEE & BROOKE RICHARDS
PROJECT OBJECTIVES & SCOPE
Quantify &
Correlate
CO2 Emissions
&
Cyanobacteria
Increases
Identify
Sustainable
Technologies ...
BACKGROUND
Left: Bahia Del Mar, St.
Petersburg, FL
Top: Satellite image of Lake
Erie, MI
Below: Aerial view of blue-green
...
HIGHLIGHTS & TAKEAWAY
Global
Carbon
Cy c le
1. A continuous cycle between atmosphere, plants, and soil
2. Photosynthesis, ...
HIGHLIGHTS & TAKEAWAYS
Vertex
Aeration
System Case
Study
1. Removing stratification and allowing the entire water body to ...
SUSTAINABLE MODEL DIAGRAM
Research
increases in
Co2 emissions
and impact on
cyanobacteria
TerminatorDecision
Proces
s
Research
Legend
Objective: Use...
SWOT ANALYSIS & KEY CALCULATIONS
Dissolved Oxygen Eqn (for Aeration):
DOlake = βDOsaturated water - Oxygen Demand
Rate of ...
𝑪𝑶 𝟐 C-TEST & LCCA FOR A 400-HA
BIOFUEL PRODUCTION FACILITY
Result:
- 0.156
Result:
-0.056
Investment -$101,858,000
Annual...
AERATION
Right: Levels of
Dissolved
Oxygen,
Phosphate and
Nitrogen after
Aeration
Treatment
Southern California Lakes
Remo...
BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES & CHECKLIST
BMP
CYANOBACTERIA
CONTROL
PROGRAM
BMP
TECHNOLOGY
ASSESSMENT
BMP
SECURITY &
EMERGENCY...
CONCLUSION
OBJECTIVES Unable to Prove Correlation with Rising CO2 Emissions and Cyanobacteria
Growth
Biofuel Merits Furthe...
RECOMMENDATIONS & FUTURE POTENTIAL
Aeration
√ Most Effective
√ Reduce bloom growth by more
than project target amount
√ Re...
KEY REFERENCES
NOAA: Earth System Research Laboratory, Global
Monitoring Division
San Francisco Estuary Institute (Turner,...
AKNOWLEDGMENTS
THE AUTHORS ARE GRATEFUL FOR THE SUPPORT
FROM DR. TERRI SLIFKO, DR. PAUL ROCHELLE,
PROFESSOR BEN RADHAKRISH...
Team 2_SEM610B_PP Presentation for Cyanobacteria_Final V1
Team 2_SEM610B_PP Presentation for Cyanobacteria_Final V1
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Team 2_SEM610B_PP Presentation for Cyanobacteria_Final V1

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Team 2_SEM610B_PP Presentation for Cyanobacteria_Final V1

  1. 1. SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS FOR CYANOBACTERIA REDUCTION FOR MUNICIPAL WATER DISTRICTS SADIE GOODRUM, JONAH LEE & BROOKE RICHARDS
  2. 2. PROJECT OBJECTIVES & SCOPE Quantify & Correlate CO2 Emissions & Cyanobacteria Increases Identify Sustainable Technologies to Offset CO2 Emissions & Utilize Blooms BIOFUEL Develop Process to Manage Blooms Aeration
  3. 3. BACKGROUND Left: Bahia Del Mar, St. Petersburg, FL Top: Satellite image of Lake Erie, MI Below: Aerial view of blue-green cyanobacteria at a marina Left: Cyanobacteria content in Water bodies of Southern California Examples of expansive cyanobacteria growth
  4. 4. HIGHLIGHTS & TAKEAWAY Global Carbon Cy c le 1. A continuous cycle between atmosphere, plants, and soil 2. Photosynthesis, Plant respiration, and plant decomposition 3. Increasing amounts carbon in atmosphere = greater carbon in lakes and surface waters 4. Natural atmosphere levels =750 Petagrams (Pg) 5. 59 Pg C from marine sources Rising 𝐶𝑂2 Levels, Case Studies 1. Rising levels enhance bacterial blooms 2. Certain thresholds of effect pH and carbon limitation 3. Nutrient loading 4. Application of excess nitrogen increased crop numbers but not growth rate of crops 5. Enhanced CO2 influences both growth rates and total biomass in Trichodesmium (250 ppm, 750 ppm, 900 ppm)
  5. 5. HIGHLIGHTS & TAKEAWAYS Vertex Aeration System Case Study 1. Removing stratification and allowing the entire water body to mix 2. Increasing oxygen uptake and distribution throughout the water column 3. Speeding up the removal of toxic hydrogen sulfide and methane gasses 4. Breakdown of organic material in the bottom of the lake 5. Reducing nutrient levels Algae - Bas ed Biofuel Technology Cas e Study 1. Reduce carbon emissions by consuming waste gases through photosynthesis 2. Efficient producers of oil 3. Produce 30 times the amount of oil per unit area of land compared to terrestrial oilseed plant varieties 4. Growth requirements for algae are simple: water and CO2
  6. 6. SUSTAINABLE MODEL DIAGRAM
  7. 7. Research increases in Co2 emissions and impact on cyanobacteria TerminatorDecision Proces s Research Legend Objective: Use correlation with CO2 emissions and cyanobacteria to offset carbon emissions by 25% with an emphasis on biofuel technology Objective Analyze Data Complete LCCA for Biofuel Determine with sponsor if biofuel will work YES Implement Alternative Technology to reduce CO2 emissions and manage blooms Yes Research alternative sustainable technologies for objective Redefine objective for sponsor approval PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM NO Terminator NO Implement Biofuel
  8. 8. SWOT ANALYSIS & KEY CALCULATIONS Dissolved Oxygen Eqn (for Aeration): DOlake = βDOsaturated water - Oxygen Demand Rate of Oxygen Transfer: ṁoxygen = Kt x D World Health Organization (WHO) Guideslines Satellite Imagery Estimated Cyanobacteria concentrations Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA): Cyanobacteria Blooms to Biofuel Program
  9. 9. 𝑪𝑶 𝟐 C-TEST & LCCA FOR A 400-HA BIOFUEL PRODUCTION FACILITY Result: - 0.156 Result: -0.056 Investment -$101,858,000 Annual Operating Costs -$8,090,000 Periodic Equipment Replacement Costs (Major Equipment)(Every 20 years) -$67,475,000 Periodic Equipment Replacement Costs (Gas Turbine)(Every 15 years) -$6,480,000 Periodic Equipment Replacement Costs (vehicles)(every 10 years) -$400,000 Annual Revenue $14,890,000 Savings of Algae Removal $1,000,000 Year 1 Total Gain/Revenue/Savings $7,800,000 Year 10 Total Gain/Revenue/Savings $7,400,000 Year 15 Total Gain/Revenue/Savings $1,320,000 Year 20 Total Gain/Revenue/Savings -$60,075,000 Net Present Value (NPV) $22,065,721 Payback Period 13.075 years Return on Investment (ROI) 7.64% • Break-even scenario: 49,300 bbl/year at $302 /bbl.
  10. 10. AERATION Right: Levels of Dissolved Oxygen, Phosphate and Nitrogen after Aeration Treatment Southern California Lakes Removal Goal, 25% √ No chemical additives √ Oxygen Content = 2 mg/L √ Nutrient Reduction √ Better circulation
  11. 11. BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES & CHECKLIST BMP CYANOBACTERIA CONTROL PROGRAM BMP TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT BMP SECURITY & EMERGENCY RESPONSE BMP ENERGY MANAGEMENT OF MOVING WATER & PUMPING PLANTS BMP ENVIRONMENT IMPACT PLANNING & BUSINESS PROCESS SUSTAINABILITY PROJECT CHECKLIST LEVEL 1 Sponsor Service Quality LEVEL 2 Implementing the Project LEVEL 3 Shared Vision LEVEL 4 Project Objectives LEVEL 5 Specific Review Guidelines
  12. 12. CONCLUSION OBJECTIVES Unable to Prove Correlation with Rising CO2 Emissions and Cyanobacteria Growth Biofuel Merits Further Research & Development Aeration Worth Pursuing PRINCIPLES OF SUSTAINABILITY Principle of Sustainable Development for Minnesota Interdependence of Public & Private Partnerships to Achieve Sustainability Goals Global Interdependence, Stewardship, Conservation, Indicators, & Shared Responsibility OPPORTUNITIES Safeguard Reservoirs Lower Operational Costs Provide Healthy & Clean Water Leaders for Alternative Energy & CO2 Reduction
  13. 13. RECOMMENDATIONS & FUTURE POTENTIAL Aeration √ Most Effective √ Reduce bloom growth by more than project target amount √ Readily available technology √ Mitigates taste and odor concerns Biofuel √ Research and Development √ Qualitative data over time √ Cyanobacteria – Photosynthestic active organism √ Recycles carbon byproduct Principles of Sustainable Development for Minnesota
  14. 14. KEY REFERENCES NOAA: Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division San Francisco Estuary Institute (Turner, Randy) Civil Engineering Reference Manual, Professional Publications Inc. (Lindeburg, Michael) A Realistic Technology and Engineering Assessment of Algae Biofuel Production (Lundquist, T.J.; Woertz, I.C.; Quinn, N.W.T.; Benemann, J.R.)
  15. 15. AKNOWLEDGMENTS THE AUTHORS ARE GRATEFUL FOR THE SUPPORT FROM DR. TERRI SLIFKO, DR. PAUL ROCHELLE, PROFESSOR BEN RADHAKRISHNAN, AND PROFESSOR HENRY SCHEICHLER QUESTIONS

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