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  1. 1. DRUGS & NARCOTICS By Sachin kumar Tripathi Master in Forensic Science University of Lucknow
  2. 2. A drug can be defined as a natural or synthetic substance that is used to produce physiological effects in man. The word “NARCOTICS” is derived from a Greek word “NARCOTIKOS” which means lethargy or sluggishness. According to the “Pharmacologists” narcotics are the drugs, which adversely affect the activity of the central nervous system (CNS).
  3. 3. DRUGS & NARCOTICS  If used as Medicine - relieves pain - induces sleep - cures psychological disorders.  Misuse or overdose results in - dependence - addiction - toxic symptoms - death.
  4. 4.  The trade of Drugs & Narcotics is controlled by highly organized, influential & resourceful mafia gangs.  India is situated between Golden triangle (Myanmar, Laos & Thailand ) and Golden crescent (Pakistan, Afghanistan & Iran ) which are world famous for Narcotic trade.
  5. 5. NDPS Act: To meet the growing menace of drug abuse, the Government of India promulgated the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (NDPS) Act in 1985. This act has been further amended in 1988 to provide detention powers to the Central and State Government enforcement agencies.
  6. 6. Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs can be classified into three parts Depressants Stimulants and Hallucinogens
  7. 7. Depressants: Depressants Act upon the central nervous system and slow down its activity. Drug abusers term it as “high” which means a state of well-being and comfort – an escape from the reality with which they cannot cope. This imagined state of mind is called euphoria. The drugs that fall in this category are Opium, Morphine, Heroin, Codeine, Synthetic opiates, Barbiturates etc.
  8. 8. Opium Opium is the milky-white juice that is obtained from the pod of the poppy plant. The substance darkens to a blackish brown colour and thickness upon exposure to air. In India, it is grown in some parts of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.
  9. 9. Raw opium has a distinctive and pungent odour. It is most commonly abused by smoking in long stemmed pipes. Chronic use of opium leads to both physical and mental dependence and tolerance builds up. Withdrawal symptoms, like becoming nervous, restless, anxious, sweating, running eyes and nose develop when the drug supply is cut off.
  10. 10. OPIUM POPPY  Dried Poppy  Raw Dried Opium  (Brownish Powder)  Dried Yellow Power  (Morphine)  Heroine  (Refined Opium) The Opium poppy is a plant used to produce opium, a drug that is the source of heroin and several medicines.
  11. 11. The poppy Papaver somniferum is the main source of non-synthetic narcotics
  12. 12. Harvest time
  13. 13. Since ancient times the fluid has been scraped by hand and air dried to produce opium
  14. 14. The milky fluid oozes from incisions in the unripe seedpod
  15. 15. Opium poppy & derivatives - crude opium, codeine, heroin & morphine Opium Smoker
  16. 16. Poppy Straw
  17. 17. Morphine Morphine is obtained from raw opium base through a chemical process in which ten kilogram of raw opium yields one kilogram of morphine base. It usually appears as an odourless white crystalline powder in the illicit market. It may also appear in tablet, capsule and liquid form.
  18. 18.  Morphine is usually administered by injection with hypodermic syringe.  When consumed morphine creates both mental and physical dependence in the user.  Euphoric state is obtained with morphine, and the user may present a sleepy or relaxed appearance with constricted pupils of the eyes.  Morphine is 3 to 5 times stronger than opium as an analgesic.
  19. 19. Heroin  Heroin is derived from morphine.  It is odorless crystalline white powder which does not have any known medical use.  Heroin in impure form is known as BROWN SUGAR.  It is available in the form of powder and capsules.  It is 10 to 15 times more potent than morphine.  Heroin is either injected or sniffed into the body.
  20. 20. The effects of heroin are similar to those of opium and morphine, but due to its high potency its effect on the user is more intense and destructive
  21. 21. Heroin in powder & pill forms with balloons Heroin Injection
  22. 22. Codeine:  Codeine is also derived from morphine, but is less effective and is used as analgesic.  It is available in tablets, capsules and in liquid form.  It is administered orally or by injection.  In medicine, codeine is the base of many pain relievers and cough remedies.  Addicts use codeine when more powerful opiates are not available.
  23. 23. Barbiturates: Barbiturates are a group of non-narcotic drugs that are derived from barbituric acid. They are commonly referred to as “downers”, because they relax, create a feeling of well-being, and produce sleep. They act on the central nervous system to suppress its vital functions. There are about 25 barbiturate derivatives, but only five, are most commonly used. Barbiturates come in tablets, powders and capsules.
  24. 24. Stimulants Stimulants excite or stimulate the central nervous system. They can be obtained from natural sources and can be synthesized. The drugs that fall in this category are Cocaine, Amphetamine, Methamphetamine etc.
  25. 25. Stimulents
  26. 26. Cocaine  Cocaine is the active alkaloid obtained from the coca leaves.  When extracted and refined, cocaine is a white crystalline powder.  It causes mental but no physical dependence.  Tolerance does not develop.
  27. 27.  Cocaine produces a sense of euphoria and a feeling of increased alertness and vigor accompanied by the suppression of hunger, fatigue, and boredom.  Cocaine is usually sniffed, but it also injected.  The after effects of cocaine include anxiety, restlessness, and feelings of depression.
  28. 28. Coca Leaves
  29. 29. Cocaine
  30. 30. Cocaine weighing equipment Coca Powder
  31. 31. Coke Spoon
  32. 32. Crack Cocain - Once in a lifetime experience Vials of Crack
  33. 33. Amphetamines  Amphetamines are synthetic non- narcotic dangerous drugs that stimulate the central nervous system.  Amphetamines are available in capsule, tablet or liquid form. They are taken either orally or by injection.
  34. 34. They are widely used by truck drivers, night watchmen and students to keep them awake or increase alertness, which is often followed by a decrease in fatigue and a loss of appetite.  However, once the effects of drug are over depression may set in.
  35. 35. Hallucinogens These drugs can cause marked alterations in normal thought processes, perceptions and moods. The drugs that fall under this category are Marijuana (Ganja), LSD etc.
  36. 36. Marijuana (Ganja)  Marijuana is derived from a plant which secretes a sticky resin is known as HASHISH /CHARAS.  The dried flowering tips stem and seeds are used for preparing cigars and smoked as GANJA.  The leaf preparations are often taken in some parts of our country and is called as BHANG.
  37. 37. Marijuana abuse can lead to metal dependency. A distortion of time is one of the effects. Other effects are alterations in depth perception, powers of concentration, peripheral vision, distance Perception, emotions, motivation etc. Marijuana has no known therapeutic use.
  38. 38. HASHISH (CNS Drug) extracted from Cannabis (Grass, Pot, Weed, Ganja) Marijuana/ Ganja is a drug that produces psychological and physical effects. It is made from the dried leaves and flowering tops of the hemp plant. Users commonly smoke marijuana in cigarettes or pipes.
  39. 39. Fields of Marijuana
  40. 40. Marijuana Bud Marijuana Plant
  41. 41. Hashish (sole) Hashish in bag
  42. 42. Marijuana Joints Marijuana in Bags Marijuana Products Marijuana seeds and joints
  43. 43. LSD (Lysergic Acid Diethylamide )  It is the most potent hallucinogenic drug derived from ergot, a fungus that grows on rye.  It does not have any known medical use.  It is a tasteless, odourless, and colourless liquid in its pure state and is normally taken orally.  On the illicit market, it can be found as a tablet, crystalline powder in various capsules, or in liquid form in ampoules.
  44. 44.  It is often impregnated in sugar cubes and can be put on the back of postage stamps to be eaten by the receiver.  LSD primarily affects the central nervous system by producing changes in mood and behaviour.  It may also dilate eye pupils, cause tremor and elevate temperature and blood pressure.
  45. 45. ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION: Drugs can be administered by - swallowing - smoking - injection (skin popping/ i.m./ i.v.(main lining) ) - sniffing/ inhaling The resulting physiological & psychological changes are Influenced by - what the person sees, hears, smells & touches and - his general mood & expectations
  46. 46. CONTROLLING AGENCIES : CBN – Central Bureau of Narcotics. BSF - Border Security Force. CBI - Central Bureau of Investigation. NCB – Narcotics Control Bureau. DRI - Directorate of Rev. Intelligence Customs & Central Excise State police. State Excise Department.
  47. 47. STEROIDS Anabolic steroids build muscle mass .  However produces liver and adrenal gland damage.  Also produces infertility and impotence in men and virilisation or masculinity in women.
  48. 48. Drug possession is a crime either for personal use, distribution, sale or otherwise. Illegal drugs fall into different categories and sentences vary depending on the amount, type of drug, circumstances, and jurisdiction. Drugs trade / Trafficking includes the farming, manufacturing and distribution of addictive drugs and is prohibited across the world.. DRUG POSSESSION/Trade/Trafficking
  49. 49. COLLECTION AND PRESERVATION The field investigator has the responsibility of ensuring that the evidence is properly packaged and labeled for the laboratory analysis. The original container in which all packages are kept must be marked with information that is sufficient to ensure identification by the officer in future. The integrity of the evidence from the time of seizure until its presentation to the court is to be maintained to establish chain of custody.
  50. 50.  The quantity to be drawn in each sample for chemical test shall not be less than 5 grams in respect of all narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances except in the case of opium, ganja and charas (hashish) where a quantity of 24 grams in each case is required for chemical test.  The seized drugs in the packages/containers should be thoroughly mixed to make it homogeneous and representative sample is drawn from it
  51. 51.  Drugs are to be accurately weighed.  Individual pills / tablets are to be counted carefully.  Liquids are to be measured in liters or mls.
  52. 52. Drug Identification  To meet the legal requirements of the NDPS Act, the forensic science laboratories are equipped with sophisticated analytical instruments for analysis of drugs and drug related substances. The laboratory analysis of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances proceed from screening tests to more specific confirmatory tests including quantitative estimation of the drug.