O slideshow foi denunciado.
Seu SlideShare está sendo baixado. ×

ACD FINAL SEMINAR REPORT (1).docx

Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
1
A Seminar Report on
Advanced Construction Equipment’s And Technology
Submitted in the partial fulfillment of the require...
2
Shivajinagar Vidya Prasarak Mandal’s
Collage of Engineering, Malegaon (BK)
Tal:-Baramati Dist:-Pune 413115
SAVITRIBAI PH...
3
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We have great pleasure in delivering the seminar on the topic “Advanced Construction
Equipment And Techn...
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Carregando em…3
×

Confira estes a seguir

1 de 20 Anúncio
Anúncio

Mais Conteúdo rRelacionado

Mais recentes (20)

Anúncio

ACD FINAL SEMINAR REPORT (1).docx

  1. 1. 1 A Seminar Report on Advanced Construction Equipment’s And Technology Submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirements for Bachelor’s Degree in Civil Engineering Submitted by Mr. Raut Shubham Vaman 2130D Mr. Gadekar Gaurav Hanumant 2066 Under the Guidance Prof.P.S.Taware Department Of Civil Engineering Shivajinagar Vidya Prasarak Mandal’s Collage of Engineering, Malegaon (BK) Tal:-Baramati Dist:-Pune (2022-2023)
  2. 2. 2 Shivajinagar Vidya Prasarak Mandal’s Collage of Engineering, Malegaon (BK) Tal:-Baramati Dist:-Pune 413115 SAVITRIBAI PHULE PUNE UNIVERSITY CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the following students have satisfactorily carried out the T.E.Civil Engg. Semester-I Seminar entitled “Advanced Construction Equipment And Technology” This work is being submitted for the award of Degree of Bachelor of Civil Engineering. It is submitted in partial fulfillment of prescribed syllabus of SPPU Pune for the academic year 2022-2023 SEM-I. Submitted by Mr. Raut Shubham Vaman 2130D Mr. Gadekar Gaurav Hanumant 2066 Prof. P.S. Taware Dr. G.K. Kate (Guide) (H.O.D) Prof. G. D. Chavan External Examiner Dr. S.M. Mukane (Seminar Co-ordinator) (Principal)
  3. 3. 3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We have great pleasure in delivering the seminar on the topic “Advanced Construction Equipment And Technology” This seminar has helped me to express the extracurricular knowledge with incredible help and inspiring guidance from Prof. P.S. Taware Sir Department of Civil Engineering. We owe sincere thanks, more than we can express, towards Dr. G.K. Kate Sir Head of Civil Engineering Department, as all the results of his affectionate encouragement. We are grateful to Principal Dr. S. M. Mukane Sir for his encouragement and for giving us guidance and valuable time for the discussion. We express our sincere thanks to all the staffs, parents and colleagues who have helped us directly in completing this seminar. We are grateful for the many useful comments and suggestions provided by reviewers, which have resulted significant improvements in seminar. Your Sincerely, Mr. Raut Shubham Vaman. Mr. Gadekar Gaurav Hanumant.
  4. 4. 4 ABSTRACT The construction industry is experiencing changes in its processes and work methods, and the advancement of new technologies in recent decades has led to a new concept known as Construction 4.0, coined in 2016 in Germany. Since its definition is still diffuse, it was deemed necessary to conduct a review on the publications in this field to grasp how this concept is being understood. For that purpose, a bibliometric analysis was conducted among 260 research articles using seven keywords. The results reveal that the number of publications is growing exponentially, with the USA, the UK, and China being leaders in this field; besides, four technologies are essential to understand Construction 4.0 at present time: 3D printing, big data, virtual reality, and Internet of Things. The results of this review suggest that further reviews should be conducted every 3 years to grasp the rapid evolution of Construction 4.0
  5. 5. 5 CONTENT Sr. no. Content Page no. 1 Introduction 6 1.1 Aim 7 1.2 Objectives 7 2 Methodology 8 2.1 Modern Construction Technology 8 2.1.1 3D Printing 8 2.1.2 Building Information Modeling (MID) 9 2.1.3 Computer aided design (CAD) 9 2.2 Modern Construction Material 10 2.2.1 Fly Ash Bricks 10 2.2.2 Transparent Aluminum 11 2.2.3 Carbon Fiber 11 2.2.4 Solar Panel Tiles 12 2.2.5 Liquid Granite 12 2.3 Modern Construction Equipment 13 2.3.1 Excavating Equipment 13 2.3.2 Earth-moving Equipment 14 2.3.3 Hoisting Equipment 14 2.3.4 Dredging Equipment 14 2.3.5 Pumping Equipment 14 2.4 Advantages and Disadvantages of Modern Methods of Construction 15 3 Case Study 16 3.1 Burj Dubai, Burj Khalifa 16 3.2 Structural Systems 16 4 Literature Review 18 5 Conclusion 19 6 Reference 20
  6. 6. 6 1) Introduction Now a days the construction technology and equipments becomes very advanced. Advancements in new construction technologies have continuously driven construction forward. A big number of companies are slow to adopt new construction technologies. We're ready to build stronger, taller, and more energy-efficient structures. The advanced construction techniques such as under water construction, trenchless technology and many new innovative materials used in advanced construction techniques and equipments to speed up the construction of any building works. Technology has created construction sites safer and employees more efficient. It allowed us to extend productivity, improve collaboration, and tackle a lot of complicated projects. Technology contributes vital price at each stage of construction from about to finishing by optimizing the potency and productivity of a construction project. Technology contributes vital price at each stage of construction from about to finishing by optimizing the potency and productivity of a construction project.
  7. 7. 7 1.1) Aim: To Know Advanced Construction Equipment and Technology 1.2) Objectives :- 1. To boost Construction Productivity. 2. To improve Quality. 3. To improve User Satisfaction. 4. To reduce Time.
  8. 8. 8 2) METHODOLOGY 2.1) Modern Construction Technology :- 1. 3D Printing 2. Building Information Modeling (BIM) 3. Computer aided design (CAD) 4. Research and Development 5. Site Investigations and Surveying 6. RMC Plant 2.1.1) 3D PRINTING :- There are a variety of 3D printing materials, including thermoplastics such as acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), metals (including powders), resins and ceramics. 3D printing or additive manufacturing is the construction of a three-dimensional object from a CAD model or a digital 3D model. It can be done in a variety of processes in which material is deposited, joined or solidified under computer control, with material being added together (such as plastics, liquids or powder grains being fused), typically layer by layer. In the 1980s, 3D printing techniques were considered suitable only for the production of functional or aesthetic prototypes, and a more appropriate term for it at the time was rapid prototyping. As of 2019, the precision, repeatability, and material range of 3D printing have increased to the point that some 3D printing processes are considered viable as an industrial- production technology, whereby the term additive manufacturing can be used synonymously with 3D printing. One of the key advantages of 3D printing[5] is the ability to produce very complex shapes or geometries that would be otherwise impossible to construct by hand, including hollow parts or parts with internal truss structures to reduce weight. Fused deposition modeling (FDM), which uses a continuous filament of a thermoplastic material, is the most common 3D printing process in use as of 2020.
  9. 9. 9 2.1.2) Building Information Modeling (BIM) :- Building information modeling (BIM) is a process supported by various tools, technologies and contracts involving the generation and management of digital representations of physical and functional characteristics of places. Building information models (BIMs) are computer files (often but not always in proprietary formats and containing proprietary data) which can be extracted, exchanged or networked to support decision-making regarding a built asset. BIM software is used by individuals, businesses and government agencies who plan, design, construct, operate and maintain buildings and diverse physical infrastructures, such as water, refuse, electricity, gas, communication utilities, roads, railways, bridges, ports and tunnels. The concept of BIM has been in development since the 1970s, but it only became an agreed term in the early 2000s. Development of standards and adoption of BIM has progressed at different speeds in different countries; standards developed in the United Kingdom from 2007 onwards have formed the basis of international standard ISO 19650, launched in January 2019. 2.1.3) Computer aided design (CAD):- Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computers (or workstations) to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design. This software is used to increase the productivity of the designer, improve the quality of design, improve communications through documentation, and to create a database for manufacturing. Designs made through CAD software are helpful in protecting products and inventions when used in patent applications. CAD output is often in the form of electronic files for print, machining, or other manufacturing operations. The terms computer-aided drafting (CAD) and computer aided design and drafting (CADD) are also used. CAD software for mechanical design uses either vector-based graphics to depict the objects of traditional drafting, or may also produce raster graphics showing the overall appearance of designed objects. However, it involves more than just shapes. As in the manual drafting of technical and engineering drawings, the output of CAD must convey information, such as materials, processes, dimensions, and tolerances, according to application-specific convention.
  10. 10. 10 2.2) Modern Construction Material :- 1. Fly ash bricks. 2. Translucent concrete. 3. Richlite. 4. Sensi tiles. 5. Transparent aluminium. 6. Liquid granite. 7. Carbon Nano-tubes. 8. Carbon fiber. 9. Unfired clay bricks. 10. Solar Pannel roofing tiles. 2.2.1) Fly ash bricks:- Fly ash bricks are building materials containing class c fly ash. In India, the fly ash was first used in rihad dam which is located at Pipri sonbhadra district in uttar Pradesh. The composition of fly ash bricks are fly ash, lime, gypsum, sand, cement. These bricks are environment friendly and they can be manufactured at construction site itself. Fly ash brick (FAB) is a building material, specifically masonry units, containing class C or class F fly ash and water. Compressed at 28 MPa (272 atm) and cured for 24 hours in a 66 °C steam bath, then toughened with an air entrainment agent, the bricks can last for more than 100 freeze-thaw cycles. Owing to the high concentration of calcium oxide in class C fly ash, the brick is described as "self-cementing". The manufacturing method saves energy, reduces mercury pollution in the environment, and often costs 20% less than traditional clay brick manufacturing.
  11. 11. 11 2.2.2) Transparent aluminium:- It is extremely durable material with excellent optical transparency. To be used for windows, domes, plates, rods and tubes with a wide range of sizes and varieties. It has excellent clarity. Outstanding strength and hardness. Cost effective advanced material solution. It is used in aerospace, security, defence and energy and consumer products. Aluminium oxynitride (marketed under the name ALON by Sur met Corporation is a transparent ceramic composed of aluminium, oxygen and nitrogen. ALON is optically transparent (≥ 80%) in the near- ultraviolet, visible, and mid wave-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. It is four times as hard as fused silica glass, 85% as hard as sapphire, and nearly 115% as hard as magnesium aluminate spinel. Since it has a cubic spinel structure, it can be fabricated to transparent windows, plates, domes, rods, tubes, and other forms using conventional ceramic powder processing techniques. 2.2.3) Carbon fiber:- Carbon fibers or carbon fibers (alternatively CF, graphite fiber or graphite fiber) are fibers about 5 to 10 micrometers (0.00020–0.00039 in) in diameter and composed mostly of carbon atoms. Carbon fibers have several advantages: high stiffness, high tensile strength, high strength to weight ratio, high chemical resistance, high-temperature tolerance, and low thermal expansion. These properties have made carbon fiber very popular in aerospace, civil engineering, military, motorsports, and other competition sports. However, they are relatively expensive compared to similar fibers, such as glass fiber, basalt fibers, or plastic fibers.
  12. 12. 12 2.2.4) Solar Pannel Tiles:- Solar shingles, also called photovoltaic shingles, are solar panels designed to look like and function as conventional roofing materials, such as asphalt shingle or slate, while also producing electricity. Solar shingles are a type of solar energy solution known as building- integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). There are several varieties of solar shingles, including shingle-sized solid panels that take the place of a number of conventional shingles in a strip, semi-rigid designs containing several silicon solar cells that are sized more like conventional shingles, and newer systems using various thin-film solar cell technologies that match conventional shingles both in size and flexibility. There are also products using a more traditional number of silicon solar cells per panel reaching as much as 100 watts DC rating per shingle. 2.2.5) Liquid Granite :- Liquid granite may be used to fix a variety of issues, including holes and cracks in your countertop, as well as to create a whole new countertop. This is a type of resin epoxy that has been combined with carefully chosen aggregates that helps it resemble granite as it is poured into the specific surface. It comes in a sort of bucket that allows it to be easily transported to the location of repair, and it simply has to be combined with water to form. The liquid granite can be water-resistant, but not so much heat-resistant, as the heat can easily pass through it and reach the surface underneath it. But it is believed to be a long-lasting and simple-to-use product. But there’s more to it. To apply it, you’ll need a complete setup to avoid spilling it and enable it to harden completely.
  13. 13. 13 2.3) Modern Construction Equipment:- 1. Excavating Equipment a) Power Shovel b) Hoe c) Dragline 2. Hauling Equipment 3. Earth-moving Equipment 4. Hoisting Equipment a) Mobile Cranes b) Tower Cranes c) Crawler Mounted Cranes d) Passenger Hoist e) Builders Hoist 5. Dredging Equipment 6. Conveying Equipment 7. Compacting Equipment 8. Pumping Equipment 9. Pile Driving Equipment 10. Material Testing Equipment 11. Drilling Equipment 2.3.1) Excavating Equipment:- Excavators are heavy construction equipment consisting of a boom, dipper (or stick), bucket and cab on a rotating platform known as the "house". The house sits atop an undercarriage with tracks or wheels. They are a natural progression from the steam shovels and often mistakenly called power shovels. All movement and functions of a hydraulic excavator are accomplished through the use of hydraulic fluid, with hydraulic cylinders and hydraulic motors. Due to the linear actuation of hydraulic cylinders, their mode of operation is fundamentally different from cable-operated excavators which use winches and steel ropes to accomplish the movements.
  14. 14. 14 2.3.2) Earth-moving Equipment:- Earthmoving equipment is heavy equipment, typically heavy-duty vehicles designed for construction operations which involve earthworks. They are used to move large amounts of earth, to dig foundations for landscaping and so on. Earthmoving equipment may also be referred to as; heavy trucks, heavy machines, construction equipment, engineering equipment, heavy vehicles and heavy hydraulics. Most earthmoving equipment uses hydraulic drives as the primary source of motion. 2.3.3) Hoisting Equipment:- A hoist is a device used for lifting or lowering a load by means of a drum or lift-wheel around which rope or chain wraps. It may be manually operated, electrically or pneumatically driven and may use chain, fiber or wire rope as its lifting medium. The most familiar form is an elevator, the car of which is raised and lowered by a hoist mechanism. Most hoists couple to their loads using a lifting hook. Today, there are a few governing bodies for the North American overhead hoist industry which include the Hoist Manufactures Institute, ASME, and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. HMI is a product counsel of the Material Handling Industry of America consisting of hoist manufacturers promoting safe use of their products. 2.3.4) Dredging Equipment:- Dredging is the excavation of material from a water environment. Possible reasons for dredging include improving existing water features; reshaping land and water features to alter drainage, navigability, and commercial use; constructing dams, dikes, and other controls for streams and shorelines; and recovering valuable mineral deposits or marine life having commercial value. In all but a few situations the excavation is undertaken by a specialist floating plant, known as a dredger. Dredging is carried out in many different locations and for many different purposes, but the main objectives are usually to recover material of value or use, or to create a greater depth of water. Dredges have been classified as suction or mechanical. 2.3.5) Pumping Equipment:- A pump is a device that moves fluids (liquids or gases), or sometimes slurries, by mechanical action, typically converted from electrical energy into hydraulic energy. Pumps can be classified into three major groups according to the method they use to move the fluid: direct lift, displacement, and gravity pumps. Pumps operate by some mechanism (typically reciprocating or rotary), and consume energy to perform mechanical work moving the fluid. Pumps operate via many energy sources, including manual operation, electricity, engines, or wind power, and come in many sizes, from microscopic for use in medical applications, to large industrial pumps.
  15. 15. 15 2.4) Advantages and Disadvantages of Modern Methods of Construction (MMC): Advantages of MMC Disadvantages of MMC Smaller demands on facilities and equipment construction site. Requirements for size and site equipment for handling MMC and components of MMC. Safer working environment at the off-site production of building components; faster construction over labor costs. Security risks when mounting MMC components MMC at the construction site. The possibility of using state budget funds, special purpose funds, or foundations. Higher costs for construction products (prefabricated and higher costs for subcontracting) Fewer design errors and better quality in the manufacturing of components. Initial costs of setting up a production line for manufacturing components. Easier quality control at the factory. Time-consuming proposals. Less waste on the construction site and less environmental pollution during construction easier quality control at the factory. Compliance and quality control in the contact joints. Less waste on construction site and less environmental pollution during construction. Multiple transport materials: into the factory and from factory to construction.
  16. 16. 16 3) Case Study :- 3.1) BURJ DUBAI, BURJ KHALIFA The Tallest Man-made Structure ever built, Opens in Dubai. A mixed use development which has office, retail, hotels and residential spaces. The Burj Khalifa was revealed to be 828m (2,716ft) high, far taller than the previous record holder, Taipei 101. With a total built- up area of about 6 million sq ft, Burj Khalifa features nearly 2 million sq ft of residential space and over 300,000 sq ft of prime office space, in addition to the area occupied by the keenly awaited Armani Hotel Dubai and the Armani Residences. The tower also lays claim to the highest occupied floor, the tallest service lift, and the world's highest observation deck - on the 124th floor. The world's highest mosque and swimming pool will meanwhile be located on the 158th and 76th floors. Burj Dubai includes 163 habitable floors plus 46 maintenance levels in the spire and 9 parking levels in the basement Floor Area 309,473 sq m The tapering spire is made out of reinforced concrete, steel, stainless steel and glass. The exterior cladding of reflective glazing is designed to withstand Dubai's extreme summer temperatures. The building contains more than 1,000 apartments and 49 floors of office space, served by 57 lifts. There are a total of four swimming pools and a private library A 160-room hotel carrying the Giorgio Armani logo will occupy the lower part of the tower. The foundations were dug to depths of 50m (164 ft). 3.2) STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS The structure is modular in nature with a central hexagonal shaft or core and three branches that spread out at 120 degrees from each other. Attached to these branches are wall like columns at 9 meter spacing that simply drop off as each leg sets back, avoiding complex and costly structural transfers. In addition to its aesthetic and functional advantages, the spiraling "Y" shaped plan was utilized to shape the structural core of Burj Khalifa. This design helps to reduce the wind forces on the tower, as well as to keep the structure simple and foster constructability. The structural system can be described as a "buttressed core", and consists of high performance concrete wall construction Each of the wings buttress the others via a six-sided central core, or hexagonal hub. This central core provides the torsional resistance of the structure, similar to a closed pipe or axle Comic or walls extend from the central core to near the end of each wing, terminating in thickened hammer head walls. These corridor walls and hammerhead walls behave similar to the webs and flanges of a beam to resist the wind shears and moments Perimeter columns and flat plate floor construction complete the system.
  17. 17. 17 Year Work Completed January 2004 Excavation Started February 2004 Piling Started March 2005 Superstructure Started June 2006 Level 50 Reached January 2007 Level 100 Reached March 2007 Level 110 Reached April 2007 Level 120 Reached May 2007 Level 130 Reached July 2007 Level 141 Reached – World’s Tallest Building September 2007 Level 150 Reached – World’s Tallest Free-Standing Structure April 2008 Level 160 Reached – World’s Tallest Man-Made Structure January 2009 Completion of Spire – Burj Dubai Tops Out September 2009 Exterior Cladding Completed January 2010 Official Launch Ceremony
  18. 18. 18 4) Literature Review: The construction industry is experiencing changes in its processes and work methods, and the advancement of new technologies in recent decades has led to a new concept known as Construction 4.0, coined in 2016 in Germany. Since its definition is still diffuse, it was deemed necessary to conduct a review on the publications in this field to grasp how this concept is being understood. For that purpose, a bibliometric analysis was conducted among 260 research articles using seven keywords. The results reveal that the number of publications is growing exponentially, with the USA, the UK, and China being leaders in this field; besides, four technologies are essential to understand Construction 4.0 at present time: 3D printing, big data, virtual reality, and Internet of Things. The results of this review suggest that further reviews should be conducted every 3 years to grasp the rapid evolution of Construction 4.0.
  19. 19. 19 5) Conclusion: All these are useful in speeding up construction activities and making them economical. Since the pandemic, it has become crucial to save money and use it wisely for other investments. There are different techniques too that can be employed in construction activities. Initially, these techniques may cost a lot of money as they are sophisticated, but as time will go, it will prove to be economical since maintenance and other extra charges will be reduced. Therefore, it is the sole responsibility of the civil engineer to make use of time and money in the most efficient manner.
  20. 20. 20 6) Reference:- 1. Boyes, H.; Hallaq, B.; Cunningham, J.; Watson, T. The industrial internet of things (IIoT): An analysis framework. Comput. Ind. 2018, 101, 1–12. [CrossRef] 2. Berger, R. Roland Berger Digitization in the Construction Industry: Building Europe’s Road to “Construction 4.0”; Roland Berger GMBH: Munich, Germany, 2016. 3. Sawhney, A.; Riley, M.; Irizarry, J. Construction 4.0—An Innovation Platform for the Built Environment; Routledge: New York, NY, USA, 2020; ISBN 978-0-429-39810-0. 4. Beddiar, K.; Grellier, C.; Woods, E. Construction 4.0: Réinventer le Bâtiment Grâce au Numérique: BIM, DfMA, Lean Management; Dunod: Paris, France, 2019; ISBN 2100790501. 5. Fokaides, P.A.; Apanaviciene, R.; Cerneckien ˇ e, J.; Jurelionis, A.; Klumbyte, E.; ˙ Kriauciunaite-Neklejonoviene, V.; Pupeikis, D.; Rekus, D.; Sadauskiene, J.; Seduikyte, L.; et al. Research Challenges and Advancements in the field of Sustainable Energy Technologies in the Built Environment. Sustainability 2020, 12, 8417. [CrossRef] 6. Zavadskas, E.K.; Antucheviˇciene, J.; Vilutiene, T.; Adeli, H. Sustainable Decision-Making in Civil Engineering, Construction and Building Technology. Sustainability 2017, 10, 14. [CrossRef] 7. Bock, T. The future of construction automation: Technological disruption and the upcoming ubiquity of robotics. Autom. Constr. 2015, 59, 113–121. [CrossRef] 8. De Soto, B.G.; Agustí-Juan, I.; Hunhevicz, J.; Joss, S.; Graser, K.; Habert, G.; Adey, B.T. Productivity of digital fabrication in construction: Cost and time analysis of a robotically built wall. Autom. Constr. 2018, 92, 297–311. [CrossRef] 9. Hofmann, E.; Rüsch, M. Industry 4.0 and the current status as well as future prospects on logistics. Comput. Ind. 2017, 89, 23–34. [CrossRef] 10. Lasi, H.; Fettke, P.; Kemper, H.-G.; Feld, T.; Hoffmann, M. Industry 4.0. Bus. Inf. Syst. Eng. 2014, 6, 239–242. [CrossRef]

×