Unit – 2nd
THE INTERNET, THE WEB, AND
• Want to communicate with a friend
across the town, in another state, or even
in another country?
• Searching for a long lost friend?
• Looking for travel or entertainment
• Perhaps you’re searching or exploring
different career paths
For these and other information-
related activities most people use
the INTERNET AND the WEB
INTERNET AND WEB
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INTERNET AND WEB ?
It is an interconnected mesh of computers
and data lines that connects millions of
people and organizations.
It is the foundation of the digital revolution
and allows people around the world to share
words, images, and any digital file almost
The Web provides an easy to – use
interface to internet resources.
It has become an everyday tool for all
of us to use
Launched in 1969 in US funded project – Advanced
Research project Agency Network (ARPANET)
A large network that connects together smaller network
all over the globe
It is a physical network.
It is made up of wires, cables, satellites, and rules for
exchanging information between computers connected in
The internet connects millions of computers and
resources throughout the world
WEB / WWW
WORLD WIDE WEB – Launched in 1991,
provided Multimedia interface to internet
– 1991 focused on linking existing information. Ex- Google
search was created
– 2001 evolved to support more dynamic content creation
and social interaction. Ex Facebook is best known web application.
– Current Web focuses on applications that automatically
prepare personalized content for users. Ex – Google’s app on traffic,
Temperature, Weather forecasting, etc.
WORKS OF INTERNET AND WEB
The most common uses are the following -
– Ex-Facebook, What sapp, Twitter, Instagram, Linked In
– Ex- Myntra, Amazon, FlipKart.
– Ex- Google, Bing, Yahoo
– Ex- Simplilearn, Khan academy, Byju’s App,.
– Ex- Dailymotion, Youtube.
Answer the following orally
What is the difference between the internet and the
State how internet and the web started. What are
the three Web Generations ?
List and describe five of the most common uses of
the internet and the web ?
ISP (Internet Service Provider)
BSNL (Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited)
VSNL (Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited)
DSL (Digital subscriber line)
Internet access on computer is similar as the to
connect a phone to telephone system
– It is
a company such as AT&T, Verizon, Comcast, or Bright
House that provides Internet access to companies, families,
and even mobile users. ISPs use fiber-optics, satellite,
copper wire, and other forms to provide Internet access to
Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited, d/b/a BSNL is an Indian State
-owned telecommunications company. It provides internet
services through its nationwide telecommunications network
Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited, popularly known
as VSNL was an Indian based telecommunication company.
subscriber line is a family of technologies that are
used to transmit digital data over telephone lines.
Cable internet reaches
your home through the same coaxial cables that your
TV service likely uses.
A wireless modem is
a modem that bypasses the telephone system and
connects directly to a wireless network, through
which it can directly access the Internet connectivity
provided by an Internet service provider (ISP).
URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
TLD (Top Level Domain Name)
HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)
Cascading Style Sheet (CSS)
Programs that provide access to web resources
A URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is a
unique identifier used to locate a resource on the
internet. It is also referred to as
a web address.
- Internet Protocols (IP) are rules for
exchanging data between computers. The protocol http is
used for web traffic and is most widely used.
– It indicates the specific address
where the resource is located.
– Also called as Web suffix. Last part
of the domain name following the dot(.) It is Top level
Domain (TLD). Identifies the type of organisation. Ex -
.com, .org, etc
– Once the browser has connected to the
website a document file is sent back to your computer.
This document typically contains Hypertext Mark-up
Language (HTML) for displaying webpages.
.co.in Indian Company Site
A mobile browser is a
web browser designed for use on a mobile device
such as a mobile phone or PDA
improve web presentation capabilities CSS was introduced
by W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) It was intended to
allow Web Designers to define the look and feel of their Web
Pages, and to separate contents from
scripting language which is lightweight and
– Advanced use of Java script used to
create interactive websites that respond quickly.
Ex- Google Maps uses AJAX
Answer the following orally
What are the functions of an ISP, a browser, and a
mobile browser ?
What are URLs, HTML, web pages, hyperlinks,
CSS, Java script, AJAX, and applets ?
– Plugins are programs that start automatically
and operate as a part of your browser Many websites require
you to have one or more plugins to fully experience their
content Ex- Adobe Acrobat Reader, Flash Player, VLC Media
Programs that make computing easier.
Specialised Utility Program
– Filters block access to selected sites. Not all the
aspects of Internet are appropriate for all audiences. Filter
programs allow parents as well as organizations to block out
selected sites and set time limits. Ex- in Facebook
File Transfer Utilities
Software to copy files to your computer
from specially configured server
is the process of putting web
pages, images and files onto a web server.
is the process of getting web
pages, images and files from a web server.
To make a file visible to everyone on the
internet, you will need to upload it.
is a communication protocol for peer-
to-peer file sharing which is used to distribute data
and electronic files over the Internet.
- The File
Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard
network protocol used for the transfer of computer
files between a client and server on a computer
network. FTP is built on a client-server model
architecture using separate control and data
connections between the client and the server.
- Web file
transfer refers to a variety of services that allow
users to share files over ... Web-based sharing
services allow users to share videos and pictures
A collection of software utilities that protect a
user's computer from viruses and other
malware. Managed by a single control panel
interface that displays all the functions,
antivirus and firewall are typically the primary
elements. Ex – McAfee’s Internet Security
and Quick Heal.
INTERNET SECURITY SUITS
Collection of utility programs designed to maintain your
security and privacy while you are on the web
Answer the following orally
1 What is web utilities ?
2 What are plug-ins and filter used for ?
What are file transfer utilities ? Define downloading
4 What are Internet security Sites ?
Internet communication is referred to as the sharing of information, ideas, or simply
words over the World Wide Web, or the Internet. The Internet consists of a worldwide
string of connected networks that exchanges data through packet switching using the
standardized Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP)
Electronic mail is a method of exchanging messages between people using electronic devices.
Invented by Ray Tomlinson, email first entered limited use in the 1960s and by the mid-1970s had
taken the form now recognized as email. Email operates across computer networks, which today
is primarily the Internet
stands for Short Message Service, which
is the formal name for the technology used for text
messaging. It's a way to send short, text-only
messages from one phone to another. These messages
are usually sent over a cellular data network.
Messaging is a method of communication between software components or applications.
A messaging system is a peer-to-peer facility: A messaging client can send messages to, and
receive messages from, any other client. ... The sender and the receiver need to know only
which message format and which destination to use
standard way to send messages that include multimedia
content to and from a mobile phone over a cellular
network....The MMS standard extends the
core SMS (Short Message Service) capability, allowing the
exchange of text messages greater than 160 characters in
is a way of chatting between
two or more people by typing text. The text is then sent by
computers over a network such as the Internet. Instant
messaging must have an instant messaging client that
hooks up to a service that can send instant messages.
is a popular free social networking website
that allows registered users to create profiles, upload photos
and video, send messages and keep in touch with friends,
family and colleagues.
A social networking service is an online platform which people use to build social
networks or social relationship with other people who share similar personal or career
interests, activities, backgrounds or real-life connections. The social network is
distributed across various computer networks
is a social networking site designed
specifically for the business community. The goal of the
site is to allow registered members to establish and
document networks of people they know and trust
professionally. ... Basic membership for LinkedIn is free.
Network members are called “connections.”
was a social network owned and operated by
Google. The network was launched on June 28, 2011, in an
attempt to challenge other social networks, linking other
Google products like Google Drive, Blogger and YouTube
Google is named after the mathematical term "googol,” defined as the value
represented by a one followed by 100 zeros. Google is the leading Internet search
engine; its primary service is offering consumers targeted search results which is
selected from more than 8 billion web pages
are groups of people in the Google+
social platform created to enable easier, more targeted
content sharing that are meant to more accurately represent
real-life information sharing. ... In addition, having Google+
followers and having people "+1" your content
improves Google search engine ranking.
is a communication software
product developed by Google. Originally a feature of Google+,
Hangouts became a standalone product in 2013, when
Google also began integrating features from Google+
Messenger and Google Talk into Hangouts
was a social networking website owned and operated by Google.
The service was designed to help users meet new and old friends and
maintain existing relationships. The website was named after its creator,
Google employee Orkut Büyükkökten. Orkut was one of the most visited
websites in India and Brazil in 2008.
is an American microblogging and social networking service
on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets".
Tweets were originally restricted to 140 characters, but on November 7,
2017, this limit was doubled to 280 for all languages except Chinese,
Japanese, and Korean
is an American photo and video-sharing social networking
service owned by Facebook, Inc. It was created by Kevin Systrom and
Mike Krieger, and launched in October 2010 exclusively on iOS.
is an American video-sharing platform headquartered in
San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley,
Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005.
Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion; YouTube
now operates as one of Google's subsidiaries
Blogs, Microblogs, Webcasts, Podcasts, and Wikis
In addition to social networking sites, there are other web 2.0 applications that help
ordinary people communicate across the web
he term "blog" is short for "weblog," which refers to an online journal. Blogs began as personal
mini sites that people used to record their opinions, stories, and other writings as well as photos and videos.
As the web has grown and changed, blogs have gained more recognition and merit.
refers to a type of blogging that uses very quick, small and short messages either in
audio, text or video forms. As the name implies, the messages are very short and crisp and usually refer to
an present event, a comment about an event and broadcasting of a news clip etc.
is a media presentation distributed over the Internet using streaming media technology to
distribute a single content source to many simultaneous listeners/viewers. A webcast may either be
distributed live or on demand. Essentially, webcasting is "broadcasting" over the Internet.
is an episodic series of digital audio files that a user can download in order to listen.
Alternatively, the word "podcast" may refer to the individual component of such a series or to an individual
is a knowledge base website on which users collaboratively modify and structure content
directly from the web browser.
A search engine is a web-based tool that enables users to locate information on the
World Wide Web. Popular examples of search engines are Google, Yahoo!, and
, also referred to as Google Web Search or simply Google, is a web search
engine developed by Google. It is the most used search engine on the World Wide Web across all platforms,
with 92.62% market share as of June 2019
Search is a web search engine owned by Yahoo, headquartered in Sunnyvale, California. ...
Originally, "Yahoo Search" referred to a Yahoo-provided interface that sent queries to a searchable index of
pages supplemented with its directory of websites. The results were presented to the user under the Yahoo!
is a web search engine owned and operated by Microsoft. The service has its origins in Microsoft's
previous search engines: MSN Search, Windows Live Search and later Live Search. Bing provides a
variety of search services, including web, video, image and map search products.
is the common name for the Ask.com search engine, which allows users to perform a search in
the form of a question to find relevant results. ... The site is popular with Internet users, despite
competition from other search engines like Google, Bing, and Yahoo!
are one more tool to include in your SEO arsenal. Unlike
general-purpose search engines, specialized search engines index pages for particular topics only
and very often there are many pages that cannot be found in general-purpose search engines but only
in specialized ones.
is a constant assessment of how well that content meets your goals.
When you evaluate content, you assess the effectiveness of your text, images, audio, and video. To
get a better understanding of content evaluation, let's view it in the context of the
entire content lifecycle.
E-commerce (electronic commerce) is the buying and selling of goods and services, or the
transmitting of funds or data, over an electronic network, primarily the internet. These
business transactions occur either as business-to-business (B2B), business-to-consumer
(B2C), consumer-to-consumer or consumer-to-business.
The term refers to the
process of selling products and services directly between
consumers who are the end-users of its products or services.
Most companies that sell directly to consumers can be referred to
as B2C companies.
, is the business
model that facilitates commerce between private individuals. ... A
solid example of C2C transactions would be the classifieds
section of a newspaper, or an auction. In both cases,
a customer – not a business – sells goods or services to
refers to business that is
conducted between companies, rather than between
a company and individual consumers. Business to
business stands in contrast to business to consumer (B2C)
and business to government (B2G) transaction For example, a
car manufacturer will depend on a parts company to complete the
assembly of a car.
Faster buying/selling procedure, as well as easy to find
More reach to customers, there is no theoretical
Low operational costs and better quality of services.
No need of physical company set-ups.
Easy to start and manage a business.
Customers can easily select products from different
providers without moving around physically.
Any one, good or bad, can easily start a business. And there
are many bad sites which eat up customers’ money.
There is no guarantee of product quality.
Mechanical failures can cause unpredictable effects on the
As there is minimum chance of direct customer to company
interactions, customer loyalty is always on a check.
There are many hackers who look for opportunities, and thus
an ecommerce site, service, payment gateways, all are
always prone to attack.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ECOMMERCE
The invention of faster internet connectivity and powerful online tools has resulted
in a new commerce arena – Ecommerce. Ecommerce offered many advantages to
companies and customers but it also caused many problems.
E-Commerce security refers to the principles which guide safe electronic transactions,
allowing the buying and selling of goods and services through the Internet, but with
protocols in place to provide safety for those involved.
A is a card which allows people to buy
items without cash. When they buy something, a sales
clerk uses it to charge the money needed to their account,
so the person will pay later. ... Credit cards are usually
small plastic cards with a unique number attached to an
is a type of currency available in
digital form. It exhibits properties similar to physical
currencies, but can allow for instantaneous transactions
and borderless transfer-of-ownership. Examples include
virtual currencies, crypto currencies, and central bank
In cloud computing, the word "cloud" (also phrased as "the cloud") is used as a metaphor for "the
Internet," so the phrase cloud computing means a type of Internet-based computing, where different
services —including servers, storage and applications — are delivered to an organization's computers
and devices through the Internet.
The concept of the three components can be described as
on cloud computing architecture are said to be the exact same things
that are plain, old, everyday local area networks (LANs). They are, typically,
the computers that just sit on your desk. But they might also be laptops, tablet
computers, mobile phones, or PDAs - all big drivers for cloud computing
because of their mobility. Clients are interacting with to manage their
information on the cloud.
provides the connections between the clients and the providers. Two
of the most critical factors determining the efficiency of cloud computing are –
• Speed of Internet its reliability
• The capability of Internet to transmit data without any problem
are organizations with computers connected to the Internet that are willing to
provide access to software, data, and storage. Ex- Google Drive apps like Google Docs, Google
Sheets, Google Slides, etc
Iot Internet of Things
The Internet of Things is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital
machines, objects, animals or people that are provided with unique identifiers and the ability
to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer
Inc. is an American company headquartered in San Francisco, California. Its
products are activity trackers, wireless-enabled wearable technology devices that
measure data such as the number of steps walked, heart rate, quality of sleep, steps
climbed, and other personal metrics involved in fitness
Is fitbit an IoT?
Yes, technically, they are 'Things' that connect to the internet, mostly. Almost
exclusively through a gateway device like a smart phone, etc. Bluetooth connectivity is
not, in itself, a disqualifier for something to be IoT. It's a fairly good, low power, short-
range radio technology that is widely used.
(originally S Health) is a free application developed
by Samsung that serves to track various aspects of daily life contributing to well being
such as physical activity, diet, and sleep
It is an iot based application.
Simple Healthcare System Architecture
The application of the Internet of Things (IoT ) in healthcare transforms it into more
smart, fast and more accurate. There is different IoT architecture in healthcare that
brings start health care system.
: IoT product infrastructure such as
hardware/software component read the sensors signals and display them to a
: IoT in healthcare has different sensors devices such as pulse-
oximeter, electrocardiogram, thermometer, fluid level sensor, sphygmomanometer
(blood pressure) that read the current patient situation (data).
: IoT system provides better connectivity (using Bluetooth,
WiFi, etc.) of devices or sensors from microcontroller to server and vice-versa to
: Healthcare system analyzes the data from sensors and correlates
to get healthy parameters of the patient and on the basis of their analyze data they
can upgrade the patient health.
: IoT system access information to healthcare
professionals on their monitor device for all patients with all details.