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New Perspectives on Materials Science and Innovation in Brazil.

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New Perspectives on Materials Science and Innovation in Brazil.

  1. 1. João A. H. da Jornada- IF-UFRGS New Perspectives on Materials Science and Innovation in Brazil SBPMAT- Memorial Lecture- September 10, 2017
  2. 2. Main Perspective- Justification • Modern society is increasingly demanding efficiency, effective social impact, and transparency in the use of public money • Science uses a sizable amount of public funds • Science is expected to contribute strongly to innovation- a well recognized factor for generating wealth and public good • A detailed connection between science, particularly basic research, and innovation is far from clear- a deeper understanding of the problem is frequently lacking
  3. 3. W. Press, Science 342, 817 (2013)
  4. 4. The easy problem • Demonstrate a general correlation between science and social well-being The difficult problem • How to reap the benefits from the investments in science- who gets the benefits? Capacity to absorb useful knowledge and appropriate the results Important needs • Deeper understanding of the complex mechanism relating science and innovation • Better narratives and practices for engaging key social players
  5. 5. Concerns of the modern Society with the proper justification- a few examples
  6. 6. Ethan Siegel , Contributor
  7. 7. Concern of the US National Science and Technology Council: “A gap exists between R&D activities and the deployment of technological innovations in domestic production of goods,” contributing significantly, for example, to the growing trade deficit in high-value-added, advanced technology products. National Science and Technology Council, National Network for Manufacturing Innovation: A Preliminary Design, January 2013, pg.4. http://www.manufacturing.gov/docs/nnmi_prelim_design.pdf
  8. 8. (Mike Molnar, 2016) Strong point for the US Advanced Manufacturing National Program
  9. 9. A significant problem we are facing in Brazil: Ranked 64th in Global Innovation Index against 13th in scientific production; World's 7th largest economy but ranked 30th in manufactures exports. Source: WIPO and Scopus
  10. 10. How to deal with the situation • Better understanding of the key concepts and the contexts involved • Better understanding of the mechanisms • Better dialogue by means of better narratives and practices
  11. 11. Oslo Manual (3rd edition, 2005) “An innovation is the implementation of a new or significantly improved product (good or service), or process, a new marketing method, or a new organizational method in business practices, workplace organization or external relations.” Innovation – a wide range concept
  12. 12. Schumpeter’s 5 types of innovations: (focus on the entrepreneur) 1.The introduction of a new method of production; 2.The opening of a new market; 3.The conquest of a new source of supply of raw materials of half manufactured goods; 4.The carrying out of the new organization. McCraw, T.K., Prophet of innovation: Joseph Schumpeter and creative destruction, Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2007
  13. 13. Important concepts beyond the simplistic “Linear Model” • Absorption and Appropriation Capacity • Accessibility to a “Pool of Knowledge”, and ability to combine different types of knowledge • Networking, Cooperation and Connectedness • Flow and management of Tacit Knowledge • Innovative ecosystem- Qualified people and Culture
  14. 14. M. Gulbrandsen, in W. Østreng (ed.), Confluence. Interdisciplinary Communications (2009) The “Linear Model”- an easy narrative
  15. 15. Chain-linked model (Kline & Rosenberg 1986)
  16. 16. Michael Polanyi and Ikujiro Nonaka : “tacit”x“codified/explicit” knowledge “we actually know far more than we can tell”
  17. 17. Organizational knowledge Nonaka and Takeuchi’s spiral of knowledge creation (1995)
  18. 18. Chain-linked model (Kline & Rosenberg 1986)
  19. 19. Actions from the Scientific Community for proper justification and articulation with key social players- a few examples
  20. 20. The Importance of Materials Science for Innovation • Culture, practices and tacit knowledge involved are very related to innovation: • Interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity • Networking, Cooperation and Connectedness • The thematic space- new and improved materials, as well as deep understanding of properties, are great enabler of innovation
  21. 21. Materials Science and Innovation UNESCO Science Report (2015): “…the next waves of high technologies are expected to emanate from [disciplines that include] molecular biology, biotechnology and pharmaceuticals, nanotechnology, material sciences and chemistry, in intimate synergy with information and communication technologies. These disciplines are rooted in the basic research laboratories of universities”
  22. 22. “The significant problems we face today cannot be solved at the same level of thinking at which they were created.” - Albert Einstein A final reflection
  23. 23. Muito Obrigado! jajornada@thegfcc.org

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