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Green electronics: a technology for a sustainable future.

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Green electronics: a technology for a sustainable future.

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Plenary lecture - XV B-MRS Meeting - Campinas, SP, Brazil - September, 25 to 29, 2016.
Author: Elvira Fortunato (CENIMAT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal).

Plenary lecture - XV B-MRS Meeting - Campinas, SP, Brazil - September, 25 to 29, 2016.
Author: Elvira Fortunato (CENIMAT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal).

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Green electronics: a technology for a sustainable future.

  1. 1. Green electronics: a technology for a sustainable future E. Fortunato, P. Barquinha, D. Gaspar, R. Branquinho, E. Carlos, L. Pereira, A. Vicente, H. Águas, and R. Martins CENIMAT/I3N, Materials Science Department, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Universidade Nova de Lisboa and CEMOP/UNINOVA, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
  2. 2. Outline  Oxitronics (oxide electronics/transparent electronics)  Papertronics (paper electronics)  Applications @CENIMAT  Conclusions  Challenges/Opportunities
  3. 3. Key areas Nanoplasmonics Transparent Electronics Electrochemical Devices Paper Electronics Biosensors/Microfluidics
  4. 4. Analog Digital Feature displays Smart displays Big Data Flexible Devices IoT Convergence Wearable Devices Cloud Touch Screen 1990’s Near Future2000’s
  5. 5. Transparent bus
  6. 6. Metal oxide semiconductors
  7. 7. Low cost Biocompatible Recyclable Green technology Superior electrical performances Materials Devices
  8. 8. Fortunato, E.; Barquinha, P.; Martins, R., “Oxide Semiconductor Thin-Film Transistors: A Review of Recent Advances” Adv Mater 2012, 24 (22), 2945-2986.
  9. 9. Preliminary stability measurements on SU-8 passivated devices Stability during 10 months Constant current stress during 24h A. Olziersky, et al. Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 108, pp. 064505-1 – 064505- 7, 2010.
  10. 10.  Mobility ~18 cm2/Vs  Excellent uniformity 168 / 168 Transistors Onset Voltage 250 °C gate insulator 165 °C post-fabrication anneal in N2 oven Mean Std Ion 14.22 0.22 uA Von -0.53 0.02 V mob 18.28 0.42 cm²/Vs Gate Drain Source Etch stop layer Gate insulator IGZO
  11. 11. The need for OLEDs, higher resolution, faster refresh rates, lower power consumption, conformable/flexible displays → fast, stable, low-T oxide TFTs Large area OLED TVs with oxide TFTs are commercially available! E.g.: LG 77EG9700 curved OLED, 77”, 4K res., 3.5 mm thickJ. Wager, SID Magazine, Vol.32 No.1 (2016)
  12. 12. Data from: Display Bank
  13. 13. But...
  14. 14. Oxide TFTs: are much more than transparency!
  15. 15. Combining sputtered ZTO or IGZO with SnOx processes, TA=175 °C (W/L)p/(W/L)n=12, L=10 μm, N-type buffer Multicomponent/multilayer sputtered dielectric -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 VDD =15 V VOUT (V) VIN (V) VDD =10 V 1:12W 175 ºC on PEN 0 2 4 6 8 10 Gain PEN process, TA=175 °C Sputtered oxide CMOS inverters on PEN foil Fortunato et al., Adv. Mat. 24 (2012) Reproducibility and performance of p-type oxides are still the bottleneck…
  16. 16. Freq. response Circuit No. of TFTs C (pF) Power (mW) Bandwidth (kHz) Gain (dB) Load Amp3 5 40 0.576 20 22 10 MΩ//16 pF Amp3 5 330 0.576 5 34 10 MΩ//16 pF [ref] 16 - 0.9 54 18.7 1 MΩ//2 pF Analog blocks with high-gain topology with IGZO TFTs P. Bahubalindruni et al., IEEE JDT 11 (2015) Functional verification, kHz Adder-subtractor Amplifier
  17. 17. Four-quadrant high-gain analog multiplier with IGZO TFTs M1: Load – Diode connected transistor M2: Load – Active, Pos. Feedback (high gain) Linearity response P. Bahubalindruni et al., IEEE EDL 37, 419 (2016)
  18. 18. Solution process
  19. 19. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 PVD CVD Published papers last 10 years on oxide TFTs (2015) Solution
  20. 20. Evolution of the annealing/processing temperature and device mobility (plotted only the highest values reported for device mobility) E. Fortunato et al., Topical Review of J. Phys. D (2016), in press.
  21. 21. Radar plot comparing different technologies E. Carlos et al., ACS Materials & Interfaces (2016), under revision.
  22. 22. GIZO by spin-coating, TA=400 °C µFE≈5 cm2/Vs On/Off≈107 Von≈0 V S=0.28 V/dec ZTO by spin-coating, TA=500 °C µFE≈5 cm2/Vs On/Off≈108 Von=-0.9 V S ≈0.2 V/dec ZTO by spray-pyrolysis, Tdep=300 °C µFE≈1 cm2/Vs On/Off≈105 Von≈0 V S ≈0.6 V/dec Shanmugan et al. JDT (2013)Nayak et al., APL 97 183504 (2010) Solution processed n-type oxide TFTs – on ITO/ATO Nayak et al., JDT 7, 640 (2011) 2010 2011 2013
  23. 23. Oxide TFTs by solution processing Combustion synthesis for low temperature solution processing Methoxyethanol Ethanol Water Urea Glycine Citric acid -NO3 -acac -Cl + NH4NO3 Exothermic chemical reaction between metal salts, usually nitrates, which provide the metal ions and also act as oxidizer and an organic fuel (reducing agent), generates energy that can convert precursors into oxides.
  24. 24. Si SiO2 GZTO Dielectric/SC W/L VD (V) VT (V) S (V dec-1) ION/IOFF µSAT (cm2 V-1 s-1) SiO2/ZTO (2:1) 14 20 - 1.2 0.7 1.1106 2.3 SiO2/GZTO (0.1:2:1) 14 15 0.6 0.5 7.4106 0.7 IG Si SiO2 ZTO IG 2-Methoxyethanol 350 C • Large IG due to unpatterned (G)ZTO • Ga suppresses free carrier generation Spin-coated (G)ZTO TFTs with TA=350 °C (Si/SiO2) Branquinho et al, ACS AMI 6 (2014) , Branquinho et al, SST 30 (2015)
  25. 25. Idle shelf life stability Very good stability after 14 months. Stored in air, dark, RT, no encapsulation. 2-Methoxyethanol as solvent Annealing Temperature=350ºC Spin-coated ZTO TFTs with TA=350 °C (Si/SiO2): how stable are them? VD = 20V W/L = 14 Time Saturation regime (VDS=20V) Von (V) µ (cm2/Vs) S (V/dec) on/off Initial -0.5 3.38 0.42 106 After 1 Months -0.5 3.37 0.34 106 After 3 Months -0.5 3.41 0.46 106 After 4 Months -0.5 3.28 0.29 106 After 7 Months -1 3.37 0.39 106 After 14 Months -1 3.22 0.26 108
  26. 26. Kiazadeh et al, APL Materials 3, 062804 (2015) ΔVT fitted by a stretched-exponential equation Stability severely degraded in air, Eτ suggests SiO2 and interface as source of instability, not “bulk” ZTO Stability under positive gate bias stress (0.5 MV/cm), dark, air and vacuum Spin-coated ZTO TFTs with TA=350 °C (Si/SiO2): how stable are them?
  27. 27. 44 Von (V) - 0.14 VHyst (V) 0.04 S (V/dec) 0.10 ION/OFF 3.8×104 µsat (cm2/Vs) ≈10 Low-T (150 °C) spin-coated AlOx for oxide TFTs E. Carlos et al., ACS AM&I under revision (2016) FUV speeds up condensation process via in situ hydroxyl radical generation → rapid formation of continuous M-O-M structure FUV-assisted annealing of AlOx, 150-200 °C (≈12 nm thick) Sputtered IGZO Spin-coated In2O3 Improve film densification at low temperature
  28. 28. Proof of concept: Flexible GIZO/AlOx TFT  Low operating voltage  Flexible  Transparent  Low cost Parameter Value S (V/dec) 0.21 µ (cm2/Vs) 7.7 Von (V) - 0.36 VT (V) 0.18
  29. 29. In summary: current state of low-T oxide electronics IGZO ZTO Oxide thin films 1D/2D nanostructures Physical Solution Novel topologies Multilayer and oxide/organic hybrid integrationSiO2, SiNx Conventional nMOS Oxide semiconductors Dielectrics Processing Circuit design Ultimate speed/multifunctionality
  30. 30. In 2008 … Thin Film Transistors – interstrate structure
  31. 31. Patent: E. FORTUNATO, R. MARTINS, P. BARQUINHA, G. GONLAVES, N. CORREIA, PROCEDURE FOR THE USE OF NATURAL CELLULOSE MATERIAL, SYNTHETIC MATERIAL OR MIXED NATURAL ANS SYNTHETIC MATERIAL SIMULTANEOUSLY AS PHYSICAL AND DIELECTRIC SUPPORT IN SELF- SUSTAINABLE FIELD EFFECT ELECTRONIC AND OPTOELECTRONIC DEVICES; PTI 40053-09-PT. Fortunato, E. et al., High-Performance Flexible Hybrid Field-Effect Transistors Based on Cellulose Fiber Paper. IEEE Electron Device Letters 2008, 29, 988-990.
  32. 32. Why paper? Most abundant biopolymer and environmentally friendly Flexible and unbreakable Low cost material The lightest known material Well established production technology (100 km/h) Good dielectric properties Paper is ubiquitous Recyclable
  33. 33. Top-down/Bottom-up approach NanoMicro Nanocellulose Bacterial Nanocellulose: From Biotechnology to Bio-Economy, Elsevier, 2016
  34. 34. Some properties cellulose Nano 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 (004) Bacterial cellulose Ic = 92% Intensity(a.u.) 2 (degrees) (200) (110) (110) Micro 80% >90% Segal et al. Bacterial Nanocellulose: From Biotechnology to Bio-Economy, Elsevier, 2016
  35. 35. 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 0 20 40 60 80 100 Transmittance(%) Wavelength (nm) Incidence Reflection Transmission Filter paper Nanopaper ~ 1 µm ~ 0.1 m m Incidence Reflection Transmission Filter paper Nanopaper ~ 1 µm ~ 0.1 m m Regular cellulose (office paper) Bacterial cellulose (40 μm) Some properties cellulose Bacterial Nanocellulose: From Biotechnology to Bio-Economy, Elsevier, 2016
  36. 36. Bacterial cellulose
  37. 37. Bacterial cellulose  Produced by bacteria Ex: Acetobacter xylinum TC glucose UDP-glucose TC subunit Acetobacter xylinum nanofiber (40-60 nm) sub-elementary unit (1.5 nm) microfibril (~4 nm) 1 µm
  38. 38. 2-3 days 4-5 years
  39. 39. Work done @CENIMAT Electronic devices/circuits Solar cells Electrochromic devices
  40. 40. Work done @CENIMAT Biosensors
  41. 41. Affordable Sensitive Specific User-friendly Rapid and Robust Equipment-free Delivered to those in need World Health Organization The WHO established guidelines for developing diagnostic tests adequate for developing countries and resource-poor settings, which are summarized under the acronym ASSURED
  42. 42. NSF, Workshop on Papertronics, Arlington, 2016.
  43. 43. 90% glucose testing 8% - 10% increase in industry per year
  44. 44. Microfluidic technologies
  45. 45. Lab-on-Paper
  46. 46. Paper Analytical Device Glucose biosensor 1. μPAD Costa, M. N. et al., A low cost, safe, disposable, rapid and self-sustainable paper-based platform for diagnostic testing: lab-on-paper. Nanotechnology 2014, 25, 094006.
  47. 47. Glucose biosensor 3D device Costa, M. N. et al., A low cost, safe, disposable, rapid and self-sustainable paper-based platform for diagnostic testing: lab-on-paper. Nanotechnology 2014, 25, 094006.
  48. 48. Glucose biosensor 0 mM 0.01 mM 1.5 mM 5 mM 30 mM 100 mM Glucose Concentration (mM) μPAD 3D device Costa, M. N. et al., A low cost, safe, disposable, rapid and self-sustainable paper-based platform for diagnostic testing: lab-on-paper. Nanotechnology 2014, 25, 094006.
  49. 49. Glucose biosensor Comparison between μPAD and 3D device Detection range 0.01 mM – 40 mM Costa, M. N. et al., A low cost, safe, disposable, rapid and self-sustainable paper-based platform for diagnostic testing: lab-on-paper. Nanotechnology 2014, 25, 094006.
  50. 50. Paper-based sensor: EAB detection 72 Patterned office paper impregnated with the synthesized WO3 NPs by a drop casting process. Marques, A. C. et al., Office Paper Platform for Bioelectrochromic Detection of Electrochemically Active Bacteria using Tungsten Trioxide Nanoprobes. Scientific Reports 2015, 5.
  51. 51. 73 Geobacter
  52. 52. Colorimetric assays - optimization 10 µL 15 g/L h - WO3 NPs 20 µL Gs and E. coli Well diameter: 3.38 mm 15 g/L: linear response EAB detection at latent phase Response time ~ 2 hours [Gs] [WO3NPs] Marques, A. C. et al., Office Paper Platform for Bioelectrochromic Detection of Electrochemically Active Bacteria using Tungsten Trioxide Nanoprobes. Scientific Reports 2015, 5.
  53. 53. 75
  54. 54. Conclusions
  55. 55. “If you want to go fast, go alone. If you want to go far, go together”
  56. 56. Acknowledgments – Current Projects

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