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Collaboration leveraging material development.

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Presented at the discussion panel "Materials Research and Innovation" - XV B-MRS Meeting - Campinas, SP, Brazil - September, 25 to 29, 2016.

Publicada em: Tecnologia
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Collaboration leveraging material development.

  1. 1. © MAHLE Collaboration leveraging material development André Ferrarese, September, 2016
  2. 2. MAHLE Metal Leve S.A. 2 Collaboration leveraging material development © MAHLE Agenda • MAHLE Group • TriboFlex Consortium • Case Coated Bore and Superlubricity • Conclusions
  3. 3. MAHLE Metal Leve S.A. © MAHLE Collaboration leveraging material development MAHLE Group 3
  4. 4. MAHLE Metal Leve S.A. © MAHLE 4 Collaboration leveraging material development MAHLE Metal Leve
  5. 5. MAHLE Metal Leve S.A. 55 Developed and manufactured products in more than 60 countries Collaboration leveraging material development © MAHLE
  6. 6. MAHLE Metal Leve S.A. Technology Centers 6 Collaboration leveraging material development © MAHLE 6
  7. 7. MAHLE Metal Leve S.A. 7 Collaboration leveraging material development © MAHLE South America Tech Center - Jundiaí
  8. 8. MAHLE Metal Leve S.A. Innovation Process Collaboration leveraging material development © MAHLE 8
  9. 9. MAHLE Metal Leve S.A. Collaboration Collaboration leveraging material development © MAHLE 9
  10. 10. MAHLE Metal Leve S.A. Tribo-Flex Overview Collaboration leveraging material development © MAHLE 10
  11. 11. MAHLE Metal Leve S.A. Tribo-Flex - Overview Collaboration leveraging material development © MAHLE Pre-Project: Step 1 2015 (Step 5) 2014 (Step 4) 2013 (Step 3) Agreements (Step 2) • “Kick-out” meetings • Tribology challenges in Flex-Fuel engines • FAPESP/PITE, 2009-12 • Official agreements: Companies-Universities- FAPESP • First MSc and PhD students • Definition of research topics: - FL00: Tribological characterization of flex-fuel engine components; - FL10: Tribology of piston- rings-bore system; - FL20: Tribology of valve/valve seat; - FL30: Modelling - FL40: Training SUMMITS VTL – Virtual Tribo Laboratory • 3 Tribology Courses • 5 national and international conferences • 2 journal papers • Equipment: RAMAN, SRV (Petrobras) • 1 MSc • 3 Tribology Courses • 1 International workshop • 9 national and international conferences • 4 journal papers • Cutoff (Isomet), durometer, tribometer UMT, etc • 1 PhD, 1 MSc SURFAT – Surface analysis, folded metal, etc SurfLUB – Deterministic simulation for TLOCRs • Valve/valve seat test • 3 PhD, 1 MSc • BAM, Nagel+Grob • 2 Tribology Courses • 4 International meetings (Super-lubricity) • 22 national and international conferences • 22 journal papers LUBST – Bearing simulation tools 11
  12. 12. MAHLE Metal Leve S.A. 2 Main Outcomes (2009-15) Collaboration leveraging material development © MAHLE 12 Valve / Valve Seat Engine Bearings Piston-Ring Liner Contact - Computational tools for component (VTL) and deterministic/roughness (SurfLUB) scales simulations - Advanced surface roughness analysis (SURFAT), i.e. folded metal quantification, roughness filters etc. - Studies on lubricant additives and their behaviors in the presence of ethanol - Advanced modelling and simulation framework for bearings’ systems (LUBST) - Effect of different lubricant viscosity index improvers (VIIs) on the conrod performance of HSEs. - Effect of body and conter-body hardness, load, work hardening on wear of valve materials - Effect of temperature, speed and load on wear of valve materials - Characterization of oxide formation and growth mechanism - Novel methodology for valve/valves seat bench tests (BAM interaction)
  13. 13. MAHLE Metal Leve S.A. Softwares Collaboration leveraging material development © MAHLE 13 http://www.lfs.usp.br/Portal_Triboflex/mahle.html Summits 2D & 3D surface analysis, input for commercial (and in- house) simulations (Excite, Ricardo, GT-Suite etc.) LUBST – Lubrication Simulation Tools Deterministic simulation for bearings and rings with complex geometries and surfaces. Deformation Fluid pressure
  14. 14. MAHLE Metal Leve S.A. International Symposia and Courses Collaboration leveraging material development © MAHLE 14 Int. workshop “Super-Lubricity in the Automotive Real World” S. Paulo, May 2015 Academy 62% Industry 38% Abroad 15% http://www.lfs.usp.br/superlubricity2015 1st Int. Course Liner honing 3 D evaluation, S. Paulo Oct 2013 Prof. Zlate Dimkowsky. Halmstad University Academy 53% Industry 47%
  15. 15. MAHLE Metal Leve S.A. Tribology tests Collaboration leveraging material development © MAHLE 15 Ring & Liner Scuffing test Based on the Daimler protocol Lopez, D. et all at “VDI Symposium Zylinderlaufbahn, Kolben, Pleuel, 2016, Baden-Baden Figure 5: CoF during scuffing test and visual analysis after test Time: 30 min to 15 h. Temperature: room temperature to 500°C Valve/Valve Seat – Friction-Wear test Ball – Disk of SRV® Tribometer Collaboration under discussion with
  16. 16. MAHLE Metal Leve S.A. Partnerships Collaboration leveraging material development © MAHLE 16 Fully Deterministic Model for Rings/Liners (ICMC, USP, Buscaglia’s Group) Costa, H.L. Impact of ethanol on the formation of antiwear tribofilms from engine lubricants, Trib. Int. 93, 364-376 2016. Effect of Ethanol on Lubricant Tribofilms (FURG, Imperial College London) Prof. Henara Costa (FURG-RS) Member of the IEA for Advanced Materials for Transportation Checo, H.M. et al., Moving textures - Simulation of a ring sliding on a textured liner, Trib. Int. 72, 131-142 2016 http://www.lfs.usp.br/superlubricity2015
  17. 17. MAHLE Metal Leve S.A. MSc and PhD related Collaboration leveraging material development © MAHLE 17 Bore Wear and deposits of engine tests with E22 and E100 Dinécio Santos (GM) Overview of the impact of biofuel ethanol on the frictional response of piston ring/cylinder liner contacts under cold- start/warm-up/short-journey driving cycles Prashan R. De Silva, Univ. Leeds/UK
  18. 18. MAHLE Metal Leve S.A. Tribological Characterization of Flex-Fuel Engine Components Collaboration leveraging material development © MAHLE 18 Identified oxides Hematite (α-Fe2O3) Magnetite (Fe3O4) 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 350º C Intensity(A.U.) Raman shift (cm-1) M -1 M -2 M -3 M -4 M -5 223 289 404 1310 670 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Exhaust Valve Intensity(A.U.) Raman shift (cm-1) M -1 M -2 M -3 223 289 404 1310 670
  19. 19. MAHLE Metal Leve S.A. Research on Coated Bores and Superlubricity at USP/LFS Collaboration leveraging material development © MAHLE 19 Dr. Eduardo Tomanik, Prof. Dr. A. Sinatora, Dr. F. Profito, Dr. T. Cousseau Surface Phenomena Laboratory (LFS) Department of Mechanical Engineering - University of Sao Paulo (USP)
  20. 20. MAHLE Metal Leve S.A. Engine energy flow in the NEDC cycle Collaboration leveraging material development © MAHLE 20 From Schommers “Minimizing Friction in Combustion Engines”, MTZ 07-08 / 2013 Pay attention, on urban conditions: • Friction loss is 9% of the fuel energy but • 25% fuel saving would be obtained if Friction could be zeroed !
  21. 21. MAHLE Metal Leve S.A. Collaboration leveraging material development 21 Coated bores  For decades, engine cylinder bores were made of honed Grey Cast Iron (GCI). Honing was improved by experience with relative little theoretical basis.  Recently, coated bores have been introduced especially for Aluminium blocks. Oil micro- reservoirs are mostly due to surface pores rather than the honing grooves.  Coated bores bring challenges and opportunities for tribological improvements.  LFS is collaborating with Nagel and others to investigate coated bores, including benchmarking of one of the “state of art”, the Nissan Mirror like. ∆ Friction Losses (%) Schutz, M. (Daimler) et al. MTZ 06/2013 typical coated bore topography. Tokyo Autoshow 2014 Nissan Mirror like © MAHLE
  22. 22. MAHLE Metal Leve S.A. Collaboration leveraging material development 22 Pehnelt (Audi AG) et al. MTZ 04/2013 Rubach (VW AG) et al. MTZ 03/2014 Delta Friction Losses (%) Schutz, M. (Daimler) et al. MTZ 06/2013 J.M.BORDES (PSA) 2014 We are not trying to “re-invent the wheel” but paying attention for the worldwide “state of art” Chen et al. (MIT) 2012 Cylinder Bore Topography measure Topography analysis Modelling at component scale Engine Model Hydro Pressure Film Fraction (Cavitation) Overview for Piston-Ring-Bore System Tribological Optimization Plateau and slide honing, coated bores etc Coated bores - R&D at LFS © MAHLE
  23. 23. MAHLE Metal Leve S.A. Collaboration leveraging material development 23 NISSAN Mirror-like (MLJ) Mirror-like (MLN) Slide Honing (SHN) Slide with Deburring (SHND) Plateau Honing (GCI) Coated bores - Topography GCI SH SHD MLN MLJ Notice the different height scale © MAHLE
  24. 24. MAHLE Metal Leve S.A. Collaboration leveraging material development 24 • Full-scale hydrodynamic and asperity contact simulations considering the 3D surface roughness. • Link between local (roughness) and component size (engine) scales using the scaling proposed by Chen, 2011 (MIT) for the average curves. Deterministic model (LFS SurfLub) Engine model (Oil control ring) (LFS VTL) The mirror like variants reduced the OCR friction – 10% in the 1000-3000 rpm range. Coated bores Engine Modelling © MAHLE
  25. 25. MAHLE Metal Leve S.A. Collaboration leveraging material development 25 Superlubricity, reducing friction to close to zero J. M. Martin (2015 SL Int. WS) Friction www.crodalubricants.com Erdemir, 2007 © MAHLE
  26. 26. MAHLE Metal Leve S.A. “Superlubricity” in engines Nissan has introduced superpolished ta-C engine components, mirror like coated bores, novel oils. Renault is following the path and do not accept other than ta_C rings. ITECH paper 32012046 (adapted from Nissan) Mirror like coated bore (Ra < 0.1, Rk<0.2) Tokyo autoshow 2014 26 Collaboration leveraging material development © MAHLE
  27. 27. MAHLE Metal Leve S.A. Conclusions Collaboration leveraging material development © MAHLE 27 • Material development is leverage from a more holistic approach on technical field • The holistic approach is related to more comprehensive understand trough models about the technical phenomena • Collaboration is key to leverage such developments • Example of Tribo-Flex, a pre-competitive project, shows that high quality work generates much other projects in different levels of knowledge and technology.
  28. 28. MAHLE Metal Leve S.A. © MAHLE 28 Collaboration to find the right path

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