O slideshow foi denunciado.
Seu SlideShare está sendo baixado. ×

Challenges in Processing of Materials to Reduce Weight of Structural Components.

Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Carregando em…3
×

Confira estes a seguir

1 de 70 Anúncio
Anúncio

Mais Conteúdo rRelacionado

Diapositivos para si (20)

Semelhante a Challenges in Processing of Materials to Reduce Weight of Structural Components. (20)

Anúncio

Mais de Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisa em Materiais (20)

Mais recentes (20)

Anúncio

Challenges in Processing of Materials to Reduce Weight of Structural Components.

  1. 1. “Challenges in Processing of Materials to Reduce Weight of Structural Components” ALAN TAUB MRS Brazil XVIII Professor, University of Michigan Balneário Camboriú, Brazil Senior Technical Advisor, LIFT Sepember 26, 2019
  2. 2. “Challenges in Processing of Materials to Reduce Weight of Structural Components” Abstract The potential for reducing weight in automobiles and aircraft using high-strength steels, aluminum, titanium and magnesium alloys and polymer composites is well established. The challenge is to achieve the weight reduction at a cost acceptable to the user. Optimization of the material properties and processes together with robust design tools and joining technologies to enable multi-material structures is required. This has become possible through co-development of the new material, the component design and the manufacturing process using state-of-the-art Integrated Computational Materials Engineering models. Examples will be discussed crossing melt, thermomechanical and powder processing. We will also describe the role of Lightweight Innovations for Tomorrow (LIFT). The Institute was established to accelerate the adoption of advanced metals and serves as the bridge between basic research and final product commercialization. Our industry partners in collaboration with an extensive network of universities and the national and federal laboratories are developing the next generation of advanced manufacturing processes.
  3. 3. LIGHTWEIGHT INNOVATIONS FOR TOMORROW The Manufacturing USA Network
  4. 4. LIGHTWEIGHT INNOVATIONS FOR TOMORROW LIFT Headquarters • ~100,000 sq. ft. building in Detroit’s Corktown area • Ribbon cutting held January 2015
  5. 5. LIFT / IACMI Co-Location 1400 Rosa Parks Boulevard Composites Processing Metals Processing
  6. 6. LIGHTWEIGHT INNOVATIONS FOR TOMORROW Small/Medium Manufacturers Industries & Professional Societies Academic & Research Partners Start-ups LIFT Members Workforce/Education Optimal Process Technologies, LLC University of Texas at Austin
  7. 7. LIGHTWEIGHT INNOVATIONS FOR TOMORROW 8 Deliver high value advanced alloy processing technologies that reduce the weight of machines that move people and goods on land, sea and air
  8. 8. LIGHTWEIGHT INNOVATIONS FOR TOMORROW LIFT Technology Portfolio INCREASING VALUE OF WEIGHT REDUCTION & DECREASING UNITS/YEAR Value of Weight Reduction Light Vehicle $5 / kg saved Commercial Aircraft $500 / kg saved Spacecraft $50,000 / kg saved
  9. 9. LIGHTWEIGHT INNOVATIONS FOR TOMORROW LIFT Technology Portfolio INCREASING VALUE OF WEIGHT REDUCTION & DECREASING UNITS/YEAR Value of Weight Reduction Light Vehicle $5 / kg saved Commercial Aircraft $500 / kg saved Spacecraft $50,000 / kg saved
  10. 10. Rule of thumb for rational design: 10% weight reduction ~ 6% fuel economy Achieve lower weight by: • Better design – Topology optimization
  11. 11. Rule of thumb for rational design: 10% weight reduction ~ 6% fuel economy Achieve lower weight by: • Better design – Topology optimization + ICME
  12. 12. Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) is the integration of materials information, captured in computational tools, with engineering product performance analysis and manufacturing- process simulation.* * NAE ICME Report, 2008 What is ICME? Manufacturing Process Simulation Engineering Product Performance Analysis Constitutive Models Courtesy John Allison (Univ Michigan) 1980’s ”Concurrent Engineering”
  13. 13. 1 m Engine Block 1 – 10 mm Macrostructure • Grains • Macroporosity Properties • High cycle fatigue • Ductility 10 – 500um Microstructure • Eutectic Phases • Dendrites • Microporosity • Intermetallics Properties • Yield strength • Tensile strength • High cycle fatigue • Low cycle fatigue • Thermal Growth • Ductility 1-100 nm Nanostructure • Precipitates Properties • Yield strength • Thermal Growth • Tensile strength • Low cycle fatigue • Ductility 0.1-1 nm Atomic Structure • Crystal Structure • Interface Structure Properties • Thermal Growth • Yield Strength Key metallurgical processes occur at many length scales – and all can be influenced by manufacturing history Materials Genome Initiative (MGI) Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) “From atoms to autos”
  14. 14. Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) is the integration of materials information, captured in computational tools, with engineering product performance analysis and manufacturing- process simulation.* * NAE ICME Report, 2008 What is ICME? Quantitative Structure- Property Relations Quantitative Processing- Structure Relations Chemistry Thermodynamics Diffusion Manufacturing Process Simulation Engineering Product Performance Analysis Constitutive Models • Process & product optimization • Innovation Courtesy John Allison (Univ Michigan) 1980’s ”Concurrent Engineering”
  15. 15. ABAQUS Initial Geometry Database of Material Properties Traditional Design & Manufacturing Analysis Predict Service Life Load Inputs Durable Component Y N N Model Casting Ensure Castability Y MagmaSOFT/ ProCast Courtesy John Allison (Univ Michigan)
  16. 16. Predict Local Micro- structure Predict Service Life Load Inputs Optimized Component Meet Property Requirements N Y Optimized Process & Product Y N MagmaSOFT / ProCAST ABAQUS Product and Process Predict Residual Stress Predict Local Properties Model Casting and Heat Treatment Product Property Requirements Product Property Requirements Initial Geometry Alloy Composition Ensure Castability Y N ICME Virtual Product Development Process Courtesy John Allison (Univ Michigan) Big Change is Ability to Design to Local Properties that are optimized by ICME models
  17. 17. Microstructure (Al2Cu) •Micromodel (ThermoCALC) •Empirical Kinetics (OPTCAST) Initial Geometry •CAD Geometry and Mesh Filling •Accurate filling Profile (OptCast) Thermal Analysis •Boundary Conditions (OPTCAST) •Fraction solid Curves (ThermoCALC) Yield Strength • Aging Model (ThermoCALC) Virtual Aluminum Castings Process Flow Local Yield Strength Prediction Courtesy John Allison (Univ Michigan)
  18. 18. Casting PrecipitationMicro porosity Eutectic Phases Chemistry Thermodynamics/ Kiinetics nSolution Treatment Aging Heat Treatment Processing Microstructure Properties High Cycle Fatigue Low Cycle Fatigue Yield Strength Thermal Growth Cast Alloy Processing-Structure-Property Linkages Courtesy John Allison (Univ Michigan)
  19. 19. Casting PrecipitationMicro porosity Eutectic Phases Chemistry Thermodynamics/ Kiinetics nSolution Treatment Aging Heat Treatment Processing Microstructure Properties High Cycle Fatigue Low Cycle Fatigue Yield Strength Thermal Growth Cast Alloy Processing-Structure-Property Linkages Courtesy John Allison (Univ Michigan) EXPANDING ICME CAPABILITIES TO THERMO-MECHANICAL PROCESSING INCLUDING POWDER CONSOLIDATION
  20. 20. ICME Model Development for Al-Li Forgings
  21. 21. Rule of thumb for rational design: 10% weight reduction ~ 6% fuel economy Achieve lower weight by: • Better design – topology optimization + ICME • Higher specific strength & modulus materials à $5/kg saved ($2.50/pound)
  22. 22. ADVANCED MATERIALS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT VEHICLES Material Weight Reduction vs. Low-Carbon Steel Relative Cost per Part [DOE, Joost 2015] High-strength steel 15-25% 100 – 150% Glass-fiber composite 25-35% 100 – 150% Aluminum 40-50% 130 – 200% Magnesium 55-60% 150 – 250% Carbon-fiber composite 55-60% 200 – 1000%
  23. 23. ADVANCED MATERIALS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT VEHICLES Material Weight Reduction vs. Low-Carbon Steel Relative Cost per Part [DOE, Joost 2015] High-strength steel 15-25% 100 – 150% Glass-fiber composite 25-35% 100 – 150% Aluminum 40-50% 130 – 200% Magnesium 55-60% 150 – 250% Carbon-fiber composite 55-60% 200 – 1000% CASTINGS
  24. 24. ENGINE FRONT CRADLE
  25. 25. Casting Material Challenges • Technology for large thin-wall castings • Low-cost, creep-resistant alloys for powertrain • Alloys with higher tensile and fatigue strength for chassis • Galvanic corrosion guidelines (joint design and isolation) • Recycling • Environmental: Replace SF6 for protecting molten Mg • Crash energy management
  26. 26. ADVANCED MATERIALS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT VEHICLES Material Weight Reduction vs. Low-Carbon Steel Relative Cost per Part [DOE, Joost 2015] High-strength steel 15-25% 100 – 150% Glass-fiber composite 25-35% 100 – 150% Aluminum 40-50% 130 – 200% Magnesium 55-60% 150 – 250% Carbon-fiber composite 55-60% 200 – 1000% SHEET
  27. 27. 1250 Maple lawn Troy Michigan 48084 PH. 248.644.0086 Transportation * CONSTRUCTION * INDUSTRIAL * materials * FINANCIAL Material Analysis 18 ducker.com The Cost of Weight Savings This chart shows the relative ranking of the cost for weight savings. It should not be used for anything other than a “very rough estimate” of cost. This is not a decision tool. It is just a guide Cost per Pound Saved Over Mild Steel $2.50 $1.75 $1.75 $1.50 $1.00 $0.75 $0.40 $0.30 $0.15 $0.00Deep Drawing Mild Steel HSLA Steel DP 590 Steel DP 780 and 980 Steel Roll Formed Martensite Hot Formed Boron Steel Aluminum Hoods Aluminum Bumpers Aluminum Suspension/Steering Other Aluminum Closures Ext In addition to the types of materials, every component will have a different premium for weight savings based on the substituting product form, tooling, scrap rate, cycle times, parts consolidation, and the difference in raw material costs at the time of the analysis rruded Al Ladder Frame no Box $2.75 Aluminum BIW Structures $2.75 Magnesium HPDC $2.75 Stamped Al Box Beam Ladder $3.25 $0.00 $0.50 $1.00 $1.50 $2.00 $2.50 $3.00 $3.50 Source: Ducker Worldwide
  28. 28. 2013 Cadillac ATS Body, Bumpers and IP 16% Mild Steel 17% Bake Hard 22% HSLA 29% Dual-Phase/Multi Phase 5% Martensitic 5% Press Hardened Steel 6 % Aluminum Saves 30 lbs. Aluminum Hood and Cradle (not shown) also saves 30 lbs. 670 lbs. The ATS Body is 40% AHSS 20% Weight Savings for AHSS parts 27 1250 Maplelawn | Troy | Michigan | 48084 248.644.0086 Confidential - © Ducker Worldwide
  29. 29. 1250 Maple lawn Troy Michigan 48084 PH. 248.644.0086 Transportation * CONSTRUCTION * INDUSTRIAL * materials * FINANCIAL Material Analysis 18 ducker.com The Cost of Weight Savings This chart shows the relative ranking of the cost for weight savings. It should not be used for anything other than a “very rough estimate” of cost. This is not a decision tool. It is just a guide Cost per Pound Saved Over Mild Steel $2.50 $1.75 $1.75 $1.50 $1.00 $0.75 $0.40 $0.30 $0.15 $0.00Deep Drawing Mild Steel HSLA Steel DP 590 Steel DP 780 and 980 Steel Roll Formed Martensite Hot Formed Boron Steel Aluminum Hoods Aluminum Bumpers Aluminum Suspension/Steering Other Aluminum Closures Ext In addition to the types of materials, every component will have a different premium for weight savings based on the substituting product form, tooling, scrap rate, cycle times, parts consolidation, and the difference in raw material costs at the time of the analysis rruded Al Ladder Frame no Box $2.75 Aluminum BIW Structures $2.75 Magnesium HPDC $2.75 Stamped Al Box Beam Ladder $3.25 $0.00 $0.50 $1.00 $1.50 $2.00 $2.50 $3.00 $3.50 Source: Ducker Worldwide
  30. 30. Press Hardened Steels • Press Hardening is a process by which advanced ultra high strength steel is formed into complex shapes than possible with traditional cold stamping. • The process involves the heating of the steel blanks until they are malleable • This is followed by stamping to shape and then rapid cooling in specially designed dies, creating in the process a transformed and hardened material. https://www.gestamp.com/what-we-do/technologies/stamping/hot-stamping
  31. 31. Elongation(%) Tensile Strength (MPa) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 600 1200300 900 1600 DP, CP TRIP MART HSLA IF Mild IF-HS BH CMn ISO Elongation(%) 600 - TWIP AUST. SS L-IP ISO Third Generation AHSS: Affordable Multiphase Steels: Unique Microstructures** Goal: Formable steels with Increased strength and ductility Future Opportunities for AHSS **Predicted to contain: • High strength constituent • Retained austenite with controlled stability AISI: www.steel.org (2006)D. Matlock 06/18/2013
  32. 32. Processing Opportunities for AHSSElongation(%) Tensile Strength (MPa) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 600 1200300 900 1600 DP, CP TRIP MART IF Mild IF-HS BH CMn ISO - BH TWIP AUST. SS L-IP Future Opportunity Third Generation AHSSHSLA $$ Enhanced TRIP with Modified γ Q&P B-Modified Hot Formed TWIP with Lower $$ Enhanced DP D. Matlock 06/18/2013
  33. 33. ADVANCED MATERIALS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT VEHICLES Material Weight Reduction vs. Low-Carbon Steel Relative Cost per Part [DOE, Joost 2015] High-strength steel 15-25% 100 – 150% Glass-fiber composite 25-35% 100 – 150% Aluminum 40-50% 130 – 200% Magnesium 55-60% 150 – 250% Carbon-fiber composite 55-60% 200 – 1000% SHEET
  34. 34. EARLY ALUMINUM CLOSURES
  35. 35. Overcoming the Lower Formability of AluminumReduced Formability of Aluminum vs Steel
  36. 36. ALUMINUM PREFORM ANNEALING AL DOOR INNER PANEL THAT FRACTURED DURING STAMPING ANNEALED PREFORM FOR AL DOOR INNER PANEL FULLY FORMED AL DOOR INNER PANEL
  37. 37. Resistance Spot Welding of Aluminum – 1980 State of the Art ¶ Welding practices based on MIL spec guidelines ¶ Quality measures – Metallurgical integrity – Surface finish ¶ Radiused electrodes ¶ Weld/forge practices ¶ Approaches unsuitable for automotive use – Equipment expense – Power demands – System maintenance | 1-mm | Courtesy of J. Gould (EWI)
  38. 38. Fig. 1 Self-piercing riveting process (Porcaro et al., “Self-piercing riveting connections using aluminium rivets”, International Journal of Solids and Structures, Volume 47, Issues 3–4, 2010, 427 - 439 Audi pioneered high volume SPR in the early 1990's. SPR is still the first choice for Audi, Jaguar,Daimler and BMW when considering aluminium intensive vehicles. Self-Piercing Rivets
  39. 39. q Common electrode can be used for Al/Al and Fe/Fe welding q Required aluminum currents reduced vs. historic RSW MACRO-FEATURED ELECTRODES WELD BOTH ALUMINUM AND STEEL 0.8 to 1.0 mm 6111- T4 Al 2.0 to 2.0 mm 5754- 0 Al 0.75 to 0.75 mm HDG (hot dip galvanized) low- carbon steel 1.5 to 1.5 mm HDG low-carbon steel
  40. 40. 1250 Maple lawn Troy Michigan 48084 PH. 248.644.0086 Transportation * CONSTRUCTION * INDUSTRIAL * materials * FINANCIAL Material Analysis 18 ducker.com The Cost of Weight Savings This chart shows the relative ranking of the cost for weight savings. It should not be used for anything other than a “very rough estimate” of cost. This is not a decision tool. It is just a guide Cost per Pound Saved Over Mild Steel $2.50 $1.75 $1.75 $1.50 $1.00 $0.75 $0.40 $0.30 $0.15 $0.00Deep Drawing Mild Steel HSLA Steel DP 590 Steel DP 780 and 980 Steel Roll Formed Martensite Hot Formed Boron Steel Aluminum Hoods Aluminum Bumpers Aluminum Suspension/Steering Other Aluminum Closures Ext In addition to the types of materials, every component will have a different premium for weight savings based on the substituting product form, tooling, scrap rate, cycle times, parts consolidation, and the difference in raw material costs at the time of the analysis rruded Al Ladder Frame no Box $2.75 Aluminum BIW Structures $2.75 Magnesium HPDC $2.75 Stamped Al Box Beam Ladder $3.25 $0.00 $0.50 $1.00 $1.50 $2.00 $2.50 $3.00 $3.50 Source: Ducker Worldwide
  41. 41. 1250 Maple lawn Troy Michigan 48084 PH. 248.644.0086 Transportation * CONSTRUCTION * INDUSTRIAL * materials * FINANCIAL Material Analysis 18 ducker.com The Cost of Weight Savings This chart shows the relative ranking of the cost for weight savings. It should not be used for anything other than a “very rough estimate” of cost. This is not a decision tool. It is just a guide Cost per Pound Saved Over Mild Steel $2.50 $1.75 $1.75 $1.50 $1.00 $0.75 $0.40 $0.30 $0.15 $0.00Deep Drawing Mild Steel HSLA Steel DP 590 Steel DP 780 and 980 Steel Roll Formed Martensite Hot Formed Boron Steel Aluminum Hoods Aluminum Bumpers Aluminum Suspension/Steering Other Aluminum Closures Ext In addition to the types of materials, every component will have a different premium for weight savings based on the substituting product form, tooling, scrap rate, cycle times, parts consolidation, and the difference in raw material costs at the time of the analysis rruded Al Ladder Frame no Box $2.75 Aluminum BIW Structures $2.75 Magnesium HPDC $2.75 Stamped Al Box Beam Ladder $3.25 $0.00 $0.50 $1.00 $1.50 $2.00 $2.50 $3.00 $3.50
  42. 42. Al-Intensive Ford F150 Is this the industry tipping point?
  43. 43. Novelis Breaks Ground on Automotive Aluminum Facility in Changzhou, China October 10, 2018 $180 million investment will double facility's capacity in 2020 Novelis to build automotive sheet plant in Kentucky Atlanta-based Novelis Inc. has announced plans to build an approximately $300 million automotive aluminum sheet manufacturing facility in Guthrie, Kentucky. The greenfield facility, with a projected annual capacity of 200,000 metric tons, will include heat treatment and pre-treatment lines designed to prepare aluminum for use in vehicle parts such as hoods, doors, lift gates and fenders. The company expects to break ground in the early spring of 2018 and to open the plant in 2020. Recycling Today January 25, 2018 Edited by Brian Taylor Arconic Announces Multi- Year Deal with Toyota Arconic aluminum debuted on 2016 Lexus RX, Toyota’s first vehicle in North America to feature aluminum sheet . Deal makes Arconic the sole aluminum sheet supplier to Toyota for the Lexus RX Business Wire March 19, 2017 Mitsubishi Materials to roll out automotive aluminum in the US Nikkei Asian Review September 16, 2017 47
  44. 44. Weight Reduction Game Is Still Playing Out
  45. 45. $ / pound saved (2003) Light Vehicle $2 / pound saved Commercial Aircraft $200 / pound saved Spacecraft $20,000 / pound saved What is beyond lightweight metals? Material Weight Reduction vs. Low-Carbon Steel High-strength steel 15-25% Glass-fiber composite 25-35% Aluminum 40-50% Magnesium 55-60% Carbon-fiber composite 55-60% Will the automobile follow the aircraft industry with bodies made from carbon-fiber composites?
  46. 46. BMW I-Car
  47. 47. Splitter Roof Roof Bow Cover Rocker BMW I-Car Say Goodbye to Carbon-Fiber BMWs The i3 and i8 structure won’t be repeated. Car and Driver, July 16, 2018 AT 3:03 PM By Mike Duff If you want to buy a new carbon-fiber BMW, then don’t delay too long in realizing the dream; the i3 and i8 look set to be the last of the company’s products to feature carbon-fiber structures. The iNext—which is going to show BMW’s expertise in both electrification and high-level autonomy— will be based on the company’s new Fifth Generation architecture when it arrives in 2021. That means it will need to share a metal structure with its numerous platform buddies.
  48. 48. The major challenges for large scale implementation of carbon-fiber composites • Crash performance • Molding cycle time • Carbon fiber cost • Repair for primary structure • Recycled content and end-of-life recycling
  49. 49. Appearance of Crush Tube A study on an axial crush configuration response of thin-wall, steel box components: The quasi-static experiments, B.P.DiPaoloJ and G.Tom, International Journal of Solids and Structures, Volume 43, Issues 25–26, December 2006, Pages 7752-7775 Crashworthiness of composite structures: Experiment and Simulation , Francesco Deleo, Bonnie Wade and Prof. Paolo Feraboli (UW) , Dr. Mostafa Rassaian (Boeing R&T) JAMS 2010
  50. 50. Energy Absorption of Crush Tube Numerical and experimental investigations on the axial crushing response of composite tubes, Jiancheng Huang and Xinwei Wang, Composite Structures, 91(200-9)222-228
  51. 51. The major challenges for large scale implementation of carbon-fiber composites • Crash performance • Molding cycle time • Carbon fiber cost • Repair for primary structure • Recycled content and end-of-life recycling
  52. 52. COMPOSITE PANELS (1953 Corvette)
  53. 53. SMC PRODUCTION AND CYCLE TIMES (Breaking the 1 minute cycle time barrier)
  54. 54. FIBERGLASS FABRIC-REINFORCED COMPOSITE UNDERBODY PROTOTYPE Courtesy USCAR
  55. 55. The major challenges for large scale implementation of carbon-fiber composites • Crash performance • Molding cycle time • Carbon fiber cost • Repair for primary structure • Recycled content and end-of-life recycling
  56. 56. Lowering the cost of carbon fiber Lowering the cost of carbon fiber, Mark Holmes, Reinforced Plastics, Volume 61, Issue 5, September–October 2017, Pages 279-283 • The high cost of specialty precursor materials (e.g. - polyacrylonitrile or PAN) and the energy of the conversion process drive the high cost of the fiber. • Acrylic, lignin and pitch fiber precursors offer potential for dramatic cost reduction • >90% of the energy needed to manufacture advanced composites is consumed in manufacturing the carbon fiber Wide tow textile grade carbon fiber produced at Oak Ridge National Laboratory [105]
  57. 57. The major challenges for large scale implementation of carbon-fiber composites • Crash performance • Molding cycle time • Carbon fiber cost • Repair for primary structure • Recycled content and end-of-life recycling
  58. 58. Mg-Intensive Front-end AHSS Passenger Compartment Steel: 79 Parts; 84 kg Mg: 35 Parts; 46 kg (Eliminate 44 Parts and Save 38 kg - 45%) Castings (15): 31 kg Extrusions (3): 9 kg Sheet Parts (17): 6 kg MULTI-MATERIAL BODY – THE FUTURE Composite Floor Pan
  59. 59. CHALLENGE FOR FUTURE VEHICLE CONSTRUCTION Design engineers can utilize topology optimization + ICME to maximize vehicle level weight savings opportunities Component engineers can design increasingly complex geometries utilizing a wide range of materials (AHSS, Al, Mg, Composites) Manufacturing engineers can produce components using a variety of processes (Stampings, Extrusions, Castings,…) Need to be able to join any combination of materials in any form with – Low Cost, High Stiffness, Durability, Corrosion Resistance
  60. 60. Metamorphic Manufacturing: Shaping the Future of On- Demand Components The goal of Metamorphic Manufacturing: Shaping the Future of On-Demand Components is to help jump-start this potentially disruptive technology. This new technical report is organized by TMS on behalf of the Office of Naval Research (ONR) and the Lightweight Innovations for Tomorrow (LIFT) Manufacturing Institute.
  61. 61. LIGHTWEIGHT INNOVATIONS FOR TOMORROW Traditional Blacksmithing Evolved into Large, Dedicated Machines with Expensive Tooling
  62. 62. LIGHTWEIGHT INNOVATIONS FOR TOMORROW “Back to the Future” though CNC Blacksmithing High Value Component with local Microstructure and Shape Simulation and ICME Machine Heating and Cooling Sensors Position German anonymous, circa 1606
  63. 63. LIGHTWEIGHT INNOVATIONS FOR TOMORROWPreliminary Exam Maya Nath 68 Incremental Sheet Forming (CIRP Encyclopedia of Production Engineering. 2014) Sheet metal part Forming tool (E. Salem, NAMRC Conference 2016) Conventional Stamping
  64. 64. LIGHTWEIGHT INNOVATIONS FOR TOMORROWPreliminary Exam - University of Michigan 69 Advantages of ISF and Additive Mfg (J. Allwood, 2005) Advantages of Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF) ü Lower forming forces ü Die-less or low-cost die ü Shorter lead time ü Component customizability Volume (parts/year) Complexity Additive Manufacturing Conventional Forming Incremental Forming
  65. 65. LIGHTWEIGHT INNOVATIONS FOR TOMORROW LIGHTWEIGHT SOLUTIONS THROUGH INCREMENTAL SHEET FORMING State-of-art sheet metal forming technology Enables more flexibility in part geometry and cost efficiency compared to conventional processes Product, process, and material development: • Baseline established by forming a cone and a pyramid • Benchmark used to study the effect of different process parameters and tool paths on the structural properties, fatigue and dimensional accuracy of the component Outcomes: • Formed “heart-shape” test component with die assisted two-point incremental forming (TPIF). • Demonstrated ability to form same shape with no die single-point forming (SPIF). • Delivered prototype to customer. No die –Single Point FormingStrategy Base die – Two-Point Incremental FormingStrategy

×