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PREPAID BY:- GROUP :C
•RAJ KRUNAL
•SHAH APURVA
•PATHARIYA SARASWATI

CIVIL ENGINEERING
SIGMA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
1
TOPICS TO BE COVERD


INTRODUCTION



PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MINERALS

2
INTRODUCTION
MINERAL-: A naturally occurring
homogeneous substance which has a more
or less definite atomic structure .

M...
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MINERALS


Determine by simple test.



Useful on field for recognizing.



Identification by po...
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MINERAL
ARE :1)

COLOURS

9)TENACITY

2)

STREAK

10)MAGNETISM

3)

LUSTRE
11)FLUORESCENCE

4)

HAR...
COLOURS


Absorption of the certain
wave lengths of light by
atoms making up the crystal.



Colour and appearance in
li...
a)

PLAY OF COLOURS:- It is the development
of series of prismatic colour shown by some
on turning them in light. E.g.: Di...
b) CHANGE OF COLOURS:-It is similar to play
of colour except that the rate of change of
colour on rotation is rather low. ...
c)IRIDESCENCE: Some minerals shows
rainbow colours either in their exterior or in
the interior surface.E.g.:-Limonite.

9


The colour of
mineral powder is called
the streak.



Obtained by rubbing the
mineral against an
unglazed porcelain pl...
LUSTURE


The way of mineral, which reflect
the light from its surface and may
define as shine of mineral.



There are ...
METALLIC
LUSTURE

NON-METALLIC LUSTURE

12
HARDNESS


Define as the resistance of a mineral to
scratching or abrasion.



Hardness is determined by rubbing a
miner...
14
FINGER NAILS

PENNY

BY KNIFE
15
HABIT


“Habit” of a mineral may be define as
the size and shape of the crystals, and the
structure or form shown by the ...
2)Fibrous:-Minerals showing an aggregate of
long thin fibers. E.g.:-Asbestos.

3)Tabular:-Minerals showing bladed habit
oc...
4)Granular:-Minerals which occur as
aggregate of equidimensional grains.E.g.:Chromites.

5)Pisolitic:-Minerals which occur...
6)Botryoidal:-Minerals showing aggregate of
rounded masses resembling bunch of
grapes. E.g.:-Chalcedony.

7)Columnar:-Mine...
CLEAVAGE


The tendency of a mineral to break more
easily with smooth surfaces along planes of
weak bonding.



It is th...
Mica has basal cleavage.

Calcite has rhombohedral cleavage.

Galena has cubic cleavage.

21
FRACTURE


The way a mineral breaks when it does not
yield along cleavage or parting surface , it
is called Fracture.


...


EVEN FRACTURE:- Fracture surface which
is almost flat.



UNEVEN FRACTURE:- Fracture surface
which is irregular or rou...
Minerals can be identified by how they
break. Obsidian (left), although not a
mineral because of its lack of crystal
struc...
FEEL


Feel is the sensation upon touching or
handling minerals .the different types of feel
are “greasy” , “soapy”, “rou...
Kaolin has “Soapy” feel.

Bauxite has “Rough” feel.

26
TENACITY
Tenacity of mineral denotes the degree or
character of cohesion.
Tenacity is classified as follows:1)Sectile:-Min...
2)Malleable:-Minerals which flatten under
the hammer.

GOLD

3)Flexible:-Minerals which may be bent.

GYPSUM
28
MAGNETISM
A few minerals are attracted by magnet
. Of these minerals magnetite and
pyrrhotite are the most common examples...
FLUORESCENCE
Some minerals when exposed in
sunlight or ultraviolet light, produce a
colour quit different from their own. ...
IN SUNLIGHT
GREEN
FLUORITE

SHOWS BLUE OR
PRPULE COLOUR

31
SPECIFIC GRAVITY
“Specific gravity” is a number
which represents the ratio of the
weight of a mineral to the weight
of an ...
FORM
The internal atomic arrangement
of a mineral is manifested outwardly
by development of geometrical shapes
of crystal ...
COMPARISION OF MINERALS

MINERALS

PYRITE

HEMATITE

FORMULA

FeS2

Fe3O3

COLOUR

BRASS YELLOW

REDDISH BROWN OR BLACK

L...
MINERAL

MAGNETITE

BAUXITE

FORMULA

Fe3O4

Al2O3

COLOUR

IRON BLACK

WHITE,GRAY,YELLOW,
BROWN

LUSTURE

METALLIC TO DUL...
MINERAL

GYPSUM

DOLOMITE

FORMULA

CaSO4.2H2O

CaMg(CO3)2

COLOUR

COLOURLESS,WHITE,GRE
Y,RED OR BROWN

WHITE,GRAY TO PIN...
MINERAL

CALCITE

GRAPHITE

FORMULA

CaCO3

C

COLOUR

USUALLY WHITE TO
COLOURLESS

IRON BLACK TO STEEL GRAY

LUSTURE

VIT...
MINERAL

CHALCOCITE

GALENA

FORMULA

Cu2S

PbS

COLOUR

DARK GRAY TO BLACK

LEAD GRAY AND
SILVER

LUSTURE

METALLIC

BRIG...
REFERENCE:

BOOK:”PRINCIPLES OF ENGINEERING
GEOLOGY”
by,” B.M BANGAR”



GOOGLE IMAGES.

39
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IT ALL ABOUT MINERALS THEIR CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES.

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MINERALS

  1. 1. PREPAID BY:- GROUP :C •RAJ KRUNAL •SHAH APURVA •PATHARIYA SARASWATI CIVIL ENGINEERING SIGMA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 1
  2. 2. TOPICS TO BE COVERD  INTRODUCTION  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MINERALS 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION MINERAL-: A naturally occurring homogeneous substance which has a more or less definite atomic structure . MINERAL ROCK FORMING MINERALS ORE FORMING MINERALS 3
  4. 4. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MINERALS  Determine by simple test.  Useful on field for recognizing.  Identification by polarizing microscope by cutting minerals into thin slices and passing polarized light to pass through them. 4
  5. 5. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MINERAL ARE :1) COLOURS 9)TENACITY 2) STREAK 10)MAGNETISM 3) LUSTRE 11)FLUORESCENCE 4) HARDNESS GRAVITY 12)SPECIFIC 5) HABIT 13)FORM 6) CLEAVAGE 7) FRACTURE 8) FEEL 5
  6. 6. COLOURS  Absorption of the certain wave lengths of light by atoms making up the crystal.  Colour and appearance in light depends upon the composition and structure of the substance.  Phenomenon shown by minerals:- 6
  7. 7. a) PLAY OF COLOURS:- It is the development of series of prismatic colour shown by some on turning them in light. E.g.: Diamond 7
  8. 8. b) CHANGE OF COLOURS:-It is similar to play of colour except that the rate of change of colour on rotation is rather low. E.g.: Plagioclase Feldspar. 8
  9. 9. c)IRIDESCENCE: Some minerals shows rainbow colours either in their exterior or in the interior surface.E.g.:-Limonite. 9
  10. 10.  The colour of mineral powder is called the streak.  Obtained by rubbing the mineral against an unglazed porcelain plate , called the “streak plate”, .  Important in case of coloured minerals which often give a much lighter streak the their original body colour . 10
  11. 11. LUSTURE  The way of mineral, which reflect the light from its surface and may define as shine of mineral.  There are two types of lusture:1)Metallic lusture 2)Non-metallic lusture 11
  12. 12. METALLIC LUSTURE NON-METALLIC LUSTURE 12
  13. 13. HARDNESS  Define as the resistance of a mineral to scratching or abrasion.  Hardness is determined by rubbing a mineral of unknown hardness against one of known hardness.  Obtained by using “mohs scale of hardness". It can also be obtained by 1)scratch with finger nails , 2)a penknife, 3)penny 13
  14. 14. 14
  15. 15. FINGER NAILS PENNY BY KNIFE 15
  16. 16. HABIT  “Habit” of a mineral may be define as the size and shape of the crystals, and the structure or form shown by the crystal. 1)Accicular :- Minerals showing needle like crystals. E.g.:-Natrolite. 16
  17. 17. 2)Fibrous:-Minerals showing an aggregate of long thin fibers. E.g.:-Asbestos. 3)Tabular:-Minerals showing bladed habit occur as small knife blades.E.g.:-Kyanite . 17
  18. 18. 4)Granular:-Minerals which occur as aggregate of equidimensional grains.E.g.:Chromites. 5)Pisolitic:-Minerals which occur as aggregates of rounded grains of a pea size. E.g.:-Bauxite. 18
  19. 19. 6)Botryoidal:-Minerals showing aggregate of rounded masses resembling bunch of grapes. E.g.:-Chalcedony. 7)Columnar:-Minerals showing columnar crystals. E.g.:- Tourmaline. 19
  20. 20. CLEAVAGE  The tendency of a mineral to break more easily with smooth surfaces along planes of weak bonding.  It is the property which is related to the atomic arrangement within the mineral. For E.G.:-Mica,Galena,Calcite. 20
  21. 21. Mica has basal cleavage. Calcite has rhombohedral cleavage. Galena has cubic cleavage. 21
  22. 22. FRACTURE  The way a mineral breaks when it does not yield along cleavage or parting surface , it is called Fracture.  Fracture are neither linear nor parallel. CONCHOIDAL FRACTURE 22
  23. 23.  EVEN FRACTURE:- Fracture surface which is almost flat.  UNEVEN FRACTURE:- Fracture surface which is irregular or rough. E.g.:DUMORTIERITE 23
  24. 24. Minerals can be identified by how they break. Obsidian (left), although not a mineral because of its lack of crystal structure, shows excellent conchoidal fracture. Asbestos (right), which is the common name for several minerals that form thin, threadlike structures, is an example of a mineral with fibrous fracture. 24
  25. 25. FEEL  Feel is the sensation upon touching or handling minerals .the different types of feel are “greasy” , “soapy”, “rough” , and “harsh” . Talc has “greasy” feel. 25
  26. 26. Kaolin has “Soapy” feel. Bauxite has “Rough” feel. 26
  27. 27. TENACITY Tenacity of mineral denotes the degree or character of cohesion. Tenacity is classified as follows:1)Sectile:-Mineral which may be cut with knife but slices are not malleable. ORPIMENT 27
  28. 28. 2)Malleable:-Minerals which flatten under the hammer. GOLD 3)Flexible:-Minerals which may be bent. GYPSUM 28
  29. 29. MAGNETISM A few minerals are attracted by magnet . Of these minerals magnetite and pyrrhotite are the most common examples. The magnetite that possesses attracting power and polarity is called “Lodestone”. MAGNETITE 29
  30. 30. FLUORESCENCE Some minerals when exposed in sunlight or ultraviolet light, produce a colour quit different from their own. Thus green or colourless fluorite shows a blue or purple colour in ultraviolet light. This property of minerals is called “Fluorescence”. 30
  31. 31. IN SUNLIGHT GREEN FLUORITE SHOWS BLUE OR PRPULE COLOUR 31
  32. 32. SPECIFIC GRAVITY “Specific gravity” is a number which represents the ratio of the weight of a mineral to the weight of an equal volume of water. Thus a mineral with specific gravity 4.0 is four times as heavy as water. 32
  33. 33. FORM The internal atomic arrangement of a mineral is manifested outwardly by development of geometrical shapes of crystal structure. CALCIT INTERNAL CRYSTAL STRUCTURE 33
  34. 34. COMPARISION OF MINERALS MINERALS PYRITE HEMATITE FORMULA FeS2 Fe3O3 COLOUR BRASS YELLOW REDDISH BROWN OR BLACK LUSTURE METALLIC METALLIC TO DULL STREAK GREENISH OR BROWNISH BLACK DARK RED HARDNESS 6-6.5 5-6 HABIT COMMON FORMS ARE THE CUBE CRYSTALS THIN TABULAR USE MANUFACTURE OF SULFURIC ACID AS IRON ORE,AS PIGMENT IMAGE CLEVAGE - ABSENT 34
  35. 35. MINERAL MAGNETITE BAUXITE FORMULA Fe3O4 Al2O3 COLOUR IRON BLACK WHITE,GRAY,YELLOW, BROWN LUSTURE METALLIC TO DULL DULL EARTHY STREAK BLACK YELLOW TO BROWN HARDNESS 6 2-2.5 HABIT OCTAHEDRAL CRYSTAL,MASSIVE OR GRANULAR PISOLITIC IMAGE USE IMPORTANT ORE OF IRON AS ABRASIVE MATERIAL,IMPORTANT ORE OF ALUMINIUM CLEVAGE ABSENT ABSENT 35
  36. 36. MINERAL GYPSUM DOLOMITE FORMULA CaSO4.2H2O CaMg(CO3)2 COLOUR COLOURLESS,WHITE,GRE Y,RED OR BROWN WHITE,GRAY TO PINK LUSTURE USUALLY VITREOUS VITREOUS TO PEARLY STREAK WHITE WHITE HARDNESS 2 3.5-4 HABIT TABULAR,FIBROUS,GRANNULAR. CRYSTAL SHOW CURVED FACES USE POP , AS FERTILIZER AS BUILDING & ORNAMENTAL STONE CLEAVAGE PERFECT PERFECT ON RHOMBOHEDRAL CLEAVAGE 36 IMAGE
  37. 37. MINERAL CALCITE GRAPHITE FORMULA CaCO3 C COLOUR USUALLY WHITE TO COLOURLESS IRON BLACK TO STEEL GRAY LUSTURE VITREOUS METALLIC ,EARTHY STREAK WHITE BLACK HARDNESS 3 1-2 HABIT CRYSTALLINE,TABULAR ,GRANULAR USE MANUFACTURE OF CEMENT AND LIME. STEEL MAKING,LUBRICANTS CLEVAGE PERFECT WITH 74 55’ PERFECT IMAGE 37
  38. 38. MINERAL CHALCOCITE GALENA FORMULA Cu2S PbS COLOUR DARK GRAY TO BLACK LEAD GRAY AND SILVER LUSTURE METALLIC BRIGHT METALLIC STREAK SHINY BLACK TO LEAD GRAY LEAD GRAY HARDNESS 2.5-3 2.5 HABIT SHORT PRISMATIC CRSTAL,MASSIVE OFTEN CUBIC CRYSTAL,MASSIVE USE IMPROTANT ORE OF COPPER IMPORTANT ORE OF LEAD AND SILVER CLEAVAGE POOR PERFECT CUBIC IMAGE 38
  39. 39. REFERENCE: BOOK:”PRINCIPLES OF ENGINEERING GEOLOGY” by,” B.M BANGAR”  GOOGLE IMAGES. 39
  40. 40. 40
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IT ALL ABOUT MINERALS THEIR CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES.

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