Cinnamon is the dried inner bark
of the coppiced shoots of
Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees.,
belonging to family Lauraceae.
Cinnamomum zeylanicum is widely
cultivated in Ceylon, Java, Sumatra,
West Indies, Brazil, Mauritius,
Jamaica, and India.
Cassia is the dried stem bark of
Cinnamomum cassia Blume.,
belonging to family Lauraceae.
Indigenous to China, Cochin and
Assam. It is also cultivated in
Ceylon, Japan, Sumatra, Java,
Mexico and America.
4. Cinnamon Cassia
Single- or double-compound
1 m length, 0.5 mm thickness, and
6 to 10 mm diameter.
The outer surface has yellowish
brown colour having longitudinal
lines of pericyclic fibre and scars
The inner surface is darker than
Odour - fragrant perfume
Taste - aromatic and sweet.
Channelled pieces or as single
6 to 40 cm long, 1 to 2 cm in
width, and 1 to 3 mm in
The outer surface is dark reddish-
brown, smooth with rather rough
patches of grey cork.
The inner, surface has fine
striations. The fractures are short.
The flavour is more pungent, less
sweet, and delicate and slightly
bitter than that of cinnamon
To differentiate and identify the two crude drugs Cinnamon
and Cassia by microscopical and chemical characteristics
Compound microscope, Microscopic slide, cover-slip,
dissection needle, zero number paint brush, watch glass,
a sharp razor blade, a beaker full of water, filter paper
Concentrated Hydrochloric acid, Phloroglucinol,
7. Three to four layers of horse shoe
shaped sclereids with starch
The pericyclic fibres present on
the outer margin.
Completely collapsed sieve tubes
lignified phloem fibres, arranged
as tangential rows of four to five
biseriate medullary rays with
needle-shaped calcium oxalate
longitudinally elongated idioblast
consisting of volatile oil;
8. Outer Periderm and cork present
Cortex consists of 10 to 15 layers
of parenchyma with sclereids
Characteristic of lignified and
The secondary phloem consist of
phloem parenchyma which is
thin-walled, containing abundant
Isolated or group of phloem fibres
embedded in phloem parenchyma
Medullary rays consisting of the
starch and acicular raphides.
10. Cinnamon Cassia
10% of volatile oil, tannin,
mucilage, calcium oxalate and
Volatile oil contains
50 to 65% cinnamic aldehyde,
5 to 10% eugenol,
terpene hydrocarbons and
small quantities of ketones and
1 to 2% of volatile oil.
80 % cinnamyl acetate,
coumarin, tannic acid, and starch.
Eugenol is absent.
The value of the drug depends on
the percentage of cinnamic
aldehyde present in it.
11. Cinnamon Cassia
A drop of volatile oil is dissolved
in 5 ml of alcohol and to it a drop
of ferric chloride is added, A pale
green colour is produced.
The alcoholic extract is treated
with phenyl hydrazine
hydrochloride, it produces red
colour due to the formation of
phenylhydrazone of cinnamic
Note: Cinnamic aldehyde gives
brown colour with ferric
chloride, whereas eugenol gives
With ferric chloride gives brown
due to the presence of cinnamic
aldehde and absence of eugenol.
Cassia gives a deep blue black
colour with tincture of iodine
Cassia oil contains coumarin
which gives strong green blue
fluorescence on addition of alkali.
13. Cinnamon Cassia
Cassia burmanii Blume or
the Java or Batavia
C. sintok, C. obtusifolium,
C. culilawan, C. loureirii,
C. pauciflorum, C. inserta,
14. Cinnamon Cassia
◦ Rumalaya gel,
◦ Koflet lozenges,
◦ Chyavanprash (Himalaya
◦ Garbhapal ras,
◦ Sutsekhar ras (Dabur), and
◦ Sage Staminex capsules (Sage
Abana (Himalaya Drug
Shukra Matrika Bati