2. HISTORY OF ELECTRIC VEHICLES
• It is hard to pinpoint the invention of electric car to one inventor or country, instead it
was a series of breakthroughs from battery to electric motors in 1800’s that led to the first
electric vehicle on the road.
• It was Henry Ford’s mass produced Model T that dealt blow to electric car. By that time the
gasoline car cost was $650 and electric car cost was $1,750.
• In India, the concept of electric vehicles was unveiled under ‘National Electric Mobility
Mission Plan(NEMMP) 2020’in 2013 to address the issues of energy security and vehicle
• In 2001, the first ever electric car ‘Reva’was launched in India by Reva Electric Car
Company (now known as Mahindra Electric).
3. WORKING OF ELECTRIC
source is a battery
and controls the
received from the
Since the electric vehicles use an
electric motor the driver can take
advantage of motor’s momentum
when pressure is applied on the
brakes. Instead of converting all the
potential energy in the motor into
heat like a fossil fuel powered car
does, an electric car uses the
forward momentum of the
motor to recharge the battery.
This process is known as
4. TYPES OF EVS
• HEVs are powered by both
petrol and electricity.
HEVs start off using the
electric motor, then the
petrol engine cuts in as
load or speed rises. The
two motors are controlled
by an internal computer
which ensures the best
economy for driving
conditions. HEVs can
recharge the battery
braking . Example: Honda
Civic Hybrid,Audi Q7.
• These vehicles use
electricity as main source
of energy. The combustion
engine is set-on when the
charging of battery
reaches minimum level.
Recharging the battery can
be done by regenerative
braking as well as plugging
in the charger . Example:
• They are only powered by
electricity and do not
have a petrol engine, fuel
tank or exhaust pipe.
They are also known as
plug in EVs. Example:
Parameters Electric Vehicles
Energy From electricity produced by batteries By combustion of Fuel.
Higher due to usage of expensive batteries
and higher maintenance
Cheaper due to more availability and
feasibility of resources
Does not produce harmful emissions and
contributes in clean air
Produces harmful carbon emissions
Running Cost Running cost per km is Rs 1.5
Diesel per Km running cost is 4 to 4.5
and petrol per km running cost is 6.5
where as for CNG it is 3 to 3.5
6. LITHIUM ION
• Lithium is abundantly available in the world. The battery can be recycled.
The electric vehicle covers a range of 8 kms per Kwh of Li-ion battery.
The Mahindra e2o uses 11-16 Kwh battery for range of 120 kms.
In 2010, the Li-ion batteries cost around $700/Kwh which reduced to $145/Kwh in 2016. It is estimated to reach $120/Kwh by 2020.
In 2010, for the range of 40 mi(64 kms), the pack of batteries cost $12,000 , whereas, it was $3600. In 2015, It reached $1500 by 2020.
In India, due to high cost of Li-ion batteries, finance is one of major problems and also warrants a much higher purchase demand.
• Charging Time
The Mahindra e2o takes around 5 to 8 hrs to charge its 11-16 Kwh battery.
The batteries can work upto 10+ years and over 7000+ charging cycles.
7. CHALLENGES FOR
ELECTRIFICATION OF VEHICLES
1. Integration of Electric vehicles within Product Portfolios of OEMs.
2. Collaborations with E-Mobility value chain.
3. Relevant Charging Infrastructure.
4. Marketing of E-Mobility Benefits and Reducing customerAnxiety.
5. Price Customer has to pay to live with an E-Vehicle.
8. INTEGRATION OF ELECTRIC VEHICLES
WITHIN PRODUCT PORTFOLIOS OF OEMS
• Electric Vehicles inclusion in the Product
Portfolio would affect the e-vehicles market
which would help the companies make a brand
value for their EV lineup
• OEMs are following a step by step approach
implementing electric drive in already existing
vehicles of their fleet.
• BMW introduced a new sub brand “BMWi”
which aims to meet the new challenges in a very
holistic and sustainable way.
9. RELEVANT CHARGING
• Currently there are two types of charging stations, at
home or work. Both of these sources involve legal
challenges in terms of taxations, accounting that needs
to be addressed.
• Public charging infrastructure is still uncertain, as
large scale investment has not yet surfaced to support
public charging infrastructure as stand alone business.
• Charging stations will only start as business by
private firms when there is adequate usage of e-
vehicles in that particular area.
10. MARKETING OF E-MOBILITY BENEFITS
AND REDUCING CUSTOMER ANXIETY
• RangeAnxiety reflects a key concern about batteries in
electric cars losing power before reaching a destination or
• Customers views about electric cars being sluggish to react
and having a low top speed must be changed by offerings of
OEMs, like TESLAdid.
• There is a lack of awareness among the customers about the
usage of Electric Vehicles to reduce the pollution.
• Customers have views that EVs can be used only for short
daily commute due to lack of performance and unavailability
of charging stations
11. USAGE OF EVS BY VARIOUS COUNTRIES
• As of Dec 2016, China has the worlds
largest stock of highways legal light
duty plug in electric vehicles with
cumulative sales of more than
6,45,000 plug in electric cars.
• US ranks second with more than
5,70,000 plug in electric vehicles.
• Japan is the worlds third Largest plug
in car country market with about
No. of EVs
No. of EVs
12. USAGE OF EVS BY
• Gujarat topped the list with sales of
just over 4330 units. WB appeared in
the second place with sales of 2,846
units, followed by UP which sold a
total of 2,467 electric vehicles during
the said period. Rajasthan reported
sales of around 2,388 EV units, while
Maharashtra came in fifth with sales of
• In addition, 25,000 e-vehicles were
sold across India between 2016-17.
• The Retro fitment of Hybrid Electric system kit on vehicles with a Gross Vehicle
Weight not exceeding 3500kg shall be permitted if it confirms to BS II or subsequent
emission norms, if it was not retrofitted earlier.
• One of the kinds of kits is the starter generator hybrid system, which assists the engine
at low rpms. This system consists of an electric motor that is attached to the existing
engine by means of a belt drive. It draws its power from a separate or existing stack of
batteries that can either be separately charged or charged from engines alternator
• When the vehicle is accelerating, it provides electric power assist to make it easier for
the motor to turn, thereby reducing emissions and increasing fuel efficiency. When the fuel
is decelerating, it turns into a generator and recharges the batteries.
• However right now-on one hand the government has allowed converting old petrol and
diesel vehicles to electric hybrids but kits and installers don’t exist yet and hence
customers would have to pay a huge sum of money to install such kits.
14. TESLA : A REVOLUTION IN EV
• Tesla was founded by Elon Musk in 2003.
• In March 2008 Tesla began production of Roadster
• In June 2008 it announced Model S
• Tesla launched Model 3 in 2017 which has a high range battery(50 or 75 KwH) which can run for 354 kms
or 500kms repectively.
• In 2017, Tesla filed a patent for a new battery swapping robot that can lift a vehicle and change its battery
pack for a new one in just 15 minutes.
• Tesla has proved the capability of an electric vehicle by developing high performance sports car and
affordable cars for daily commute
• There are various challenges including financial, technical, supply chain
challenges for development of EVs in India but these challenges can be
solved by a firm resolution by the OEMs and customers.
• Charging stations can be increased once the sales of EVs increase, This
could be achieved by customer awareness about EVs.
• As the use of the EVs increase, OEMs can also bring variety of products in
lower range of prices.
• Educational activities can be organized by OEMs so that the awareness
about EVs is increased, which would further lead to increase in sales.