2. • Erik Homburger Erikson was born on
June 15, 1902,in Frankfurt, Germany.
• He died in 1994.
• The son of Danish parents.
THE FATHER OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
3. • Erik H. Erikson was one of America’s
most influential psychoanalysts.
• In the United States, he distinguished
himself as an illuminator and
expositor of Freud’s theories and as a
clinician, teacher, and pioneer in
• created theory of psychological
development and crisis occurring in
periods that extended across the
entire life cycle
4. • Erikson identified dilemmas or polarities in the ego's relations with
the family and larger social institutions at nodal points in childhood,
adolescence, and early, middle, and late adulthood.
• Two of his psychosexual historical studies, Young Man Luther and
Gandhi s Truth (published in 1958 and 1969 respectively)
• In 1950 –he published CHILDHOOD AND SOCIETY
• The interrelationships of the psychological development of the person
and the historical developments of the times were explored in Life
History and the Historical Moment, written by Erikson in 1975.
5. • Epigenetic model:
• Erikson’s formulations were based on the concept of epigenesis.
• His epigenetic principle holds that development occurs in sequential, clearly
defined stages and that each stage must be satisfactorily resolved for
development to proceed smoothly.
• if successful resolution of a particular stage does not occur, all subsequent
stages reflect that failure in physical, cognitive, social, or emotional
6. • Relation to Freudian Theory:
• Erikson accepted Freud’s concepts of instinctual development and
• For each of Freud’s psychosexual stages (e.g., oral, anal, and phallic),
Erikson described a corresponding zone with a specific pattern or
mode of behavior.
• Oral zone : sucking or taking-in behavior;
• Anal zone :with holding on and letting go.
• Erikson emphasized that development of ego is more than the result
of intrapsychic wants or inner psychic energies.
• It is also a matter of mutual regulation between growing children and
a society’s culture and traditions.
7. • Eight Stages of the Life Cycle: Erikson’s eight stages of ego
development across the life cycle is the centerpiece of his life’s work.
• The eight stages represent points along a continuum of development.
• Physical, cognitive, instinctual, and sexual changes combine to trigger
an internal crisis, the resolution of which results in either psychosocial
regression or growth and development of specific virtues.
• Erikson defined virtue as inherent strength.
“crisis” is not a “threat of catastrophe, but a turning point, a crucial
period of increased vulnerability and heightened potential.
8. 1.TRUST AND MISTRUST:
• Age :Birth to about 18 months[Infant]
• Virtue: Hope
• “LIVES THROUGH AND LOVES WITH “ MOUTH.
• TRUST is the faith that things will “be alright “.
• It develops from good care provided by reliable .
9. • The infant is taking the world in through the mouth, eyes, ears, and
sense of touch.
• The baby is learning a cultural modality that Erikson termed to get,
that is, to receive what is offered and elicit what is desired.
• As the infant's teeth develop and it discovers the pleasure of biting, it
enters the second oral stage, the active-incorporative mode.
• The infant is no longer passively receptive to stimuli; it reaches out
for sensation and grasps at its surroundings.
• The social modality shifts to that of taking and holding on to things.
10. Baby has an innate sense of how safe they feel in the world, drawing on
their caregiver for both consistency and sense of trust.
Possible problems: developing and maintaining relations in future,
feelings of emptiness.
11. • Outward signs of Healthy Growth
• I. Expressions of Trust
• 1. invests in relationships
• 2. open, non-suspicious attitudes
• 3.lets mother go
• 4.welcomes touching
• 5.good eye contact
• 6.shares self and possessions
• Outward signs of Unhealthy Growth
• I. Expressions of Mistrust
• 1.avoids relationship
• 2. suspicious, closed, guarded
• 3.unwilling to let mother go
• 4.loner and unhappy
• 5.poor eye contact
• 6.Does not share self or possessions
12. 2.AUTONOMY VS SHAME AND DOUBT
• Age: about 18 months to about 3 years [TODDLER]
• Virtue: self esteem, will.
In the development of speech and sphincter and
muscular control, the toddler practices the social
modalities of holding on and letting go, and
experiences the first stirrings of the virtue that
Erikson termed will.
Child's development of a healthy sense of autonomy.
13. • Care givers should be patient and understanding, as the child experiments
their world .
• If care givers are critical, child may grow up Lacking confidence, reluctant to
try new things ,feels worthless.
• Possible problems :lack of self esteem ,low self worth, shame ,guilt, anger.
• Psychopathology aspects:
• A person who becomes fixated at the transition between the development
of hope and autonomous will, with its residue of mistrust and doubt, may
develop:Perfectionism, inflexibility, stinginess, ocpd, ocd
14. • II. Expressions of autonomy
• 2.not easily led
• 3.resists being dominate
• 4.able to stand on own two feet
• 5.works well alone or with others
• 6.assertive when necessary
• II. Expressions of shame and doubt
• 1.procrastinates frequently
• 2.has trouble working alone
• 3.need structure and directions
• 4.has trouble making decisions
• 5.is easily influenced
• 6.Embarrassed when complimented
15. 3.INITIATIVE AND GUILT:
• Age: about 3years to about 5 years[pre schooler]
• Virtue: purpose
• Mastery of locomotion and language skills expands
participation in outside world.
• Initiative adds to autonomy the quality of doing things just
to be doing them.
• A sense of guilt is often experienced over things
contemplated or actually done .
16. children assert themselves and interact with others. Success helps to
feel as a part of society.
• If caregiver stops the child’s sense of self, child may feel that they
are a nuisance, or may feel guilty for asking questions.
• Possible problems: indecision, unassertiveness, low motivation,
shame and guilt
• Psychopathology aspects:1.conversion disorder
2.Inhibition or phobia
17. • III. Expressions of initiative
• 1.is a self-starter
• 2.accepts challenges
• 3.assumes leadership roles
• 4.sets goals- goes after them
• 5.moves easily, freely with body
• III. Expressions of guilt
• 1.gets depressed easily
• 2.puts self down
• 3.slumped posture
• 4.poor eye contact
• 5.has low energy level
18. 4.INDUSTRYAND INFERIORITY:
• Age: 5-13 years [school child]
• Virtue: competency and pleasure in work
• child learn to win approval by making things and doing
things approved of the culture .
• Literate societies :learn to read
• Preliterate societies: learn the skills necessary for the
• Failure to produce or do valued things leads to sense of
• Child develops industry by learning new skills and takes
pride in the things made.
19. • Erikson wrote in Childhood and Society that the child's "ego
boundaries include his tools and skills: the work principle teaches him
the pleasure of work completion by steady attention and persevering
• " Across cultures, this is a time when the child receives systematic
instruction and learns the fundamentals of technology as they pertain
to the use of basic utensils and tools.
• As children work, they identify with their teachers and imagine
themselves in various occupational roles.
20. • Possible problems:
isolation from peers,
inability to grasp social cues,
incompetence and sadness.
• Psychopathology aspects:
21. • IV. Expressions of industry
• 1.wonders how things work
• 2.finishes what starts
• 3.likes ‘projects’
• 4.enjoys learning
• 5.like to experiment
• IV. Expressions of inferiority
• 1.timid, somewhat withdrawn
• 2.overly obedient
• 3.procrastinates often
• 4.an observer, not a producer
• 5.questions own ability
22. 5.IDENTITYAND ROLE CONFUSION:
• Age: 13-20 years [Adolescent]
• Virtue: consistency and fidelity .
• "Fidelity is the ability to sustain loyalties freely pledged in spite of the
inevitable contradictions of value systems. It is the cornerstone of identity
and receives inspiration from confirming ideologies and affirming
• Identity refers to “who am I ?” and “what am I going to do with my life ?” .
• Difficulty in answering leads to role confusion .
• Adults who form a sense of identity gains 2 benefits:
1.a feeling of being at home in ones body
2.a sense of psychological well being.
23. • Healthy adolescents move away from all of the rules of any on peer
group and instead choose those aspects of many different groups that
best suit their developing sense of self.
• Adults who fail to achieve a sense of identity face confusion and
delays commitment to adult roles.[delay is psychosocial moratorium]
• Delay may lead to search for information or involve rebellious
pattern[opposite of what parents and others think is proper and
desirable –negative identity.
24. • Possible problems: conflict with parents or teachers, search for
identity in different groups, lack of body confidence, uncertainty
about leaving childhood and taking on adult roles, and questions
about own sexuality.
• Psychopathological aspects :1.Delinquent.
2.Gender related identity disorder
25. • V. Expressions of identity
• 1.certain about sex role identity
• 2.active interest in opposite sex
• 3.plans for future
• 4.challenges adult authority
• 5.tends to be self-accepting
• V. Expressions of identity confusion
• 1.doubts about sex role identity
• 2.lacks confidence
• 3.overly hostile to authority
• 4.overly obedient
• 5.tends to be self-rejection
27. • Erikson asserted in Identity: Youth and Crisis that Freud's use of the
term love referred to "the generosity of intimacy as well as genital
love; when he said love and work, he meant a general work
productiveness which would not preoccupy the individual to the
extent that he might lose his right or capacity to be a sexual and a
28. • They may be able to express their sexual orientation, or they may avoid
• Possible problems: isolation, inability to form relationships, feelings of
frustration and loneliness, and issues of attachment or loss.
• Psychopathological aspects : 1.Distantiation[isolate, if necessary,
destroy the forces and persons who seem dangerous to them.
29. • VI. Expressions of Intimacy
• 1.maintained friendship
• 2.physical and emotional intimacy
• 3.participation in games, groups
• 4.open, willing to interact
• 5.able to make and keep
• VI. Expressions of Isolation and Self-
• 1.sabotage relationship
• 3.avoidance, defensive
• 4.self defeating behavior
• 5.maintaining isolation
• 6.questions job performance
30. 7.GENERATIVITYAND STAGNATION:
• Age: 40-60 years
• Virtue : care
• Generativity includes productivity and creativity,
but here it refers to preparing the next
generation for life in the culture .
• people give back to society through raising
children, being productive at work and
becoming involved in community activities.
31. • Erikson asserted in Identity: Youth and Crisis that "generativity is primarily
the concern for establishing and guiding the next generation."
• The term generativity applies not so much to rearing and teaching one's
offspring as it does to a protective concern for all the generations and for
• It encompasses productivity and creativity as well.
• Having previously achieved the capacity to form intimate relationships, the
person now broadens the investment of ego and libidinal energy to include
groups, organizations, and society.
• Care is the virtue that coalesces at this stage.
• In Childhood and Society Erikson emphasized the importance to the
mature person of feeling needed. "Maturity needs guidance as well as
encouragement from what has been produced and must be taken care of.
• " Through generative behavior, the individual can pass on knowledge and
skills while obtaining a measure of satisfaction in having achieved a role
with senior authority and responsibility in the tribe.
32. • If they achieve these things, they feel purposeful.
• Possible problems: feeling stagnant, unproductive, frustrated, pointless
• Psychopathological aspects: midlife crisis
Premature invalidism(physical and
destructive organisations spread the effects of failed generativity through
out the society.[masked by escapisms –alcohol, drug abuse].
33. • VII. Expressions of Generativity
• 3.productive work
• 4.their own person
• 5.willingness to invest in the next
• 6.achievement goals
• 7.willing to risk, explore, produce,
take charge attitude
• VII. Expressions of Stagnation
• 3.complaining, blaming
• 5.fatalist attitude
• 6.dissatisfaction with self, job, life
34. 8.EGO INTEGRITY AND DESPAIR:
• Age : 60 years to death
• Virtue : wisdom and ability to face death
• EGO INTEGRITY :It has many facets .
• Refers to one’s acceptance of life as what it
had to be .
• Erikson termed in Identity: Youth and Crisis
a "detached yet active concern with life."
35. • Erikson wrote in Childhood and Society that such disgust masks a fear
of death and a sense of despair that "time is now short, too short for
the attempt to start another life and to try out alternate roads to
• " Looking back on the eight ages of man, he noted the relation
between adult integrity and infantile trust, "Healthy children will not
fear life if their elders have integrity enough not to fear death.“
• Psychopathological aspects: 1.Extreme alienation
36. • VIII. Expressions of Integrity
• 1.proud, content with self and life
• 2.still actively thinking about the
• 3.healthy interaction with self
• 4.self approving
• 5.comfortable giving and sharing
• 6.likes being an example to others
• 7.accepts aging process gracefully
and death as part of life cycle
• VIII. Expressions of Despair and
• 2.deep resentment
• 3.nothing left, uselessness
• 4.low self esteem
• 5.anger at self, other, world,
• 6.complaints, irritable
• 7.anger at aging, feels cheated
38. Therapy related:
• Erikson made many vital contributions to the therapeutic process.
• Among his most important contributions is his belief that establishing a
state of trust between doctor and patient is the essential requirement for
• 1.empathetic listening
• 2.verbal assurances,
which enable a positive transference built on mutual trust to develop.
39. • Dreams and Free Association:
• As with Freud, Erikson worked with the patient’s associations to the
dream as the “best leads” to understanding the dream’s meaning.
• He valued the first association with the dream, which he believed to
be powerful and essential.
• listened for “a central theme which, once found, gives added meaning
to all the associated material.”
• Erikson believed that interpretation was the primary therapeutic
agent, sought as much by the patient as the therapist.
40. • How Erikson’s Theory Is Applied In Real Life?
• Applied in real life is through counseling and therapy.
• Therapists often use this theory to help their clients. They can use it
to see how their past is affecting them now.
• Educators can use this theory to help students understand more
about themselves and the world around them.
• Parents can use this theory to better understand their children during
different developmental stages.
• Valuable framework for understanding how our experiences
throughout our lives can affect us now and in the future.
• This theory is in a variety of ways, including therapy, education, and
41. •Criticism Of Erikson’s Theory
• One of the criticisms of Erik Erikson’s theory is that it doesn’t take
into account race, culture, and gender.
• Some experts argue that his theory focuses too much on pathology
and less on positive aspects of development.
• Despite these criticisms, Erik Erikson’s theory remains one of the
most popular and well-known theories of psychosocial development.
42. • Benefits Of Erikson’s Theory Benefits Of Erikson's Theory
• It can be very helpful for people to understand themselves and
others. This self-knowledge can benefit individuals as they go through
life, helping them make better decisions about their future.
• This knowledge may be helpful for parents who are trying to raise
children in a healthy environment.
• Children and adults might not know how stages of life affect them.
When we understand this better, we can see how it affects society.
This will make things better when people get old too.
• Erik Erikson studied how adults change throughout their lives. He
found that each stage of life has an impact on the next stage of life.