O slideshow foi denunciado.
Seu SlideShare está sendo baixado. ×

[L-1]- Endocrine System- CCC- Nov 26, 2019.pdf

Próximos SlideShares
endocrine system  Physiology
endocrine system Physiology
Carregando em…3

Confira estes a seguir

1 de 41 Anúncio

Mais Conteúdo rRelacionado

Semelhante a [L-1]- Endocrine System- CCC- Nov 26, 2019.pdf (20)

Mais recentes (20)


[L-1]- Endocrine System- CCC- Nov 26, 2019.pdf

  1. 1. Dr. Sachin Kapur M.Phil, Phd 20+ years Teaching Experience 4,00,000 Students & Teachers Mentored
  2. 2. tinyurl.com/neetlivechat Telegram APP
  3. 3. Tests More Personalized Quizzes Live Doubt Sessions
  4. 4. PLUS Courses
  5. 5. Step 1 Step 2 INSTALL
  6. 6. Step 5 NEET Step 4 NEET Step 3 Rahul NEET
  7. 7. Step 6 Step 7 SACHINLIVE 43,200 27,000
  9. 9. Lecture Chemical Control and Coordination 1 Dr. Sachin Kapur M M.Phil, Phd 4,00,000 Students & Teachers Mentored 20+ years Teaching experience
  10. 10. AMITABH BACHCHAN ● Rejected by All India Radio. ● Rejected in his first audition for being too tall and not good-looking enough to be a star. ● Delivered 12 consecutive failures before getting a hit film. FAMOUS FAILURES
  11. 11. Chemical Control and Coordination Characteristic Nervous System Endocrine System Mediator Molecules Neurotransmitters released locally in response to nerve impulses Hormones delivered to tissues throughout the body by the blood. Site of mediator action Close to site of release, at a synapse; binds to receptors in postsynaptic membrane. Far from site of release (usually); binds to receptors on or in target cells. Types of target cells Muscle (smooth, cardiac, and skeletal) cells, gland cells, other neurons. Cells throughout the body. Time to onset of action Typically within milliseconds (thousandths of a second). Seconds to hours or days. Duration of action Generally briefer (milliseconds). Generally longer (seconds to days).
  12. 12. ➢ Any cell or tissue which is secretory in nature. Gland Chemical Control and Coordination Glands Endocrine Glands Exocrine Glands
  13. 13. ➢ These secrete their products into ducts that carry the secretions into ○ Body cavities. ○ Lumen of an organ. ○ To the outer surface of the body. ➢ Exocrine glands include sudoriferous (sweat), sebaceous (oil), mucous, and digestive glands. Exocrine Glands Chemical Control and Coordination
  14. 14. ➢ These secrete their products (hormones) into the interstitial fluid surrounding the secretory cells. ➢ From the interstitial fluid, hormones diffuse into blood capillaries and blood carries them to target cells throughout the body. ➢ Most hormones are required in very small amounts, so circulating levels typically are low. Endocrine Glands Chemical Control and Coordination
  15. 15. ➢ The endocrine glands include the ○ Pituitary ○ Thyroid ○ Parathyroid ○ Adrenal ○ Pineal glands. Endocrine Glands Chemical Control and Coordination
  16. 16. Chemical Control and Coordination
  17. 17. ➢ Several organs and tissues are not exclusively classified as endocrine glands but contain cells that secrete hormones. ➢ These include the ○ Hypothalamus ○ Thymus ○ Ovaries, testes ○ Kidneys, stomach and pancreas ○ Liver and small intestine, ○ Skin, heart, adipose tissue, and placenta. Endocrine Glands Chemical Control and Coordination
  18. 18. ➢ It is the study of structure, function of endocrine glands and diagnosis as well as treatment of disorders of the endocrine system. Endocrinology Chemical Control and Coordination
  19. 19. ➢ Hormones travel throughout body in blood, but affect only specific target cells. ➢ Only the target cells for a given hormone have receptors that bind and recognize that hormone. ➢ Receptors are constantly being synthesized and broken down. ➢ Generally, a target cell has 2000 to 100,000 receptors for a particular hormone. Hormone Activity Chemical Control and Coordination
  20. 20. ➢ If a hormone is present in excess, the number of target-cell receptors may decrease—an effect called down-regulation. ➢ For example, when certain cells of the testes are exposed to a high concentration of luteinizing hormone (LH), the number of LH receptors decreases. Down-regulation Chemical Control and Coordination
  21. 21. ➢ When a hormone is deficient, the number of receptors may increase. ➢ This phenomenon, known as upregulation, makes a target cell more sensitive to a hormone. Upregulation Chemical Control and Coordination
  22. 22. ➢ These act locally on neighboring cells or on the same cell that secretes them without first entering the bloodstream. Chemical Control and Coordination Local Hormones Local Hormones Paracrine Autocrine
  23. 23. ➢ Local hormones that act on neighboring cells are called paracrines. ➢ Local hormones that act on the same cell that secreted them are called autocrines. ➢ One example of a local hormone is interleukin 2 (IL-2), which is released by helper T cells during immune responses . Chemical Control and Coordination Local Hormones
  24. 24. ➢ Another example of a local hormone is the gas nitric oxide (NO), which is released by endothelial cells lining blood vessels. ➢ NO causes relaxation of nearby smooth muscle fibers in blood vessels, which in turn causes vasodilation. ➢ The drug Viagra (sildenafil) enhances the effects stimulated by nitric oxide in the penis. Chemical Control and Coordination Local Hormones
  25. 25. Chemical Control and Coordination
  26. 26. ➢ Local hormones are usually inactivated quickly. ➢ Circulating hormones may linger in the blood and exert their effects for a few minutes or occasionally for a few hours. ➢ Circulating hormones are inactivated by liver and excreted by kidneys. Chemical Control and Coordination Hormone Activity
  27. 27. Chemical Classes of Hormones Chemical Control and Coordination Lipid Soluble Hormones Water Soluble Hormones
  28. 28. ➢ These include ○ Steroid hormones. ○ Thyroid hormones. ○ Nitric oxide. Lipid-soluble Hormones Chemical Control and Coordination
  29. 29. ➢ Steroid hormones are derived from cholesterol. ➢ Each steroid hormone is unique due to the presence of different chemical groups attached at various sites on the four rings at the core of its structure. Steroid Hormones Chemical Control and Coordination
  30. 30. ➢ Two thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) are synthesized by attaching iodine to the amino acid tyrosine. ➢ The gas nitric oxide (NO) is both a hormone and a neurotransmitter. ➢ Its synthesis is catalyzed by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase. Lipid-soluble Hormones Chemical Control and Coordination
  31. 31. ➢ The water-soluble hormones include ○ Amine hormones ○ Peptide and protein hormones ○ Eicosanoid hormones. Water-soluble Hormone Chemical Control and Coordination
  32. 32. ➢ Amine hormones are synthesized by decarboxylating and otherwise modifying certain amino acids. ➢ They are called amines because they retain an amino group. ➢ The catecholamines—epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine—are synthesized by modifying the amino acid tyrosine. Amine hormones Chemical Control and Coordination
  33. 33. ➢ Histamine is synthesized from the amino acid histidine by mast cells and platelets. ➢ Serotonin and melatonin are derived from tryptophan. Chemical Control and Coordination Amine hormones
  34. 34. ➢ These are amino acid polymers. ➢ Smaller peptide hormones consist of chains of 3 to 49 amino acids. ➢ Larger protein hormones include 50 to 200 amino acids. ➢ Examples of peptide hormones are antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin; protein hormones include human growth hormone and insulin. Chemical Control and Coordination Peptide and Protein Hormones
  35. 35. ➢ These are derived from arachidonic acid, a 20-carbon fatty acid. ➢ The two major types of eicosanoids are prostaglandins and leukotrienes. ➢ The eicosanoids are important local hormones, and they may act as circulating hormones as well. Eicosanoid Hormones Chemical Control and Coordination
  36. 36. tinyurl.com/neetlivechat Telegram APP
  37. 37. #NEETLiveDaily sachin.kapur mahendra.singh_physics ashwanityagi.iitr namokaul
  38. 38. 11th Grade Monday Tuesday Wednesday Subjects Timings Biology 4 PM Physics 5 PM Chemistry 6 PM
  39. 39. 12th Grade Friday Saturday Sunday Subjects Timings Biology 4 PM Physics 5 PM Chemistry 6 PM
  40. 40. SACHINLIVE