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LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY
Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 1
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LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY
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  1. 1. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 1 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT LEARNING MODULE in Educ 1 - The Child and Adolescent Learners and Learning Principles Prepared by: PRINCES GRACE A. RETITA Instructor 1 College of Teacher Education First Semester, A.Y. 2020 – 2021
  2. 2. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 2 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Cover page 1 All about the Course 3 Module #1 - BASIC CONCEPTS AND ISSUES ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Topic 1.1- Learner-Centered Psychological Principles (LCP) 4 Topic 1.2 - Human Development: Meaning, Concepts and Approaches 19 Topic 1.3- The Stages of Development and Development Tasks 31 Topic 1.4- Issues on Human Development 44 Module #2 - DEVELOPMENTAL THEORIES ON CHILD AND ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT Topic 2.1- Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory of Development 54 Topic 2.2- Piaget’s Stages Of Cognitive Development 64 Topic 2.3- Vygotsky’s Socio-Cultural Theory 78 Topic 2.4- Erikson’s Psycho-Social Theory of Development 87 Topic 2.5- Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development 96 Topic 2.6- Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory 105 Module #3 - DEVELOPMENT OF THE LEARNERS AT VARIOUS STAGES Topic 3.1- Prenatal Period 112 Topic 3.2- Infancy and Toddlerhood 119 Topic 3.3- Early Childhood (The Preschooler) 131 Topic 3.4- Middle Childhood (The Primary Schooler) 141 Topic 3.5- Late Childhood (The Intermediate Schooler) 147 Topic 3.6- Adolescence (The High School Learners) 154 Module #4 - LEARNING THEORIES AND PRINCIPLES Topic 4.1- Nature of Learning 161 Topic 4.2- Thorndike’s Connectionism Theory (Laws of Learning) 169 Topic 4.3- Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning (Pavlovian Conditioning) 178 Topic 4.4- Skinner’s Operant Conditioning (Instrumental Conditioning) 185 Appendix Certificate of Utilization
  3. 3. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 3 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT Course Code : Educ 1 Course Descriptive Title : THE CHILD AND ADOLESCENT LEARNERS AND LEARNING PRINCIPLES Course Credit : 3 units Course Description: This course focuses on child and adolescent development with emphasis on current research and theory on biological, linguistic, cognitive, social and emotional dimensions of the development. Further, this includes factors that affects the progress of development of the learners and shall include appropriate pedagogical principles applicable for each developmental level. Course Topic Outline: Module 1- Basic Concepts and Issues on Human Development (4 Topics) Module 2- Developmental Theories on Child and Adolescent Development (6 Topics) Midterm Exam Module 3- Development of Learners at Various Stages (6 Topics) Module 4- Learning Theories and Principles (4 topics) Final Exam Submission of Outputs for the Learning Module: NOTE: Outputs maybe written in or sent to the following modes: Face-to-Face Session Online Mode 1. Spaces provided in the Module. 2. Printed form or handwritten form in a short-sized bondpaper. 1. pgretita321@gmail.com 2. pretita@ssct.edu.ph (Google Classroom) 3. FB messenger – Pringle Freud (PRinsesa GRacia)
  4. 4. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 4 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT MODULE # 1 : BASIC CONCEPTS AND ISSUES ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT TOPIC 1.1 : Learner-Centered Psychological Principles (LCP) TIME FRAME : 3 hours INTRODUCTION: The learner is the center of instruction. The world of instruction revolves around the learner. This module introduces you to the fourteen (14) learner-centered principles which shall be used throughout this course as a guide in determining appropriate pedagogy for learners at different life stages. Advance Organizer OBJECTIVES: In this topic, the students will be able to: 1. Classify the 14-learner centered principles in significance to the teaching- learning process; and 2. Adhere the 14-learner centered principles as keys to understanding teaching process. 3. Generate ways on how to apply the 14 principles in instruction as a future teacher based on the researched studies.
  5. 5. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 5 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT PRE-TEST: Do this activity before you read about the Learner- Centered Principles. 1. Examine the title, “Learner-Centered Principles”. Quickly jot down at least 10 words that come to your mind. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ __________________ 2. Go back to each word and write phrases about why you think the word can be associated with LCP. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ __________________ LEARNING ACTIVITY: The Learner-Centered Psychological Principles were put together by the American Psychological Association. The following 14 psychological principles pertain to the learner and the learning process. They focus on psychological factors that are primarily internal to and under the control of the learner rather than conditioned habits or physiological factors. However, the principles also attempt to acknowledge external environment or contextual factors that interact with these internal factors. The principles are intended to deal holistically with learners in the context of real-world learning situations. Thus, they are best understood as an organized set of principles; no principle should be viewed in isolation. The 14 principles are divided into those referring to (1) cognitive and metacognitive, (2) motivational and affective, (3) developmental and social, and (4) individual difference factors influencing learners and learning. Finally, the principles are intended to apply to all learners -- from
  6. 6. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 6 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT children, to teachers, to administrators, to parents, and to community members involved in our educational system. Cognitive and Metacognitive Factors 1. Nature of the learning process. The learning of complex subject matter is most effective when it is an intentional process of constructing meaning from information and experience. There are different types of learning processes, for example, habit formation in motor learning; and learning that involves the generation of knowledge, or cognitive skills and learning strategies. Learning in schools emphasizes the use of intentional processes that students can use to construct meaning from information, experiences, and their own thoughts and beliefs. Successful learners are active, goal-directed, self- regulating, and assume personal responsibility for contributing to their own learning. The principles set forth in this document focus on this type of learning. 2. Goals of the learning process. The successful learner, over time and with support and instructional guidance, can create meaningful, coherent representations of knowledge. The strategic nature of learning requires students to be goal directed. To construct useful representations of knowledge and to acquire the thinking and learning strategies necessary for continued learning success across the life span, students must generate and pursue personally relevant goals. Initially, students' short-term goals and learning may be sketchy in an area, but over time their understanding can be refined by filling gaps, resolving inconsistencies, and deepening their understanding of the subject matter so that they can reach longer-term goals. Educators can assist learners in creating meaningful learning goals that are consistent with both personal and educational aspirations and interests. 3. Construction of knowledge. The successful learner can link new information with existing knowledge in meaningful ways. Knowledge widens and deepens as students continue to build links between new information and experiences and their existing knowledge base. The nature of these links can take a variety of forms, such as adding to, modifying, or reorganizing existing knowledge or skills. How these links are made or develop may vary in different subject areas, and among students with varying talents, interests, and abilities. However, unless new knowledge becomes integrated with the learner's prior knowledge and understanding, this new knowledge remains isolated, cannot be used most effectively in new tasks, and does not transfer readily to new situations.
  7. 7. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 7 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT Educators can assist learners in acquiring and integrating knowledge by a number of strategies that have been shown to be effective with learners of varying abilities, such as concept mapping and thematic organization or categorizing. 4. Strategic thinking. The successful learner can create and use a repertoire of thinking and reasoning strategies to achieve complex learning goals. Successful learners use strategic thinking in their approach to learning, reasoning, problem solving, and concept learning. They understand and can use a variety of strategies to help them reach learning and performance goals, and to apply their knowledge in novel situations. They also continue to expand their repertoire of strategies by reflecting on the methods they use to see which work well for them, by receiving guided instruction and feedback, and by observing or interacting with appropriate models. Learning outcomes can be enhanced if educators assist learners in developing, applying, and assessing their strategic learning skills. 5. Thinking about thinking. Higher order strategies for selecting and monitoring mental operations facilitate creative and critical thinking. Successful learners can reflect on how they think and learn, set reasonable learning or performance goals, select potentially appropriate learning strategies or methods, and monitor their progress toward these goals. In addition, successful learners know what to do if a problem occurs or if they are not making sufficient or timely progress toward a goal. They can generate alternative methods to reach their goal (or reassess the appropriateness and utility of the goal). Instructional methods that focus on helping learners develop these higher order (metacognitive) strategies can enhance student learning and personal responsibility for learning. 6. Context of learning. Learning is influenced by environmental factors, including culture, technology, and instructional practices. Learning does not occur in a vacuum. Teachers a major interactive role with both the learner and the learning environment. Cultural or group influences on students can impact many educationally relevant variables, such as motivation, orientation toward learning, and ways of thinking. Technologies and instructional practices must be appropriate for learners' level of prior knowledge, cognitive abilities, and their learning and thinking strategies. The classroom environment, particularly the degree to which it is nurturing or not, can also have significant impacts on student learning.
  8. 8. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 8 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT Activity 1: How will you do it, Teacher? Now that you have classified the six (6) Cognitive and Metacognitive factors, if you are to apply it in a classroom in the future, how are you going to contextualized or what activities are you going to conduct every principle? Use the spaces provided for your answer. (Content-5; Organization of Ideas – 3; Grammar – 2 *rating applicable for every item) 1. Nature of the learning process – 2.
  9. 9. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 9 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT 3. 4. 5.
  10. 10. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 10 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT 6. Motivational and Affective Factors 7. Motivational and emotional influences on learning. What and how much is learned is influenced by the motivation. Motivation to learn, in turn, is influenced by the individual's emotional states, beliefs, interests and goals, and habits of thinking. The rich internal world of thoughts, beliefs, goals, and expectations for success or failure can enhance or interfere the learner's quality of thinking and information processing. Students' beliefs about themselves as learners and the nature of learning have a marked influence on motivation. Motivational and emotional factors also influence both the quality of thinking and information processing as well as an individual's motivation to learn. Positive emotions, such as curiosity, generally enhance motivation and facilitate learning and performance. Mild anxiety can also enhance learning and performance by focusing the learner's attention on a particular task. However, intense negative emotions (e.g., anxiety, panic, rage, insecurity) and related thoughts (e.g., worrying about competence, ruminating about failure, fearing punishment, ridicule, or stigmatizing labels) generally detract from motivation, interfere with learning, and contribute to low performance. 8. Intrinsic motivation to learn. The learner's creativity, higher order thinking, and natural curiosity all contribute to motivation to learn. Intrinsic motivation is stimulated by tasks of optimal novelty and difficulty, relevant to personal interests, and providing for personal choice and control. Curiosity, flexible and insightful thinking, and creativity are major indicators of the learners' intrinsic motivation to learn, which is in large part a function of meeting basic needs to be competent and to exercise personal control. Intrinsic motivation is facilitated on tasks that learners perceive as interesting and personally relevant and meaningful, appropriate in complexity and difficulty to the learners' abilities, and on which they believe they can succeed. Intrinsic motivation is also facilitated on tasks
  11. 11. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 11 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT that are comparable to real-world situations and meet needs for choice and control. Educators can encourage and support learners' natural curiosity and motivation to learn by attending to individual differences in learners' perceptions of optimal novelty and difficulty, relevance, and personal choice and control. 9. Effects of motivation on effort. Acquisition of complex knowledge and skills requires extended learner effort and guided practice. Without learners' motivation to learn, the willingness to exert this effort is unlikely without coercion. Effort is another major indicator of motivation to learn. The acquisition of complex knowledge and skills demands the investment of considerable learner energy and strategic effort, along with persistence over time. Educators need to be concerned with facilitating motivation by strategies that enhance learner effort and commitment to learning and to achieving high standards of comprehension and understanding. Effective strategies include purposeful learning activities, guided by practices that enhance positive emotions and intrinsic motivation to learn, and methods that increase learners' perceptions that a task is interesting and personally relevant. Activity 2: How will you do it, Teacher? Now that you have classified the three (3) Motivational and Affective factors, if you are to apply it in a classroom in the future, how are you going to contextualized or what activities are you going to conduct every principle? Use the spaces provided for your answer. (Content-5; Organization of Ideas – 3; Grammar – 2 *rating applicable for every item) 1. Motivational and emotional influence on learning –
  12. 12. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 12 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT 2. 3. Developmental and Social Factors 10. Developmental influences on learning. As individuals develop, there are different opportunities and constraints for learning. Learning is most effective when differential development within and across physical, intellectual, emotional, and social domains is taken into account. Individuals learn best when material is appropriate to their developmental level and is presented in an enjoyable and interesting way. Because individual development varies across intellectual, social, emotional, and physical domains, achievement in different instructional domains may also vary. Overemphasis on one type of developmental readiness--such as reading readiness, for example--may preclude learners from demonstrating that they are more capable in other areas of performance.
  13. 13. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 13 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT The cognitive, emotional, and social development of individual learners and how they interpret life experiences are affected by prior schooling, home, culture, and community factors. Early and continuing parental involvement in schooling, and the quality of language interactions and two-way communications between adults and children can influence these developmental areas. Awareness and understanding of developmental differences among children with and without emotional, physical, or intellectual disabilities, can facilitate the creation of optimal learning contexts. 11. Social influences on learning. Learning is influenced by social interactions, interpersonal relations, and communication with others. Learning can be enhanced when the learner has an opportunity to interact and to collaborate with others on instructional tasks. Learning settings that allow for social interactions, and that respect diversity, encourage flexible thinking and social competence. In interactive and collaborative instructional contexts, individuals have an opportunity for perspective taking and reflective thinking that may lead to higher levels of cognitive, social, and moral development, as well as self-esteem. Quality personal relationships that provide stability, trust, and caring can increase learners' sense of belonging, self-respect and self-acceptance, and provide a positive climate for learning. Family influences, positive interpersonal support and instruction in self- motivation strategies can offset factors that interfere with optimal learning such as negative beliefs about competence in a particular subject, high levels of test anxiety, negative sex role expectations, and undue pressure to perform well. Positive learning climates can also help to establish the context for healthier levels of thinking, feeling, and behaving. Such contexts help learners feel safe to share ideas, actively participate in the learning process, and create a learning community. Activity 3. How will you do it, Teacher? Now that you have classified the two (2) Developmental and Social factors, if you are to apply it in a classroom in the future, how are you going to contextualized or what activities are you going to conduct every principle? Use the spaces provided for your answer. (Content-5; Organization of Ideas – 3; Grammar – 2 *rating applicable for every item) 1. Developmental influence on learning –
  14. 14. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 14 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT 2. Individual Differences Factors 12. Individual differences in learning. Learners have different strategies, approaches, and capabilities for learning that are a function of prior experience and heredity. Individuals are born with and develop their own capabilities and talents. In addition, through learning and social acculturation, they have acquired their own preferences for how they like to learn and the pace at which they learn. However, these preferences are not always useful in helping learners reach their learning goals. Educators need to help students examine their learning preferences and expand or modify them, if necessary. The interaction between learner differences and curricular and environmental conditions is another key factor affecting learning outcomes. Educators need to be sensitive to individual differences, in general. They also need to attend to learner perceptions of the degree to which these differences are accepted and adapted to by varying instructional methods and materials.
  15. 15. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 15 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT 13. Learning and diversity. Learning is most effective when differences in learners' linguistic, cultural, and social backgrounds are taken into account. The same basic principles of learning, motivation, and effective instruction apply to all learners. However, language, ethnicity, race, beliefs, and socioeconomic status all can influence learning. Careful attention to these factors in the instructional setting enhances the possibilities for designing and implementing appropriate learning environments. When learners perceive that their individual differences in abilities, backgrounds, cultures, and experiences are valued, respected, and accommodated in learning tasks and contexts, levels of motivation and achievement are enhanced. 14. Standards and assessment. Setting appropriately high and challenging standards and assessing the learner as well as learning progress -- including diagnostic, process, and outcome assessment -- are integral parts of the learning process. Assessment provides important information to both the learner and teacher at all stages of the learning process. Effective learning takes place when learners feel challenged to work towards appropriately high goals; therefore, appraisal of the learner's cognitive strengths and weaknesses, as well as current knowledge and skills, is important for the selection of instructional materials of an optimal degree of difficulty. Ongoing assessment of the learner's understanding of the curricular material can provide valuable feedback to both learners and teachers about progress toward the learning goals. Standardized assessment of learner progress and outcomes assessment provides one type of information about achievement levels both within and across individuals that can inform various types of programmatic decisions. Performance assessments can provide other sources of information about the attainment of learning outcomes. Self-assessments of learning progress can also improve students’ self-appraisal skills and enhance motivation and self-directed learning. Application: The application of the 14 principles will be done as you explore the succeeding topics. For now, keep the 14 principles in mind s you explore the rest of the module. Always try to relate these principles to the concepts you will learn. Happy learning!
  16. 16. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 16 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT Activity 4. How will you do it, Teacher? Now that you have classified the two (2) Developmental and Social factors, if you are to apply it in a classroom in the future, how are you going to contextualized or what activities are you going to conduct every principle? Use the spaces provided for your answer. (Content-5; Organization of Ideas – 3; Grammar – 2 *rating applicable for every item) 1. Individual differences in learning – 2. 3.
  17. 17. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 17 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT SELF-EVALUATION: Rubrics for rating: (Content – 5; Organization of Ideas – 3, Grammar – 2) State your learning in a paragraph form. From the topic on Learner-Centered Psychological Principles, I realized that… (Use the space provided below for your answer.) ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ REVIEW OF CONCEPTS: The 14 LCP are intended to deal holistically with learners in context of real – world learning situations. They are best understood as an organized set of principles; no principle should be viewed in isolation. The 14 principles are divided into those referring to cognitive and metacognitive, motivational and affective, developmental and social, and individual difference factors influencing learners and learning. Finally, the principles are intended to apply to all learners -- from children, to teachers, to administrators, to parents, and to community members involved in our educational system. These principles emphasize the active and reflective nature of learning and learners.
  18. 18. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 18 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT POST-TEST: Name: ______________________ C/Yr.: ___________ Date: _________ Identify the following principles corresponding on each statement. Just place the Principle number and its name. Write your answer in the space provided. _______________ 1. Learning is influenced by environmental factors, including culture, technology, and instructional practices. _______________ 2. Learning is influenced by social interactions, interpersonal relations, and communication with others. _______________ 3. The learning of complex subject matter is most effective when it is an intentional process of constructing meaning from information and experience. _______________ 4. Learning is most effective when differences in learners' linguistic, cultural, and social backgrounds are taken into account. _______________ 5. The learner's creativity, higher order thinking, and natural curiosity all contribute to motivation to learn. Intrinsic motivation is stimulated by tasks of optimal novelty and difficulty, relevant to personal interests, and providing for personal choice and control. _______________ 6. The successful learner can create and use a repertoire of thinking and reasoning strategies to achieve complex learning goals. _______________ 7. As individuals develop, there are different opportunities and constraints for learning. Learning is most effective when differential development within and across physical, intellectual, emotional, and social domains is taken into account. _______________ 8. Higher order strategies for selecting and monitoring mental operations facilitate creative and critical thinking. _______________ 9. What and how much is learned is influenced by the motivation. Motivation to learn, in turn, is influenced by the individual's emotional states, beliefs, interests and goals, and habits of thinking. _______________ 10. Learners have different strategies, approaches, and capabilities for learning that are a function of prior experience and heredity. REFERENCES:  The learner- centered psychological principles. Retrieved at https://www.apa.org/ed/governance/bea/learner-centered.pdf on June 22, 2020.  Learner- centered psychological principles: A framework for school reform and design. Retrieved at https://www.sas.upenn.edu/~kimg/mcephome/educ636/lcp.html on June 22, 2020.  Corpuz, B. B., et.al. (2018). Child and adolescent learners and learning principles: Lorimar Publishing, Inc., Quezon City.
  19. 19. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 19 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT MODULE # 1 : BASIC CONCEPTS AND ISSUES ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT TOPIC 1.2 : Human Development: Meaning, Concepts and Approaches TIME FRAME : 3 hours INTRODUCTION: Why are we the way we are? It’s one of the oldest questions in human existence. After all, human beings are nothing more than 46 chromosomes, their genetic instructions duplicated across trillions of cells. Despite the fact that 99.9% of our DNA is identical, all 7.5 billion people on Earth are unique. We have different personalities, wants, needs, and likes. How is that possible? A number of researches on human development have been conducted. A lot of theories on human development have been forwarded. Researches on human development continue as existing theories get corrected, complemented or replaced. Up to the present several issues on human development are unresolved and so the search for explanations continue. In this lesson, you will be acquainted with human development as a process, the developmental tasks that come along with each development stage and relevant issues that are raised about human development. OBJECTIVES: In this topic, you should be able to: 1. Derive the meaning of human development in your own words. 2. Relate developmental changes of learners in light to its educational implications 3. Distinguish between the traditional and life-span approach of development. “Measuring human growth and development is not like measuring the reproduction of a single model on an assembly line. It is a complex system of helping to figure out where a student is, and how to help them get where they are going.” - Robert John Meehan
  20. 20. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 20 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT PRE-TEST: In 20 to 25 words, write your understanding about human development. Write your answer on the space provided. (Criteria for Rating: Content – 5; Organization of Idea – 3; Mechanics (20 to 25 words) – 2) ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________ LEARNING ACTIVITY: Activity 1: Let’s Develop! As you read this topic and do the activity, you are undergoing the process of development. How does this development take place? What do experts say about development? These are the concerns of this module. For your answers, you may write it on the space provided every item. 1. Here are the pictures of a seven-year-old Joseph and five-year-old Anna. Each one is a bundle of possibilities. Describe what they were before birth (their point of origin) and who they will possibly after birth unto adulthood. What will they possibly become? Expound your answers. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________
  21. 21. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 21 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ 2. When you gave your own predictions as to the of child, adolescent and adult Joseph and Anna may become and hypothesized on who they once were, you were referring to human development. What then is development? Translate the meaning of development in your Mother Tongue. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ __________________ 3. Will five-year-old Anna be able to do all that seven-year-old Joseph can do? Why or why not? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ _____________________ 4. Will there be anything common in the pattern of development of Joseph and Anna? If yes, what?
  22. 22. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 22 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ _____________________ 5. Will there be difference in their development, e.g. pace or rate of development? What and why? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ _____________________ 6. Will the process of development take place very fast or gradually? Elaborate your answer. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ _____________________ 7. Do you believe that Joseph and Anna will continue to develop even in adulthood? Or will they stop developing in adulthood? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ _____________________
  23. 23. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 23 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT What is Human Development? • It is the pattern of change that begins at conception and continues through the lifespan. • This change can be growth or decline/decay. • GROWTH – refers to positive changes that lead to maturity, that is, increase in the physical aspects of body’s structures and improvement of their functions. • DECLINE/ DECAY – refers to negative changes that lead to deterioration and degeneration. • Why there’s a need for development? Because we aim for MATURITY. • Maturity is characterized by the completion of structural changes and attainment of the capacity to function physically and mentally in a manner characteristic to a normal adult. Two Approaches to Human Development If you believe that Joseph and Anna will show extensive change from birth to adolescence, little or no change in adulthood and decline in late old age, your approach to development is traditional. In contrast, if you believe that even in adulthood developmental change takes place as it does during childhood, your approach is termed life-span approach. What are the characteristics of human development from a life-span perspective? Paul Baltes (Santrock, 2002), an expert in life-span development, gives the following characteristics: 1. Development is lifelong. It does not end in adulthood. Joseph and Anna will continue developing even in adulthood. It means that development is not completed in infancy or childhood or at any specific age; it encompasses the entire lifespan, from conception to death. 2. Development is plastic. Plasticity refers to the potential for change. Development s possible throughout the lifespan. No one is too old to learn. There is no such thing as
  24. 24. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 24 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT “I am too old for that …” Neither Joseph nor Anna will be too old to learn something. Plasticity denotes intrapersonal variability and focuses heavily on the potentials and limits of the nature of human development. The notion of plasticity emphasizes that there are many possible developmental outcomes and that the nature of human development is much more open and pluralistic than originally implied by traditional views; there is no single pathway that must be taken in an individual’s development across the lifespan. 3. Development is multidimensional. Baltes is referring to the fact that a complex interplay of factors influence development across the lifespan, including biological, cognitive, and socioemotional changes. Baltes argues that a dynamic interaction of these factors is what influences an individual’s development. Development as a process is complex because it is the product of biological, cognitive and socioemotional processes (Santrock, 2002). Biological processes involve changes in the individual’s physical nature. The brains of Joseph and Anna develop. They will gain height and weight. They will experience hormonal changes when they reach the period of puberty, and cardiovascular decline as they approach late adulthood. All these show common biological processes. a. Development is relatively orderly. Joseph and Anna will learn to sit, crawl then walk before they can run. The muscular control of the trunk and the arms comes earlier as compared to the hands and fingers. This is the proximodistal pattern. During infancy the greatest growth in always occurs at the top – the head – with physical growth in size, weight and future differentiation gradually working its way down from top to bottom (for example, neck, shoulders, middle trunk and so on). This is the cephalocaudal pattern. These development patterns are common to Joseph and Anna. b. Development takes place gradually. Joseph and Anna won’t develop into pimply teenagers overnight. It takes years before they become one. In fact, that’s the way of nature. The bud does not blossom suddenly. The seed does not germinate overnight. While some changes occur in a flash of insight, more often it takes weeks, months or years for a person to undergo changes that result in the display of developmental characteristics.
  25. 25. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 25 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT Cognitive processes involve changes in the individual’s thought, intelligence and language. Joseph and Anna develop from mere sounds to a word becoming two words, the two words becoming a sentence. They would move on to memorizing their first prayer, singing Lupang Hinirang in every flag ceremony to imagining what it would be like to be a teacher or a pilot, playing chess and solving a complex math problem. All these reflect the role of cognitive processes in development. Socioemotional processes include changes in the individual’s relationships with other people, changes in emotions and changes in personality. As babies, Joseph and Anna responded a sweet smile when affectionately touched and frowned when displeased and even showed temper tantrum when they could not get or do what they wanted. From aggressive children, they may develop into a fine lady and a gentleman or otherwise, depending on myriad of factors. They may fall in love and get inspired for life or may end betrayed, deserted and desperate afterwards. All these reflect the role of socioemotional processes in development. These biological, cognitive and socioemotional processes are inextricably intertwined. While these processes are studied are studied separately, the effect of one process or factor on a person’s development is not isolated from the other processes. If Joseph and Anna were undernourished and troubled by the thought of father and mother about to separate, they could not concentrate on their studies and consequently would fil and repeat. As a consequence, they may lose face and drop out of school, revert to illiteracy, become unskilled, unemployed and son on and so forth. See how a biological process, affects the cognitive process which in turn, affects the socioemotional process. 4. Development is contextual. In Baltes’ theory, the paradigm of contextualism refers to the idea that three systems of biological and environmental influences work together to influence development. Development occurs in context and varies from person to person, depending on factors such as a person’s biology, family, school, church, profession, nationality, and ethnicity. Baltes identified three types of influences that operate throughout the life course: normative age- graded influences, normative history-graded influences, and nonnormative influences. Baltes wrote that these three influences operate throughout the life course, their effects accumulate with time, and, as a dynamic package, they are responsible for how lives develop. Joseph’s and Anna’s biological make-up, social and cultural contexts may vary and therefore make them develop differently from each other.
  26. 26. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 26 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT 5. Development is multidirectional. Baltes states that the development of a particular domain does not occur in a strictly linear fashion but that development of certain traits can be characterized as having the capacity for both an increase and decrease in efficacy over the course of an individual’s life. If we use the example of puberty again, we can see that certain domains may improve or decline in effectiveness during this time. For example, self-regulation is one domain of puberty which undergoes profound multidirectional changes during the adolescent period. During childhood, individuals have difficulty effectively regulating their actions and impulsive behaviors. Scholars have noted that this lack of effective regulation often results in children engaging in behaviors without fully considering the consequences of their actions. Over the course of puberty, neuronal changes modify this unregulated behavior by increasing the ability to regulate emotions and impulses. Inversely, the ability for adolescents to engage in spontaneous activity and creativity, both domains commonly associated with impulse behavior, decrease over the adolescent period in response to changes in cognition. Neuronal changes to the limbic system and prefrontal cortex of the brain, which begin in puberty lead to the development of self-regulation, and the ability to consider the consequences of one’s actions (though recent brain research reveals that this connection will continue to develop into early adulthood). Multidirectional development is the development happening in the physical, biological, cognitive, social factors of an individual. In the case of Joseph and Anna, their puberty, hormonal changes will occur which helps in the production of gametes responsible for sexual reproduction. Physical, emotional and mental changes are exhibited from crude to refined state. When they become as older adults, they have got much experience on situations, people, society and handle it wisely, however, they could not have sufficient physical strength to perform the task. Principles of Child Development And Learning That Inform Practice 1. All the domains of development and learning are important. 2. Learning and development follow sequences. 3. Development and learning proceed at varying rates. 4. Development and learning result from a interaction of maturation and experience. 5. Early experiences have profound effects on development and learning. 6. Development proceeds towards greater complexity, self-regulation and symbolic or representational capacities.
  27. 27. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 27 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT 7. Children develop best when they have secure relationships. 8. Development and learning occur in and are influenced by multiple and cultural contexts. 9. Children learn in variety ways. 10.Play is an important vehicle for developing self-regulation and promoting language cognition and social competence. 11.Development and learning advance when children are challenged. 12.Children’s experiences shape their motivation and approaches to learning. Activity 2: Let’s Imply! State the five characteristics of human development from a life-span perspective and their implications child care, educational and parenting. Characteristics of human development from a life-span perspective Educational Implication to Child Care, Educational and Parenting 1. Development is lifelong. 2. 3. 4. 5.
  28. 28. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 28 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT SELF-EVALUATION: Answer the following items. Write it on the space provided. 1. “Growth is an evidence of life” or “development is an evidence of life”. What does this mean? What does this imply to a person’s development? 2. Define development on your own understanding. 3. If your approach to human development is traditional, are the characteristics of human development from a life-span perspective acceptable? Explain your answer. 4. Interpret the following quotations in relation to human development. a. “Every man is in certain respects like all other men, like some other men, no other man.” (Murray, H.A. & C. Kluckhohn)
  29. 29. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 29 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT b. “Man is an unfinished project. He is always in the process of becoming.” 5. Differences between the traditional and life-span approaches to human development. REVIEW OF CONCEPTS:  There are two approaches of human development namely traditional and life- span development  Based on Paul Baltes’ concepts of life-span development, he named five important characteristics of development. These are: Lifelong, plastic, multidimensional, contextual and multidirectional.  Under the characteristic of multidimensional, it talks about the interconnectedness of biological, cognitive and socioemotional processes. It also follows a relatively orderly development and it takes place gradually.
  30. 30. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 30 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT POST-TEST: Put a ✔ check before a correct and an ✖ before a wrong one. If you put ✖, explain why. _____ 1. Development is a pattern of change. _____ 2. Development is either growth or decline. _____ 3. From both traditional and lifespan perspectives development is lifelong. _____ 4. In the development process, there are things that hold true to all people. _____ 5. Individuals develop uniformly. _____ 6. Development is predictable because it follows an orderly process. _____ 7. Development is unidimensional. _____ 8. Development takes place in a vacuum. _____ 9. Development is one directional process. _____ 10. The effect of biological process in development is isolated from the effect of cognitive and socioemotional processes. REFERENCES:  The lifespan perspective. Retrieved from https://courses.lumenlearning.com/wm-lifespandevelopment/chapter/the- lifespan-perspective/ on June 24, 2020.  Corpuz, B. B., et.al. (2018). Child and adolescent learners and learning principles: Lorimar Publishing, Inc., Quezon City.
  31. 31. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 31 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT MODULE # 1 : BASIC CONCEPTS AND ISSUES ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT TOPIC 1.3 : The Stages of Development and Development Tasks TIME FRAME : 3 hours INTRODUCTION: Have you ever brought home a new puppy and then watched it grow up? How did your dog change as it got older? You may have watched your dog grow and develop from a cute and cuddly puppy, to a bit of a troublemaker, to a confident companion, and finally to a lazy old dog who sleeps all day. Each of these stages has different physical and emotional characteristics. Just like dogs, humans go through different developmental stages in their life, as well. For every developmental stage, there is an expected developmental task. What happens when the expected developmental tasks re not achieved at the corresponding developmental stage? How can you help children achieve these developmental tasks? OBJECTIVES: In this topic, you should be able to: 1. Describe the developmental tasks in each developmental stage. 2. Appreciate stages of life through simple recall of life’s milestones. 3. Compare and contrast Santrock’s and Havinghurst’s concepts in significance to education. “There is in every child at every stage a new miracle of vigorous unfolding.” - Erik Erikson
  32. 32. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 32 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT PRE-TEST: Identify what developmental stage are the following: _________ 1. A stage that includes the development of embryo and a fetus. _________ 2. It is considered as the period where rapid growth after birth takes place. _________ 3. A stage of life characterized our preschool and middle school years. _________ 4. It is a period of dramatic physical change marked by an overall physical growth spurt and sexual maturation. _________ 5. The late thirties through the mid-sixties of human life. LEARNING ACTIVITY: Think about the life span and make a list of what you would consider the periods of development. How many stages are on your list? Perhaps you have three: childhood, adulthood, and old age. Or maybe four: infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Developmentalists break the life span into nine stages as follows:  Prenatal Development  Infancy and Toddlerhood  Early Childhood  Late Childhood  Adolescence  Early Adulthood  Middle Adulthood  Late Adulthood
  33. 33. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 33 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT Activity 1: Picture Perfect! In every stage of life presented above, provide a photo of yours (Personal or maybe if hard to retrieve, put a searched photo taken from a magazine or online) and associate ONE WORD that symbolizes that particular stage. Prenatal stage: PHOTO One-word description: Infancy and Toddlerhood stage: PHOTO One-word description: Early Childhood stage: PHOTO One-word description: Late Childhood stage: PHOTO One-word description: Adolescence stage: PHOTO One-word description: Early Adulthood stage: PHOTO One-word description:
  34. 34. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 34 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT Middle Adulthood stage: PHOTO One-word description: Late Adulthood stage: PHOTO One-word description: This list reflects unique aspects of the various stages of childhood and adulthood that will be explored in this module. So while both an 8 month old and an 8 year old are considered children, they have very different motor abilities, social relationships, and cognitive skills. Their nutritional needs are different and their primary psychological concerns are also distinctive. The same is true of an 18 year old and an 80 year old, both considered adults. We will discover the distinctions between being 28 or 48 as well. But first, here is a brief overview of the stages. 1. Prenatal Period (Conception to birth) Conception occurs and development begins. All of the major structures of the body are forming and the health of the mother is of primary concern. Understanding nutrition, teratogens (or environmental factors that can lead to birth defects), and labor and delivery are primary concerns. a) Germinal - fertilization to 2 weeks. The period of zygote. b) Embryo - 2 weeks to 2 months. The period of embryo. c) Fetal - 2 months to birth. The period of fetus. Prenatal period involves tremendous growth - from a single cell to an organism complete with brain and behavioral activities. Referring to prenatal development, Santrock (2002) asked the following questions succinctly:
  35. 35. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 35 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT “How from so simple a beginning do endless forms develop and grow and mature? What was this organism, what is it now, and what will it become? Birth’s fragile moment arrives, when the newborn is on a threshold between two worlds.” 2. Infancy and Toddlerhood (Birth to 2 years) The first year and a half to two years of life are ones of dramatic growth and change. A newborn, with a keen sense of hearing but very poor vision is transformed into a walking, talking toddler within a relatively short period of time. Caregivers are also transformed from someone who manages feeding and sleep schedules to a constantly moving guide and safety inspector for a mobile, energetic child. This stage is a time of extreme dependence on adults. Many psychological activities are just beginning – language, symbolic thought, sensorimotor coordination and social learning. As newborns, we were not empty-headed organisms. We cried, kicked, coughed, sucked, saw, heard and tasted. We slept a lot and occasionally we smiled, although the meaning of our smiles was not entirely clear. We crawled and then we walked a journey of a thousand miles beginning with single step. Sometimes we conformed, sometimes others conformed to us. Our development was a continuous creation of complex forms and our helpless kind demanded the meeting eyes of love. We split the universe into two halves: “me and not me.” And we juggled the need to curb our own will with becoming what we could will freely. (Santrock, 2002) 3. Early Childhood (3 to 5 years old) Early childhood is also referred to as the preschool years consisting of the years which follow toddlerhood and precede formal schooling. As a three to five-year-old, the child is busy learning language, is gaining a sense of self and greater independence, and is beginning to learn the workings of the physical world. This knowledge does not come quickly, however, and preschoolers may have initially have interesting conceptions of size, time, space and distance such as fearing that they may go down the drain if they sit at the front of the bathtub or by demonstrating how long something will take by holding out their two index fingers several inches apart. A toddler’s fierce determination to do something may give way to a four-year-old’s sense of guilt for doing something that brings the disapproval of others. This is also considered as “ toy stage” , questioning age and teachable age. Young children learn to become more
  36. 36. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 36 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT self-sufficient and to care for themselves, develop school readiness, skills and spend many hours in play with peers. In early childhood our greatest untold poem was being only four years old. We skipped, played and ran all day long, ever in our lives so busy, busy becoming something we had not quite grasped yet. Who knew our thoughts, which worked up into small mythologies all our own? Our thoughts and images and drawings took wings. The blossoms of our heart, no wind could touch. Our small world widened as we discovered new refuges and new people. When we said “I” we meant something totally unique, not to be confused with any other.” (Santrock, 2002) 4. Late Childhood (6 to 12 years old) The ages of six through twelve comprise middle childhood and much of what children experience at this age is connected to their involvement in the early grades of school. Now the world becomes one of learning and testing new academic skills and by assessing one’s abilities and accomplishments by making comparisons between self and others. Schools compare students and make these comparisons public through team sports, test scores, and other forms of recognition. Growth rates slow down and children are able to refine their motor skills at this point in life. And children begin to learn about social relationships beyond the family through interaction with friends and fellow students. This is also considered as gang stage or troublesome age. The fundamental skills of reading, writing and arithmetic are mastered. The child is formally exposed to the larger world and its culture. Achievement becomes a more central theme of the child’s world and self-control increases. “In late childhood, we were on a different plane, belonging to a generation and a feeling properly our own. It is the wisdom of human development that at no other we are more ready to learn than at the end of early childhood’s period of expansive imagination. Our thirst was to know and to understand. Our parents continued to cradle our lives but our growth was also being shaped by successive choirs of friends, we did not think much about the future or the past, but enjoyed the present.” (Excerpt for a few words, the paragraph is taken from Santrock, 2002).
  37. 37. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 37 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT 5. Adolescence (13 to 18 years old) Adolescence is a period of dramatic physical change marked by an overall physical growth spurt and sexual maturation, known as puberty. It is also a time of cognitive change as the adolescent begins to think of new possibilities and to consider abstract concepts such as love, fear, and freedom. Ironically, adolescents have a sense of invincibility that puts them at greater risk of dying from accidents or contracting sexually transmitted infections that can have lifelong consequences. This is the transitional stage from childhood to adulthood. It can be a time of both disorientation and discovery. Pursuit of independence and identity are prominent. Thought s more logical, abstract and idealistic. More time is spent outside of the family. “In no order of things was adolescence, the simple time of life for us. We clothed ourselves with rainbows and went ‘brave as the zodiac’. Flashing from one end of the world to the other. We tried on one face after another, searching for a face of our own. We wanted our parents to understand us and hoped they would give up the privileged of understanding them. We wanted to fly but found that first we had to learn stand and walk and climb and dance. In our most pimply and awkward moments, we became acquainted with sex. We played furiously at adult games but were confined to a society of our own peers. Our generations were the fragile cable by which the best and the worst of our parents’ generation was transmitted to the present. In the end, there were two nut lasting bequests our parents could leave us – one being roots, the other wings. (Santrock, 2002) 6. Early Adulthood (19 to 29 years old) The twenties and thirties are often thought of as early adulthood. It is a time when we are at our physiological peak but are most at risk for involvement in violent crimes and substance abuse. It is a time of focusing on the future and putting a lot of energy into making choices that will help one earn the status of a full adult in the eyes of others. Love and work are primary concerns at this stage of life. It is a time of establishing personal and economic independence, career development, selecting a mate, learning to live with someone in an intimate way, starting a family and rearing children.
  38. 38. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 38 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT Early adulthood is a time for work and a time for love, sometimes leaving little time for anything else. For some of us, finding our place in adult society and committing to a more stable life take longer than we imagine. We still ask ourselves who we are and wonder if it isn’t enough just to be. Ur dreams continue and our thoughts are bold but at some point we become more pragmatic. Sex and love are powerful passions in our lives – t times angels of light, at other times of torment. And we possibly never know the love of our parents until we become parents ourselves. (Santrock, 2002) 7. Middle Adulthood (30 to 60 years old) The late thirties through the mid- sixties is referred to as middle adulthood. This is a period in which aging, that began earlier, becomes more noticeable and a period at which many people are at their peak of productivity in love and work. It may be a period of gaining expertise in certain fields and being able to understand problems and find solutions with greater efficiency than before. It can also be a time of becoming more realistic about possibilities in life previously considered; of recognizing the difference between what is possible and what is likely. It is a time of expanding personal and social involvement and responsibility; of assisting the next generation in becoming competent and mature individuals; and of reaching and maintaining satisfaction in a career. In middle adulthood what we have been forms what we will be. For some of us, middle age is such a foggy place, a time when we need to discover what we are running from and to and why. We compare our life with what we vowed to make it. In middle age, more time stretches before us and some evaluations have to be made, however reluctantly. As the young/old polarity greets us with a special force, we need to join the daring of youth with the discipline of age in a way that does justice to both. As middle-aged adults we come to sense that the generations of living things pass in a short while and like runners hand on the torch of life. (Santrock, 2002) 8. Late Adulthood (61 years and above) This period of the life span has increased in the last 100 years, particularly in industrialized countries. Late adulthood is sometimes subdivided into two or three categories such as the “young old” and “old old” or the “young old”, “old old”, and “oldest old”. We will follow the former categorization and make the distinction between the “young old” who are people between 65 and 79 and the “old old” or those who are 80 and older. One of the primary differences between these groups is that the young old are very similar to midlife adults; still working, still relatively healthy, and still interested in being productive and active. The “old old” remain productive and active
  39. 39. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 39 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT and the majority continues to live independently, but risks of the diseases of old age such as arteriosclerosis, cancer, and cerebral vascular disease increases substantially for this age group. Issues of housing, healthcare, and extending active life expectancy are only a few of the topics of concern for this age group. A better way to appreciate the diversity of people in late adulthood is to go beyond chronological age and examine whether a person is experiencing optimal aging (like the gentleman pictured above who is in very good health for his age and continues to have an active, stimulating life), normal aging (in which the changes are similar to most of those of the same age), or impaired aging (referring to someone who has more physical challenge and disease than others of the same age). It is a time for adjustment to decreasing strength and health, life reviews, retirement and adjustment to new social roles. “The rhythm and meaning of human development eventually wend their way to late adulthood when each of us stands alone at the heart of the earth and “suddenly it is evening”. We shed the leaves of youth and are stripped by the winds of time down to the truth. We learn that life is lived forward but understood backward. We trace the connections between the end and the beginning of life and try to figure out what this whole show is about before it is over. Ultimately we come to know that we are what survives of us (Santrock, 2002)” Developmental Tasks In each stage of development, a certain task or tasks are expected of every individual. Robert Havinghurst defines developmental task as one that “arises at a certain period in our life, the successful achievement of which leads to happiness and success with later tasks while failure leads to unhappiness, social disapproval and difficulty with later tasks.” (Havinghurst, 1972) There are eight (8) developmental stages given by Santrock. The eight (8) developmental stages cited by Santrock are the same with Havinghurst’s six (6) developmental stages only that Havinghurst did not include prenatal period. Havinghurst combined infancy and early childhood while Santrock mentioned them as two (2) separate stages. These developmental stages are described more in detail in the box below. Stage Tasks 1. Infancy and Early childhood (0-5 years old) 1. Learning to walk. 2. Learning to take solid foods. 3. Learning to talk.
  40. 40. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 40 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT 4. Learning to control the elimination of body wastes. 5. Learning sex differences and sex modesty. 6. Acquiring concepts and language to describe social and physical reality. 7. Readiness for reading. 8. Learning to distinguish right from wrong and developing a conscience. 2. Late Childhood (6-12 years old) 1. Learning physical skills necessary for ordinary games. 2. Building a wholesome attitude toward oneself. 3. Learning to get along with agemates. 4. Learning an appropriate sex role. 5. Developing fundamental skills in reading writing and calculating. 6. Developing concepts necessary for everyday living. 7. Developing conscience, morality and a scale of values. 8. Developing acceptable attitudes toward society. 3. Adolescence (13 to 18 years old) 1. Achieving mature relations with both sexes 2. Achieving a masculine or feminine social role. 3. Accepting one’s physique. 4. Achieving emotional independence of adults 5. Preparing for marriage and family life 6. Preparing for an economic career 7. Acquiring values and an ethical system to guide behavior 8. Desiring and achieving socially responsible behavior 4. Early Adulthood (19 to 29 years old) 1. Selecting a mate 2. Learning to live with a partner 3. Starting a family 4. Rearing children 5. Managing a home 6. Starting an occupation 7. Assuming civic responsibility 5. Middle Adulthood (30 to 60 years old) 1. Helping teenage children to become happy and responsible adults
  41. 41. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 41 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT 2. Achieving adult social and civic responsibility Satisfactory career achievement 3. Satisfactory career achievement 4. Developing adult leisure time activities 5. Adjusting to aging parent 6. Later Maturity (61 years and above) 1. Adjusting to decreasing strength and health 2. Adjusting to retirement and reduces income 3. Adjusting to death of spouse 4. Establishing of relations with one’s own age group 5. Meeting social and civic obligations 6. Establishing satisfactory living quarters Source: Robert Havinghurst, Developmental Tasks and Education, 3rd ed. New York: David McKay Co. Activity 2: Development Matters Answer the following items. Write your answer on the space provided or you may use extra sheet for this. 1. What is an outstanding trait or behavior of each stage? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ _________ 2. Match the descriptions given by Santrock. Are Havinghurst and Santrock saying the same things? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ __________________ 3. What are the implications of these developmental tasks to your role as a teacher and or parent? Let’s pay particular attention to each of the developmental
  42. 42. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 42 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT stages – prenatal period, infancy, early childhood, middle and late childhood and adolescence. a. Prenatal period – what are pregnant others supposed to do to ensure the birth of a normal and healthy baby? __________________________________________________ b. Infancy – what should mothers and baby sitters do and not do to help infants develop normally and healthily? ____________________________________________________ c. Early Childhood – what are preschool teachers supposed to do with preschoolers? ________________________________________________________ ________________ d. Late childhood – what are elementary school teachers ought to help their pupils? What are parents ought to help their children? ______________________________________ e. Adolescence – what should high school teachers ought to help their student? What should parents ought to help their teenage children? __________________________________ f. Early Adulthood (College) – what should teachers ought to help their students? What can parents help for their children who are now young adults? ________________________ g. Middle Adulthood – what should adults do to obtain satisfaction in their career? What should schools teach for students to be prepared for middle adulthood? ________________________________________________________ ________________ h. Late Adulthood - In their retirement, adults should ______________________________ How should children relate to their parents in their late adulthood stage? What should teachers teach to students on how they should treat and relate to parent, grandparents in their late adulthood? _______________ SELF-EVALUATION: Discuss the meaning of the quotation by Erik Erikson from the INTRODUCTION of this lesson. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ____________
  43. 43. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 43 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT REVIEW OF CONCEPTS:  There are 8 human development stages narrowed down by Santrock. These are prenatal period, infancy and toddlerhood, early childhood, late childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, middle adulthood and late adulthood.  There are only 6 stages given by Havinghurst equipped with corresponding developmental tasks. There are Infancy and early childhood, late childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, middle adulthood and later maturity. POST-TEST Put a check ✔ beside those statements that are correct and an ✖ beside those that are wrong. If your answer is an ✖, explain why. ______ 1. Developmental tasks are only for the first 3 stages of human development. ______ 2. Failure of achieving developmental tasks in an earlier stage also means failure for the learner to master the developmental task in the next stage. ______ 3. Preschool age corresponds to early childhood stage. ______ 4. Adolescence is middle and late childhood stage. ______ 5. Teenage is middle childhood. ______ 6. Mastery of fundamental skills is a major concern during early childhood. ______ 7. Play is a great need of children in middle childhood. ______ 8. Preparing children for school readiness is the major concern of middle childhood. ______ 9. Infancy is the stage of questioning age. ______ 10. Achievement is the critical task in an adolescent’s life. REFERENCES:  Periods of development. Retrieved from https://courses.lumenlearning.com/suny- lifespandevelopment2/chapter/periods-of-development/ on June 25, 2020.  Corpuz, B. B., et.al. (2018). Child and adolescent learners and learning principles: Lorimar Publishing, Inc., Quezon City.
  44. 44. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 44 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT MODULE # 1 : BASIC CONCEPTS AND ISSUES ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT TOPIC 1.4 : Issues on Human Development TIME FRAME : 3 hours INTRODUCTION: Each of us has his/ her own informal way of looking at our own and other people’s development. These paradigms of human development while obviously lacking in scholastic vigor, provide us with a conceptual framework for understanding ourselves and others. Scholars have come up with their own models of human development. Back up by solid research, they take stand on issues on human development. OBJECTIVES: In this topic, you should be able to: 1. Explain every issue of development with regards to human development. 2. Justify every issue on development as to how it affects the learner’s behavior. 3. Advocate your stand about human development in light to its processes. PRE-TEST: Give your understanding about the following terms: 1. Nature - 2. Nurture - 3. Continuity - 4. Discontinuity - 5. Stability - 6. Change - “The interaction of heredity and environment is so extensive that to ask which is more important, nature or nurture, is like asking which is more important to a rectangle, height or width.” - William Greenough
  45. 45. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 45 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT LEARNING ACTIVITY Off to Harvard at age 16, Kaczynski was a loner during his college years. One of his roommates at Harvard said that he avoided people by quickly shuffling by them and slamming the door behind him. After obtaining his Ph.D. in mathematics at the University of Michigan, Kaczynski became a professor at the University of California at Berkeley. His colleagues there remember him as hiding from social circumstances—no friends, no allies, no networking. After several years at Berkeley, Kaczynski resigned and moved to a rural area of Montana, where he lived as a hermit in a crude shack for 25 years. Town residents described him as a bearded eccentric. Kaczynski traced his own difficulties to growing up as a genius in a kid’s body and sticking out like a sore thumb in his surroundings as a child. In 1996, he was arrested and charged as the notorious Unabomber, America’s most wanted killer. Over the course of 17 years, Kaczynski had sent 16 mail bombs that left 23 people wounded or maimed, and 3 people dead. In 1998, he pleaded guilty to the offenses and was sentenced to life in prison. A decade before Kaczynski mailed his first bomb, Alice Walker spent her days battling racism in Mississippi. She had recently won her first writing fellowship, but rather than use the money to follow her dream of moving to Senegal, Africa, she put herself into the heart and heat of the civil rights movement. Walker had grown up knowing the brutal effects of poverty and racism. Born in 1944, she was the eighth child of Georgia sharecroppers who earned $300 a year. When Walker was 8, her brother accidentally shot her in the left eye with a BB gun. Since her parents had no car, it took them a week to get her to a hospital. By the time she received medical care, she was blind in that eye, and it had developed a disfiguring layer of scar tissue. Despite the counts against her, Walker overcame pain and anger and went on to win a Pulitzer Prize for her book The Color Purple. She became not only a novelist but also an essayist, a poet, a short-story writer, and a social activist. What leads one individual, so full of promise, to commit brutal acts of violence and another to turn poverty and trauma into a rich literary harvest? If you have ever wondered why people turn out the way they do, you have asked yourself the central question we will explore in this lesson.
  46. 46. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 46 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT Was Ted Kaczynski born a killer, or did his life turn him into one? Kaczynski himself thought that his childhood was the root of his troubles. He grew up as a genius in a boy’s body and never fit in with other children. Did his early experiences determine his later life? Is your own journey through life marked out ahead of time, or can your experiences change your path? Are experiences that occur early in your journey more important than later ones? Is your journey like taking an elevator up a skyscraper with distinct stops along the way, or more like a cruise down a river with smoother ebbs and flows? These questions point to three issues about the nature of development: the roles played by nature and nurture, continuity and discontinuity and early and late experience. 1. Nature and Nurture The nature-nurture issue involves the debate about whether development is primarily influenced by nature or by nurture (Goodnow, 2010; Kagan, 2010). Nature refers to an organism’s biological inheritance, nurture to its environmental experiences. Almost no one today argues that development can be explained by nature alone or by nurture alone. But some (“nature” proponents) claim that the most important influence on development is biological inheritance, and others (“nurture” proponents) claim that environmental experiences are the most important influence. According to the nature proponents, just as a sunflower grows in an orderly way— unless it is defeated by an unfriendly environment—so does a person. The range of environments can be vast, but evolutionary and genetic foundations produce commonalities in growth and development (Cosmides, 2011; Goldsmith, 2011; Mader, 2011). We walk before we talk, speak one word before two words, grow rapidly in infancy and less so in early childhood, and experience a rush of sexual hormones in puberty. Extreme environments—those that are psychologically barren or hostile—can stunt development, but nature proponents emphasize the influence of tendencies that are genetically wired into humans (Brooker, 2011; Raven, 2011). By contrast, other psychologists emphasize the importance of nurture, or environmental experiences, to development (Gauvain & Parke, 2010; Grusec, 2011; Kopp, 2011). Experiences run the gamut from the individual’s biological environment (nutrition, medical care, drugs, and physical accidents) to the social environment (family, peers, schools, community, media, and culture). For example, a child’s diet can affect how tall the child grows and even how effectively the child can think and solve problems. Despite their genetic wiring, a child born and raised in a poor village in Bangladesh and a child in the suburbs of Denver are likely to have different skills, different ways of thinking about the world, and different ways of relating to people.
  47. 47. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 47 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT 2. Continuity and Discontinuity Think about your own development for a moment. Did you become the person you are gradually, like the seedling that slowly, cumulatively grows into a giant oak? Or did you experience sudden, distinct changes, like the caterpillar that changes into a butterfly. The continuity-discontinuity issue focuses on the extent to which development involves gradual, cumulative change (continuity) or distinct stages (discontinuity). For the most part, developmentalists who emphasize nurture usually describe development as a gradual, continuous process, like the seedling’s growth into an oak. Those who emphasize nature often describe development as a series of distinct stages, like the change from caterpillar to butterfly. Consider continuity first. As the oak grows from seedling to giant oak, it becomes more oak—its development is continuous. Similarly, a child’s first word, though seemingly an abrupt, discontinuous event, is actually the result of weeks and months of growth and practice. Puberty, another seemingly abrupt, discontinuous occurrence, is actually a gradual process occurring over several years. Viewed in terms of discontinuity, each person is described as passing through a sequence of stages in which change is qualitatively rather than quantitatively different. As the caterpillar changes to a butterfly, it does not become more caterpillar but a different kind of organism—its development is discontinuous. Similarly, at some point a child moves from not being able to think abstractly about the world to being able to do so. This change is a qualitative, discontinuous change in development, not a quantitative, continuous change. 3. Early and Later Experience The early-later experience issue focuses on the degree to which early experiences (especially in infancy) or later experiences are the key determinants of the child’s development. That is, if infants experience harmful circumstances, can those experiences be overcome by later, positive ones? Or are the early experiences so critical—possibly because they are the infant’s first, prototypical experiences—that they cannot be overridden by a later, better environment? To those who emphasize early experiences, life is an unbroken trail on which a psychological quality can be traced back to its origin (Kagan, 1992, 2000). In contrast, to those who emphasize later experiences, development is like a river, continually ebbing and flowing. The early-later experience issue has a long history and continues to be hotly debated among developmentalists (Kagan, 2010; McElwain, 2009). Plato was sure that infants who were rocked frequently became better athletes. Nineteenthcentury New England ministers told parents in Sunday afternoon sermons that the way they handled their infants would determine their children’s later character. Some developmentalists argue
  48. 48. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 48 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT that unless infants and young children experience warm, nurturing care, their development will never quite be optimal (Finger & others, 2009). In contrast, later-experience advocates argue that children are malleable throughout development and that later sensitive caregiving is just as important as earlier sensitive caregiving. A number of developmentalists stress that too little attention has been given to later experiences in development (Baltes & Smith, 2008; Schaie, 2010, 2011; Scheibe & Carstensen, 2010; Staudinger & Gluck, 2011). They accept that early experiences are important contributors to development, but assert that they are no more important than later experiences. Jerome Kagan (2000, 2010) points out that even children who show the qualities of an inhibited temperament, which is linked to heredity, have the capacity to change their behavior. In his research, almost one-third of a group of children who had an inhibited temperament at 2 years of age were not unusually shy or fearful when they were 4 years of age (Kagan & Snidman, 1991). People in Western cultures, especially those influenced by Freudian theory, have tended to support the idea that early experiences are more important than later experiences (Lamb & Sternberg, 1992). The majority of people in the world do not share this belief. For example, people in many Asian countries believe that experiences occurring after about 6 or 7 years of age are more important to development than are earlier experiences. This stance stems from the long-standing belief in Eastern cultures that children’s reasoning skills begin to develop in important ways during middle childhood. Evaluating the Developmental Issues Most developmentalists recognize that it is unwise to take an extreme position on the issues of nature and nurture, continuity and discontinuity, and early and later experiences. Development is not all nature or all nurture, not all continuity or all discontinuity, and not all early or later experiences. Nature and nurture, continuity and discontinuity, and early and later experiences all play a part in development through the human life span. Along with this consensus, there is still spirited debate about how strongly development is influenced by each of these factors (Blakemore, Berenbaum, & Liben, 2009; Kagan, 2010). Are girls less likely to do well in math mostly because of inherited characteristics or because of society’s expectations and because of how girls are raised? Can enriched experiences during adolescence remove deficits resulting from poverty, neglect, and poor schooling during childhood? The answers also have a bearing on social policy decisions about children and adolescents, and consequently on each of our lives.
  49. 49. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 49 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT Activity 1: What’s your issue? Answer the following item. Write it on the space provided. 1. Based on what you read earlier in this chapter, what do you think Ted Kaczynski would have to say about the early-later experience issue? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ _______________ 2. Can you identify an early experience that you believe contributed in important ways to your development? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ _______________ 3. Can you identify a recent or current (later) experience that you think had (or is having) a strong influence on your development? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ _______________ Activity 2: Decode Me! Here is an interesting article titled, “How the First Nine months Shape the Rest of Your Life” from October 4, 2010 Issue of Time Magazine. Read, analyze then answer the following questions. How the First Nine months Shape the Rest of Your Life By: Annie Murphy Paul https://www.afritradomedic.com/pdf/our_library/Fetal%20Origins_%20How%20the%20First%20Nine%20Mo nths%20Shape%20Your%20Life%20--%20Printout%20--%20TIME.pdf What makes us the way we are? Why are some people predisposed to be anxious, overweight or asthmatic? How is it that some of us are prone to heart attacks, diabetes or high blood pressure?
  50. 50. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 50 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT There's a list of conventional answers to these questions. We are the way we are because it's in our genes: the DNA we inherited at conception. We turn out the way we do because of our childhood experiences: how we were treated and what we took in, especially during those crucial first three years. Or our health and well-being stem from the lifestyle choices we make as adults: what kind of diet we consume, how much exercise we get But there's another powerful source of influence you may not have considered: your life as a fetus. The kind and quantity of nutrition you received in the womb; the pollutants, drugs and infections you were exposed to during gestation; your mother's health, stress level and state of mind while she was pregnant with you — all these factors shaped you as a baby and a child and continue to affect you to this day. This is the provocative contention of a field known as fetal origins, whose pioneers assert that the nine months of gestation constitute the most consequential period of our lives, PERMANENTLY influencing the wiring of the brain and the functioning of organs such as the heart, liver and pancreas. The conditions we encounter in utero, they claim, shape our susceptibility to disease, our appetite and metabolism, our intelligence and temperament. In the literature on the subject, which has exploded over the past 10 years, you can find references to the fetal origins of cancer, cardiovascular disease, allergies, asthma, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, mental illness — even of conditions associated with old age like arthritis, osteoporosis and cognitive decline. The notion of prenatal influence may conjure up frivolous attempts to enrich the fetus: playing Mozart to a pregnant belly and the like. In reality, the shaping and molding that goes on in utero is far more visceral and consequential than that. Much of what a pregnant woman encounters in her daily life — the air she breathes, the food and drink she consumes, the chemicals she's exposed to, even the emotions she feels — is shared in some fashion with her fetus. The fetus incorporates these offerings into its own body, makes them part of its flesh and blood. Often it does something more: it treats these maternal contributions as information, biological postcards from the world outside. What a fetus is absorbing in utero is not Mozart's Magic Flute but the answers to questions much more critical to its survival: Will it be born into a world of abundance or scarcity? Will it be safe and protected, or will it face constant dangers and threats? Will it live a long, fruitful life or a short, harried one? Research on fetal origins — also called the developmental origins of health and disease — is prompting a revolutionary shift in thinking about where human qualities come from and when they begin to develop. It's turning pregnancy into a scientific frontier: the National Institutes of Health embarked last year on a multidecade study that will examine its subjects before they're born. It's also altering the perspective of thinkers outside of biology. The Nobel Prize — winning economist Amartya Sen, for example, co-authored a paper about the importance of fetal origins to a population's health and productivity: poor prenatal experience, he writes, "sows the seeds of ailments that afflict adults." And it makes the womb a promising target for prevention, raising hopes of conquering public-health scourges like obesity and heart disease through interventions before birth. 1. Does the article agree that heredity, environment and individual’s choice are the factors that contribute to what a person may become? Please elaborate.
  51. 51. LEARNING MODULE SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY Educ 1: The Child & Adolescent Learners & the Learning Principles 51 August 2020 Edition Princes Grace A. Retita, MGC, LPT ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ _____________________ 2. Read the 4th paragraph again, focus your attention on the highlighted word, PERMANENTLY. Relate this to the issue on Early Experience versus Later Experience. Does the word PERMANENTLY convince you that we are what our first experiences have made of us? Explain your answer. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ _____________________ SELF-EVALUATION: After learning the issues on human development, state in one paragraph your stand. Is there any changes the way you perceive it or you still have the same perspective before learning this lesson? (Criteria: Content – 5; Organization of Ideas – 3; Grammar – 2)

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