13. Types of Rabies virus
STREET VIRUS FIXED VIRUS
Definition: the virus Definition: the virus
recovered from which has a short, fixed
naturally occurring and reproducible
cases of rabies is incubation period is
called “street virus” called “fixed virus
Sources: it is naturally Sources: it is prepared
occurring virus. It is by repeated culture in
found in saliva of brain of rabbit.
16. 3) BAT RABIES:
Vampire bats which live on the blood of animals and
men. These are one of the main causes of the death of
bovine, around 0.5 to 1 million per year.
17. • History of Rabies Virus
• Man described the disease in 2300 B.C.
• The origin “rabhas”, meaning “to do
violence” comes from ancient Indian
Sanskrit dating 3000 B.C.
18. History of the Rabies Virus
•Outbreak of rabies in Europe
in 20th century spawned the
Vampire myth- linked to bats.
•Rabies epidemic in 13th
•Rabies is commonly spread
by bats and wolves and other
wildlife like foxes.
19. History of the Rabies Virus
• Since Roman times, man established the
link between the infectivity of a rabid dogs
saliva and the spread of the disease.
• Because there is no cure for rabies, those
that had been bitten by a rabid dog would
commonly commit suicide to avoid the
painful death that would inevitably follow.
20. History of the Rabies Virus
• Louis Pasteur was the first person to
diagnose that rabies targeted the CNS.
• Also determined that nervous tissue of an
infected human or animal also contained
• In 1890 created the rabies vaccine and
saved 9 year old Joseph Meister after he
had been bit by a rabid dog.
87 countries contain Rabies, but more
cases are reported in Asia.
In Indo-Pakistan rabies is a major
public health problem mainly due to
presence of a large no: of stray dogs.
More than 30,000 people died of
Rabies every year in Asia. Every year
10 million people require treatment
and protection from Rabies which is
great Financial loss.
22. • Estimated Annual Human Rabies Cases
• North America 4 - 8
• Europe 10 - 20
• Latin America 200 - 400
• Africa 500 - 1,000
• Asia 30,000 - 40,000
28. CLINICAL PICTURE
1. Prodromal symptoms
Headache, malaise, sore throat, low
fever, pain at the site of bite
3. Excitation Symptoms
sensory sys: involvement
Aero phobia, excitation of N.S.
Motor sys: inv:
increase reflexes, muscle spasm,
Symp:inv: dilatation of Pupils. increase perspiration, salivation,
Mental changes: fear of death, anger, irritability and depression
29. Hydrophobia ( Fear of water)
sight or sound of water may produce
the duration of illness is 2-3 days may
be prolonged to 5-6 days
Stage of paralysis & coma
DEATH / Recovery
Transmission of Rabies
• The rabies infection and the symptoms that
accompany it is classified by five stages:
1. Incubation (1-3 months)
2. Prodromal, where first symptoms occur
3. Acute neurological phase
5. Death or recovery
2. Sign and symptom
4. Detection of Antigen by taking Skin
Biopsy using Immunofluorescence
by virus isolation from Saliva &
34. Prevention of human rabies
post Exposure prophylaxis
• General consideration:- Aim is to neutralize virus before entering CNS
• LOCAL WOUND TREATMENT
a, Cleansing of wound(soap & water)
b, Chemical treatment:
• Either Alcohol 400-700 ml /liter
• Tincture Iodine
• No more treatment with Ammonium
• No Carbolic acid and Nitric acid as it leave
very bad scar
37. Vaccines for immunization
it is fluid or dried preparation of
Rabies “Fixed” virus grown in the
Neural tissue of
Mice or Rats
OR in embryonated duck eggs
OR in cell culture
38. Type of Vaccine
NERVOUS TISSUE VACCINE (NTV)
• Derived from adult animal nervous
tissue eg. Sheep
• Derived from suckling mouse brain
Type: Killed viral vaccine
Dose: 2.5 ml S/C (Ant.
Schedule: 14 doses
39. Type of Vaccine (conti)
Duck Embryo Vaccine (DEV)
Type: Killed viral vaccine
Dose: 1 ml S/C ( Ant. Abdominal wall)
Schedule: 14 doses OD
not available in Pakistan
40. Type of Vaccine (conti)
CELL CULTURE VACCINES
• Human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV)
• Second generation tissue culture
vaccine (non- Human)
Type: Killed viral vaccine
Dose: 1 ml IM
Schedule: on 0, 3, 7, 14, 28 day,
booster on day 90
41. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION
• Horse Anti Rabies serum: 40 iu / kg at
• Human rabies immunoglobin (HRIG):
20 iu / kg around the wound and rest in
IM on 0 day
• Booster doses are essential whenever
anti rabies serum is given with the
42. Classification Of Exposures
• Class I (slight Risk) 07 injection
b. Licks on healthy unbroken skin.
c. Scratches without oozing of blood.
• Class II (Moderate Risk) according to the Schedule plus one
booster dose after 3 week
• Licks on fresh cuts.
• Scratches with oozing of blood.
• All bites except those on head, neck, face, palms and fingers.
• Minor wounds less than 5 in number.
• Class III (Severe Risk) according to the Schedule plus Two
booster dose one after one week and another 2 week
• all bites or scratches with oozing of blood on neck, head,
face, palms and fingers.
• Lacerated wounds on any part of the body.
• Multiple wounds 5 or more in number.
• Bites from wild animals.
• Duration of Immunity is upto 06
• If again bite by rapid animal than
dose according to blood titre
if more than 0.5 i.u. / ml than only two
dose 0, 3 day
if less than 0.5 i.u. / ml than 0, 3, 7
44. General measures
• Regist:,licensing & taxation of dog.
• Muzzling of dogs
• Yearly mass vaccination of dog
• Destruction of stray dogs
• Facilities for diagnosis of rabies in dogs
• Destruction of wildlife where the animals
are known to be the reservoir of infection.
45. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis
• It is done in persons who have high risk of
Lab: staff working with rabies virus
Protected by:- Cell-culture vaccine 1ml I/M
OR 0.1ml I/D ( 0,7& 28day)
Post-exposure R/ of persons
(who have been vaccinated previously)
HDC vaccine (1ml I/M 0,3 & 7 day 0
46. Rabies in Dogs
• Incubation period: 3-8 wks.
• Clinical features: Rabies in dogs may manifest
itself in two forms.
• Furious Rabies.
This the typical mad-dog syndrome characterized by.
• change in behavior.
• Tendency to run away from home, wander aimlessly
and biting humans and animals.
• Change in voice due to paralisis of laryngeal muscles.
• Excessive salivation & foaming at the angle of the
• Paralysis of the whole body leading to coma & death.
47. a. Dumb Rabies.
• The excitative or irritative stage is
• The disease is predominantly paralytic.
• Dog withdraws itself from being seen or
• It elapses into a stage of sleepiness
and dies in about 3 days.