A more technical term for body fat is adipose tissue
with individual cells being called adipocytes
‘Adipo’ = fat; ‘cytes’ = cell
In humans, the primary type of fat cell is called
white adipose tissue or WAT and we do have BAT
In humans, fat cell can vary drastically:
1. Lean individuals may have anywhere from 41 to
65 billion fat cells
2. Obese individual can have upwards of 200 billion
3. Fat cells can range in diameter from 70 to 120
micrometres. The size of cell can also affect its
WAT in humans is composed (anywhere from 80-95%) of
The remaining part of the fat cell is comprised of:
1. A little bit of water
2. Cellular machinery needed to produce the various
enzymes, proteins, and products that fat cells need to do
3. As it’s turning out, fat cells produce quite a bit of
stuff, some good, some bad, that affects your overall
For the record:
1g of fat provide 9 calories so 400g of fat contains
about 3600 calories of stored energy.
Now that where the old axiom of 3500kcal to lose
a pound of fat comes from.
If you create a 3,500 cal/week
deficit you should lose one
pound of fat, right?
Fat Cells are truly exceptional in their capacity to store
Putting everything into perspective:
Average male weighs 72kg with 15% body fat has
24lbs of body fat which is close to 84,000kcal or so of
Metabolic rate close to 2400kcal/per day
35 days without food assuming he was using 100%
Extremely obese individuals may have upwards of
50lbs -100lbs of stored fat.
Which gives them 175,000 – 350,000kcal of
7 months at least without emptying their fat stores.
CHO Stores in your muscles and your liver
500g at the maximum.
Each 1 gram of Carbs = 4Kcal
So that’s 2000Kcal or so of stored glycogen
Not enough to meet a single’s days caloric
The reason for the difference in energy storage capacity
Carbs are stored as glycogen in the muscles and liver
Every 1g of stored glycogen you store 3-4g of water with
In contrast triglyceride only require about 1g of water for
every g of fat stored. Fat is a very space efficient way to
store energy .
On top of that:
1g provide more useable energy than either a g of carbs
9Kcal/g = Fat
4Kcal/g = Carbs/Protein
Being able to store more g of total FAT each of those g
provides more useable energy to the body.
Body Fat = Ideal storage form of energy.
As Human can we make new Fat Cell?
Yes / No
Can we actually get rid of fat cell
Yes / No
When a fat cell reach a certain size: that is they are full as they physically
Stretching of the fat cell stimulates the release of factors such as
Angiotensin II, prostacylin and others
Tells the body to make new fat cell from something called preadipocytes
Preadipocytes mature into normal adipocytes Volia!
New FAT CELLS!
Fat cell get to large YOUR BODY WILL KEEP MAKING MORE!
Apoptosis = Death /Removal of cell
Unfortunately getting rid of fat cell is nearly (but
not completely) impossible.
People perception is that liposuction is the only
Fat Cell don’t generally undergo Apoptosis with a
few exception visceral fat and breast or extreme
5 Different Types of Body Fat:
1. Essential Body Fat
2. Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT)
3. Visceral Fat
4. Subcutaneous Fat
5. Stubborn Fat
Referred to the fat around your organs and your nervous system and in your brain
You cant lose it and even if you could you would want to because you’d be dead.
Men: Essential fat make up about 3%o of total weight. So a male with 10%
Body Fat = 1/3 Essential Fat that cant be removed, that why if you hear
someone claiming there body fat is below 3% you should be suspicious.
Women: Slightly higher estimated at 9-12% is a big part of the difference in total
10% body fat in men is equivalent to 16-19% body fat in women Both 7%
above their essential body fat levels. Female bodybuilder reporting body fat
lower than 9% again be suspicious.
Low Fat Diets = Bad for you
The main role of BAT is energy utilization, primarily to
WAT has very few mitochondria (the powerhouse of
the cell). Mitochondria makes energy by burning free
In contrast BAT has very little lipid but quite a lot of
mitochondria which is why its so good at energy good
at energy and heat production.
Overall BAT isn't important in terms of getting rid of
stubborn body fat.
Visceral fat is found around your internal organs and can be thoughts of
as gut fat.
Its more metabolically active.
Visceral fat has a better blood flow – meaning it easier to get the fat out
of the fat cell
Research shows that visceral fat responds differently to diets and
exercise than other types of fat. APPEARS = aerobic exercise get rids
of visceral fat more effectively.
Males at 15% body fat can still have some but anybody much leaner
than that it’s a non issue
For short means:
‘Sub’ = Under ‘Cutaneous’ = Skin
40-60% of your total body weight is found under the
Males = On top of there visceral fat male carry more
fat on their midsection and back with less on their hips
Andriod/ Apple Shape
Increased health risks due to visceral fat
Females = Fat on Hips and Thighs less on their Abs
Gynoid body fat patterns/also pear shape.
Female = More protective of diseases.
Females – Menopause w/out HRT – Which to a male
like body pattern.
This also can be ver-sa to males.
Sub – q fat isn’t the all the same.
Hips/Thighs Fat is metabolically different than
Different types of abdominal fat
1. Deep Abdominal Fat
2. Superficial Abdominal Fat
- Upper and lower
Hip/Thighs – is the hardest to get rid of.
Breast Fat – Body Fat
Women, Don’t Breast Fat
Regain Lost During
Body fat Exercise
Subcutaneous body fat is my eyes can be
broken down in t different types:
1. Regular fat – Easy to drop body fat
2. Stubborn Fat
When it comes to stubborn fat its far less a
issue with diet and training its more of a
patience issue (Which us men lack )
Stubborn is defined as a 12 site skinfold total of
under 120mm (less than 10mm average at each
site)with one site being 30 or higher.
In general fat will come of the body from least to the
most stubborn and there is a clear hierarchy in how
it does this.
Notas do Editor
ASK THE AUDIENCE?
BAT – WHICH IS ACTUALLY MORE OF A REDDISH ORANGE AND GENERALLY BEEN THOUGHT HUMANS DIDN’T HAVE MUCH BAT AND HENCE IT COULD BE IGNORED.Named because of its colour (it’s actually sort of a milky yellow).
FAT CELL NUMBER CAN ALSO VARY BASED ON GENETICS, RACE AND THE AREA OF FAT YOU ARE LOOKING AT.Human physiology is the science of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans in good health, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed.
By Lipid I mean stored triglycerides (TG) which are simply a gylcerol molecule bound to three fatty acids chainsA triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids. There are many triglycerides, depending on the oil source, some are highly unsaturated, some less so.
500kcal a day.
The assumption of one pound per week (3,500 cal/week 500kcal/day deficit) is only valid for the condition where you lose 100% fat. If you lose 50% fat and 50% muscle, you will lose 1.7 pounds in a week for the same 3,500 calorie deficit. Lose 100% muscle (this never happens, mind you, it’s just for illustration) and you lose 5.8 pounds per week.I’d note that I suspect this is why many rapid weight loss centers advise against exercise: exercise limits muscle loss on a diet and the simple fact is that you will lose MORE TOTAL WEIGHT faster if you lose muscle.That’s why here at RWL we do the opposite and we focus on resistance training and high protein diets as this allows for great FAT LOSS rather than total body weight loss. Every 1 pound of muscle burns 50 calories there are approx 850 muscle in the body made from the skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle.
IN FACT UP UNTIL 1994, THE PREDOMINANT VIEW OF FATCELLS WAS THAT IS ALL THEY WERE: A PASSIVE PLACE FOR THE BODY TO STORE ENERGY FOR TIMES WHEN THERE WASN’T ENOUGH FOOD AVAIAVLE. THIS TURNED OUT TO BE DRASTICALLY INCORRECT RIGHT THIS IS HOW THE OBESE EPIC STARTED.
HE HAS ENOUGH STORED ENERGY IN HIS FAT STORES THAT WOULD SEE SEE HIM THROUGH NEARLY 35 DAYS WITHOUT CONSUMING FOOD ASSUMING WAS USING 100% FATQ.NOW, TELL ME THAT FASTING IS BAD FOR YOU METABOLIC RATE – The basal metabolic rate is the minimum rate at which the body uses energy at complete rest. It is the minimum amount of energy needed to keep the body alive and is the largest component of an average person's daily energy expenditure.This is why we're using resistance training as the cornerstone of our fat loss programming here at RWL. Our goal is to work every muscle group hard, frequently, and with an intensity that creates a massive "metabolic disturbance" or "afterburn" that leaves the metabolism elevated for several hours post-workout.
THAT WILL KEEP THEM ALIVE FOR: SOME VERY OBESE INDIVIDUALS HAVE BEEN FASTED FOR UPTO A YEAR WITHOUT PROBLEMS
INTERESTINGLY ENOUGH THE BODY WANTS TO BURN CARBS AND PROTEINS FIRST BECAUSE IT IS EASIER – 4 CALS OF ENERGY INSTEAD OF CONVERTING 9 CALS OF FAT.– ONE REASON WHY WE DEPLETE CARB STORES SO THAT WE CAN HELP MANIPILATE BURNING OF FAT CELLS
TO STORE 10,000Kcal OF ENERGY AS CARBOHYRDATES (2,500g OF CARBOHYDRATES) WOULD REQUIRE 7,500 – 10,000g OF WATER. YOU CELLS WOULD EXPLODE.Glycogen is a molecule that serves as the secondary long-term energy storage in animal and fungal cells, with the primary energy stores being held in adipose tissue. Glycogen is made primarily by the liver and the muscles
FROM A EVOLUTIONAL STANDPOINT, THE EXCEPTIONAL ENERGY STORAGE CAPACITY OF FAT CELL PROVIDED AN EXCELLENT ADVANCTAGE TO HUMANS. BE ABLE TO STORE AN EFFECTIVELY UNLIMINITED AMOUNT OF SPACE MADE IT EASIER TO SURVIVE THROUGH THE TIME PERIODS WHEN FOOD WASN’T AVAIABLE .NOW ITS JUST ANOTHER EVOLUTIONARY LEFTOVER THAT MAKES IT DIFFICULT TO GET IN SHAPE
THIS CYCLE CONTINUES…….
Now that you know more about fat cell (in general) we are move on to different types of body fat:
Around the organs it serve an important cushioning role Nerves are surrounded by sheaths if fat** On which note: low fat diets can impair neural development in developing babies because of the high fat content found here. Without enough dietary fat (especially DHA on of the fish oils) baby brain don’t develop well as can lead to defineices of certain types of fat in the brain that seem to be related to both despression and phychosis.
Babies has a lot of BAT but a lot of it is lost when they reach adulthood
Visceral - Its NOT the fat that you can see on your stomach, its actually underneath your abdominal muscle surrounding your organs.Meaning that its responds more effectively to fat mobilizing/burning stimuli than other types of body fatIts less affected by insulin which tends to shut down fat burning; when insulin goes up visceral fat doesn’t stop releasing fatty acid like other fat cells.Visceral fat has a better blood flow – meaning it easier to get the fat out of the fat cell
Which is where the fat is foundThis is why we can estimate body fat percentage with such method like callipers (skinfold) Very common to see a male with body fat around midsection but still have very lean legs = AndroidHealth Risk: Heart attacks
Deep Abdominal Fat – Like verercal fat easy to get rid ofSuperficial Fat - - Upper fat being easy to mobilize than lower part = now you know why you get the upper 4 pack before the lower two abs ever come in.
Which I shall reveal while In a different seminar all together.Breast fat – body draws enerygy from the breasts that why you see female that diet their breast basically collaspe especially when they reach low level of body fat.Worse yet when they regain body fat the breast often don’t come back and some reaseach has suggested that breast cell can go under apoptoisis (cell death) which explain why they don’t come back.Or flip side they don’t change for some people.
Stubborn is fat that doesn’t seem to want to come off without a nearly super human effort. Even then it doesn’t always come off.
Remember for a female, abdominal = 1, tricep = x2, thigh = x4 as a generalratio. Thigh would need to be x8 or more to be considered "stubborn
THIS RESULTS SHOWS HE’S INSULIN RESISIENT. SO A PROCOTOL WOULD BE NEEDED TO REBALANCE THIS
You may be wondering what make stubborn fat so stubborn well before we go into this topic I needed to give you more background information on fat cell and how it is stored and burn Losing visceral fat often makes people ‘feel’ leaner even though they don’t look it. This is hard to describe if you have experienced it. you feel leaner you can suck your stomach in and it may be flatter, but visually your abs are just as jiggly as ever. That’s due to visceral fat loss. Visceral fat comes off firstNon stubborn subcanteous fat – delts, upper back, arms etcDeep Abs fat – comes off first like visceral fat then attacks the superficial abdominal fat. The upper portion comes before the lower part for most men this would occur before the love handle and the lower back lean out.Last to come off is the hips and thigh fat this is female stubborn area