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The Science of How We Burn Fat and Metabolism

  1. Part 1
  2. What Is Body Fat?
  3. A more technical term for body fat is adipose tissue with individual cells being called adipocytes ‘Adipo’ = fat; ‘cytes’ = cell In humans, the primary type of fat cell is called white adipose tissue or WAT and we do have BAT
  4. In humans, fat cell can vary drastically: 1. Lean individuals may have anywhere from 41 to 65 billion fat cells 2. Obese individual can have upwards of 200 billion fat cells. 3. Fat cells can range in diameter from 70 to 120 micrometres. The size of cell can also affect its physiology.
  5. WAT in humans is composed (anywhere from 80-95%) of lipid The remaining part of the fat cell is comprised of: 1. A little bit of water 2. Cellular machinery needed to produce the various enzymes, proteins, and products that fat cells need to do their duty. 3. As it’s turning out, fat cells produce quite a bit of stuff, some good, some bad, that affects your overall metabolism.
  6. For the record:  1g of fat provide 9 calories so 400g of fat contains about 3600 calories of stored energy.  Now that where the old axiom of 3500kcal to lose a pound of fat comes from.
  7. If you create a 3,500 cal/week deficit you should lose one pound of fat, right?
  8. Wrong 
  9. What’s It Used For?!
  10. The main role is an energy storage dump!?
  11. Fat Cells are truly exceptional in their capacity to store energy. Putting everything into perspective:  Average male weighs 72kg with 15% body fat has 24lbs of body fat which is close to 84,000kcal or so of stored energy  Metabolic rate close to 2400kcal/per day  35 days without food assuming he was using 100% fat.
  12. Extremely obese individuals may have upwards of 50lbs -100lbs of stored fat.  Which gives them 175,000 – 350,000kcal of stored energy.  7 months at least without emptying their fat stores.
  13. CHO Stores in your muscles and your liver  500g at the maximum.  Each 1 gram of Carbs = 4Kcal  So that’s 2000Kcal or so of stored glycogen  Not enough to meet a single’s days caloric requirements
  14. The reason for the difference in energy storage capacity is water. Carbs are stored as glycogen in the muscles and liver Every 1g of stored glycogen you store 3-4g of water with it. In contrast triglyceride only require about 1g of water for every g of fat stored. Fat is a very space efficient way to store energy .
  15. On top of that: 1g provide more useable energy than either a g of carbs or protein. 9Kcal/g = Fat 4Kcal/g = Carbs/Protein Being able to store more g of total FAT each of those g provides more useable energy to the body. Body Fat = Ideal storage form of energy.
  16. As Human can we make new Fat Cell? Yes / No Can we actually get rid of fat cell completely forever? Yes / No
  17. When a fat cell reach a certain size: that is they are full as they physically can be. Stretching of the fat cell stimulates the release of factors such as Angiotensin II, prostacylin and others Tells the body to make new fat cell from something called preadipocytes Preadipocytes mature into normal adipocytes Volia! New FAT CELLS! Fat cell get to large YOUR BODY WILL KEEP MAKING MORE!
  18. Apoptosis = Death /Removal of cell  Unfortunately getting rid of fat cell is nearly (but not completely) impossible.  People perception is that liposuction is the only way.  Fat Cell don’t generally undergo Apoptosis with a few exception visceral fat and breast or extreme conditions.
  19. 5 Different Types of Body Fat: 1. Essential Body Fat 2. Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT) 3. Visceral Fat 4. Subcutaneous Fat 5. Stubborn Fat
  20. Referred to the fat around your organs and your nervous system and in your brain You cant lose it and even if you could you would want to because you’d be dead.   Men: Essential fat make up about 3%o of total weight. So a male with 10% Body Fat = 1/3 Essential Fat that cant be removed, that why if you hear someone claiming there body fat is below 3% you should be suspicious.  Women: Slightly higher estimated at 9-12% is a big part of the difference in total body fat.  10% body fat in men is equivalent to 16-19% body fat in women Both 7% above their essential body fat levels. Female bodybuilder reporting body fat lower than 9% again be suspicious.  Low Fat Diets = Bad for you
  21. The main role of BAT is energy utilization, primarily to provide heat.  WAT has very few mitochondria (the powerhouse of the cell). Mitochondria makes energy by burning free fatty acids.  In contrast BAT has very little lipid but quite a lot of mitochondria which is why its so good at energy good at energy and heat production.  Overall BAT isn't important in terms of getting rid of stubborn body fat.
  22. Visceral fat is found around your internal organs and can be thoughts of as gut fat.  Its more metabolically active.  Visceral fat has a better blood flow – meaning it easier to get the fat out of the fat cell  Research shows that visceral fat responds differently to diets and exercise than other types of fat. APPEARS = aerobic exercise get rids of visceral fat more effectively.  Males at 15% body fat can still have some but anybody much leaner than that it’s a non issue -
  23. For short means: ‘Sub’ = Under ‘Cutaneous’ = Skin  40-60% of your total body weight is found under the skin.  Males = On top of there visceral fat male carry more fat on their midsection and back with less on their hips and glutes  Andriod/ Apple Shape  Increased health risks due to visceral fat
  24. Females = Fat on Hips and Thighs less on their Abs  Gynoid body fat patterns/also pear shape.  Female = More protective of diseases.  Females – Menopause w/out HRT – Which to a male like body pattern.  This also can be ver-sa to males.
  25. Sub – q fat isn’t the all the same. Hips/Thighs Fat is metabolically different than abdominal fat. Different types of abdominal fat 1. Deep Abdominal Fat 2. Superficial Abdominal Fat - Upper and lower
  26. Stubborn Hip/Thighs – is the hardest to get rid of. Breast Fat – Body Fat Some Women, Don’t Breast Fat change Regain Lost During Body fat Exercise
  27. Subcutaneous body fat is my eyes can be broken down in t different types: 1. Regular fat – Easy to drop body fat 2. Stubborn Fat  When it comes to stubborn fat its far less a issue with diet and training its more of a patience issue (Which us men lack )
  28. Stubborn is defined as a 12 site skinfold total of under 120mm (less than 10mm average at each site)with one site being 30 or higher.
  29. Chin: 3.9mm The supra-iliac measure Cheek: 7.2mm was elevated = insulin Pecs: 3mm Triceps: 2.7mm resistance. Subscap: 15.8mm Midaxilary: 3.8mm Supra-iliac: 6.5mm Abdomen: 5.3mm Knee: 5.9mm Calf: 2.3mm Quads: 3.8mm Hams: 6mm
  30. In general fat will come of the body from least to the most stubborn and there is a clear hierarchy in how it does this. Hips and Visceral Fat Thighs Non Stubborn Superifcial Subcutaneous Body Fat Fat The Deep Abdominal Fat

Notas do Editor

  1. ASK THE AUDIENCE?
  2. BAT – WHICH IS ACTUALLY MORE OF A REDDISH ORANGE AND GENERALLY BEEN THOUGHT HUMANS DIDN’T HAVE MUCH BAT AND HENCE IT COULD BE IGNORED.Named because of its colour (it’s actually sort of a milky yellow).
  3. FAT CELL NUMBER CAN ALSO VARY BASED ON GENETICS, RACE AND THE AREA OF FAT YOU ARE LOOKING AT.Human physiology is the science of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans in good health, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed.
  4. By Lipid I mean stored triglycerides (TG) which are simply a gylcerol molecule bound to three fatty acids chainsA triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids.[1] There are many triglycerides, depending on the oil source, some are highly unsaturated, some less so.
  5. 500kcal a day.
  6.  The assumption of one pound per week (3,500 cal/week 500kcal/day deficit) is only valid for the condition where you lose 100% fat. If you lose 50% fat and 50% muscle, you will lose 1.7 pounds in a week for the same 3,500 calorie deficit.  Lose 100% muscle (this never happens, mind you, it’s just for illustration) and you lose 5.8 pounds per week.I’d note that I suspect this is why many rapid weight loss centers advise against exercise: exercise limits muscle loss on a diet and the simple fact is that you will lose MORE TOTAL WEIGHT faster if you lose muscle.That’s why here at RWL we do the opposite and we focus on resistance training and high protein diets as this allows for great FAT LOSS rather than total body weight loss. Every 1 pound of muscle burns 50 calories there are approx 850 muscle in the body made from the skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle.
  7. IN FACT UP UNTIL 1994, THE PREDOMINANT VIEW OF FATCELLS WAS THAT IS ALL THEY WERE: A PASSIVE PLACE FOR THE BODY TO STORE ENERGY FOR TIMES WHEN THERE WASN’T ENOUGH FOOD AVAIAVLE. THIS TURNED OUT TO BE DRASTICALLY INCORRECT RIGHT  THIS IS HOW THE OBESE EPIC STARTED.
  8. HE HAS ENOUGH STORED ENERGY IN HIS FAT STORES THAT WOULD SEE SEE HIM THROUGH NEARLY 35 DAYS WITHOUT CONSUMING FOOD ASSUMING WAS USING 100% FATQ.NOW, TELL ME THAT FASTING IS BAD FOR YOU METABOLIC RATE – The basal metabolic rate is the minimum rate at which the body uses energy at complete rest. It is the minimum amount of energy needed to keep the body alive and is the largest component of an average person's daily energy expenditure.This is why we're using resistance training as the cornerstone of our fat loss programming here at RWL. Our goal is to work every muscle group hard, frequently, and with an intensity that creates a massive "metabolic disturbance" or "afterburn" that leaves the metabolism elevated for several hours post-workout.
  9. THAT WILL KEEP THEM ALIVE FOR: SOME VERY OBESE INDIVIDUALS HAVE BEEN FASTED FOR UPTO A YEAR WITHOUT PROBLEMS
  10. INTERESTINGLY ENOUGH THE BODY WANTS TO BURN CARBS AND PROTEINS FIRST BECAUSE IT IS EASIER – 4 CALS OF ENERGY INSTEAD OF CONVERTING 9 CALS OF FAT.– ONE REASON WHY WE DEPLETE CARB STORES SO THAT WE CAN HELP MANIPILATE BURNING OF FAT CELLS
  11. TO STORE 10,000Kcal OF ENERGY AS CARBOHYRDATES (2,500g OF CARBOHYDRATES) WOULD REQUIRE 7,500 – 10,000g OF WATER. YOU CELLS WOULD EXPLODE.Glycogen is a molecule that serves as the secondary long-term energy storage in animal and fungal cells, with the primary energy stores being held in adipose tissue. Glycogen is made primarily by the liver and the muscles
  12. FROM A EVOLUTIONAL STANDPOINT, THE EXCEPTIONAL ENERGY STORAGE CAPACITY OF FAT CELL PROVIDED AN EXCELLENT ADVANCTAGE TO HUMANS. BE ABLE TO STORE AN EFFECTIVELY UNLIMINITED AMOUNT OF SPACE MADE IT EASIER TO SURVIVE THROUGH THE TIME PERIODS WHEN FOOD WASN’T AVAIABLE .NOW ITS JUST ANOTHER EVOLUTIONARY LEFTOVER THAT MAKES IT DIFFICULT TO GET IN SHAPE 
  13. GROUP VOTE???
  14. THIS CYCLE CONTINUES…….
  15. Now that you know more about fat cell (in general) we are move on to different types of body fat:
  16. Around the organs it serve an important cushioning role Nerves are surrounded by sheaths if fat** On which note: low fat diets can impair neural development in developing babies because of the high fat content found here. Without enough dietary fat (especially DHA on of the fish oils) baby brain don’t develop well as can lead to defineices of certain types of fat in the brain that seem to be related to both despression and phychosis.
  17. Babies has a lot of BAT but a lot of it is lost when they reach adulthood
  18. Visceral - Its NOT the fat that you can see on your stomach, its actually underneath your abdominal muscle surrounding your organs.Meaning that its responds more effectively to fat mobilizing/burning stimuli than other types of body fatIts less affected by insulin which tends to shut down fat burning; when insulin goes up visceral fat doesn’t stop releasing fatty acid like other fat cells.Visceral fat has a better blood flow – meaning it easier to get the fat out of the fat cell
  19. Which is where the fat is foundThis is why we can estimate body fat percentage with such method like callipers (skinfold) Very common to see a male with body fat around midsection but still have very lean legs = AndroidHealth Risk: Heart attacks
  20. Deep Abdominal Fat – Like verercal fat easy to get rid ofSuperficial Fat - - Upper fat being easy to mobilize than lower part = now you know why you get the upper 4 pack before the lower two abs ever come in.
  21. Which I shall reveal while In a different seminar all together.Breast fat – body draws enerygy from the breasts that why you see female that diet their breast basically collaspe especially when they reach low level of body fat.Worse yet when they regain body fat the breast often don’t come back and some reaseach has suggested that breast cell can go under apoptoisis (cell death) which explain why they don’t come back.Or flip side they don’t change for some people.
  22. Stubborn is fat that doesn’t seem to want to come off without a nearly super human effort. Even then it doesn’t always come off.
  23. Remember for a female, abdominal = 1, tricep = x2, thigh = x4 as a generalratio. Thigh would need to be x8 or more to be considered "stubborn
  24. THIS RESULTS SHOWS HE’S INSULIN RESISIENT. SO A PROCOTOL WOULD BE NEEDED TO REBALANCE THIS
  25. You may be wondering what make stubborn fat so stubborn well before we go into this topic I needed to give you more background information on fat cell and how it is stored and burn Losing visceral fat often makes people ‘feel’ leaner even though they don’t look it. This is hard to describe if you have experienced it. you feel leaner you can suck your stomach in and it may be flatter, but visually your abs are just as jiggly as ever. That’s due to visceral fat loss. Visceral fat comes off firstNon stubborn subcanteous fat – delts, upper back, arms etcDeep Abs fat – comes off first like visceral fat then attacks the superficial abdominal fat. The upper portion comes before the lower part for most men this would occur before the love handle and the lower back lean out.Last to come off is the hips and thigh fat this is female stubborn area 
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