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NUDGE Master Class presentationNEQOS

Order #163040071 why risk factors of cardiovascular diseases are mjack60216

Module seven presenting social science concepts and researchjack60216

Art therapy for reduce stress among children with cancerAssistant Lecturer, Department of Inclusive Education

Resolving our Identity CrisisScott Miller

Class 1 introduction to research Sharon Young

- Research methods – all three papers, particularly paper two Research Methods Summary
- 2 Features of Science Research should be: Replicable - If repeated the results should be the same/similar Variables should be operationalised – IVs, DVs, variables, generating a testable hypothesis The judgements should be as fair and unbiased as possible – possibly made by independent researchers It should be objective (fact based) rather than subjective (opinion based) Scientific knowledge should lead to generating and refining theories Example: A teacher has worked in the same primary school for two years. While chatting to the children, she is concerned to find that the majority of them come to school without having eaten a healthy breakfast. In her opinion, children who eat 'a decent breakfast' learn to read more quickly and are better behaved than children who do not. She now wants to set up a pre-school breakfast club for the children so that they can all have this beneficial start to the day. The local authority is not willing to spend money on this project purely on the basis of the teacher's opinion and insists on having scientific evidence for the claimed benefits of eating a healthy breakfast. Why isn’t it scientific? The teacherhas onlyexperiencedone school inaparticularcatchment areaso she has only observedaverylimitednumberof 5 year-olds(issuesof samplingand replicability). She has foundoutthat childrendonoteat anythingnourishingsimplybychattingwith the children.She hasnocorroborative evidence from e.g. parents(issuesof objectivity). She usesvague phrasessuchas 'decentbreakfast'withoutbeingclearwhatthis means(no operationalisation). She has generatedatheoryandmade predictionsbasedonflimsyevidence. She has not usedanyscientificmethod toleadtoher conclusions e.g.acarefully controlled experiment,surveyorobservation. She has drawnconclusionsaboutthe effectsof breakfastwithoutconsideringother variableswhichmightaffectreadingskillsandbehaviour.
- Research methods – all three papers, particularly paper two Peer Review Peer review is very important throughout the whole of the scientific community and it has two major functions: 1. Researchersgettoread otherpeople’sstudiesandkeepintouchwithnew waysof thinking and scientificdevelopments.Theymayalsobe workingonthe same topicor thinkthey couldimprove uponorevendisprove someone else’stheory.Knowledge growsthroughthe sharingof information. 2. Studiessubmittedforpublicationare subjectedtocritical appraisal,whichactsasa check to ensure poorqualityresearchdoesnotenterthe publicdomain. Most researchersaimto publishtheirfindingsinprestigiousscientificjournalsandthere isan agreedformatfor the wayin whichworkispresented. Havingyour studypublishedmeans thatthe scientificcommunityhasgivenitaseal of approval; thisisveryimportantfor universitydepartmentsastheyare assessedforfuture government fundingonthe qualityof theirpublishedresearch. Unlike textbooks,journalsare publishedperiodicallyandbuildintoyearlyvolumesthatserve asa permanentrecordof research.Universitieskeeptheseintheirlibrariesandalsosubscribe toonline publications.Somejournalsacceptresearchfromvariousareas,e.g., NatureorScience. In psychology,the British Journalof Psychology publishesstudiesfrommanydifferentfieldswhereas some journalsare extremelyspecialised,e.g., Personality and IndividualDifferences. The systemof peerreview isheldinhighesteemandbeginswhena research papersubmittedtoa journal isconsideredtobe worthyof publication.The editorsendsthistootherexperts(whoare generally unpaid) inthe fieldwhocriticallyappraise all aspectsof the study thenreturnit withtheirrecommendationsastowhether the workis of acceptable quality.If not,researchersrevise theirworkandre- submittheirpaper.Thisensuresthathighstandardsare maintained. However,peerreview isnotinfallible andthe systemsometimes breaksdown.Provencasesof fraudare a rarity,but include plagiarism, falsificationof dataand fabricationof data (UKParliamentaryOfficeof Science andTechnology,2002). Researchmaybe supressedbecause itdisagreeswithaprevailingtheoryorbecause there isrivalrybetweentwo researchgroups.There isa bias towardspublishingpaperswithpositive (significant) results.There may notbe an expertforsome topics, particularlywhentheyare new areasof research. Peerreview doesnotalwaysspot the mistakes. Example: AndrewWakefieldpublishedastudysayingthatthe MMR vaccinationwaslinkedwiththe developmentof autism. Itturnedoutthat he was wrong – hismethodswere faulty,and the conclusions were basedonunscientificwork.There wasanundeclared conflictof interest ashe was partlyfundedbyan anti-vaccinationlawsuit. He has beenstruckoff the medical council, andcanno longerbe a doctor. Howeverthe rumours aboutMMR persist,andmanyparentschose notto vaccinate theirchildren.The rate of measles infectionshasshotup,andit can be fatal inyoungchildren. Poorscientificpractice canbe dangerous.
- 4 Psychology and the Economy The most obvious application is in mental health. The cost of mental treatment in the UK is approximately £22 billion annually. A current focus of research is in Dementia - as the population rises there will be more and more cases. How should they best be treated? Can anything be done to avoid it? Research weighs up the benefits and costs of therapies – for example drugs are cheap, but is psychological therapy better even though it is much more expensive? Other Links: Daniel Kahnemanhasledresearchonirrational thinking,how people behave in their financial lives and why. Behavioural economicsisprimarilyconcernedwiththe rationalityof decisionsrelatingtoeconomics. AVAILABILITY HEURISTIC: the rule that the likelihood of selecting something is linked to its availability. For example: we tend to overestimate the chances of being involved in a disaster of some sort – a plane crash.Actuallythe chancesare tiny,butbecause we all hear about them when they happen it makes it seem more likely than it actually is. If you asked the public what the chances were they would overestimate the probability. Framing The way information is presented has an effect on whether it is successful or not. This is known as ‘framing’, and it can be positive or negative. Understandingthe biasescausedbyirrational thinking has changed business practice. Layard (2014) said that Kahnemen’s work had revolutionised business because it has been applied to so many areas: Decision making in juries Treatment of mental health problems Financial advice Government programmes such as healthy eating campaigns
- Research methods – all three papers, particularly paper two MEMORY How could research into Eye Witness testimony have implications for the economy? Improving EWT can lead to more accurate EW’s and therefore money saved on police resources, because they will be looking for the correct person/people. What about the development of the cognitive interview? If the cognitive interview is more effective than the standard police interview then ti me and therefore money could be saved by doing more effective interviews. SOCIAL INFLUENCE How could understanding minority influence lead to implications for the economy? Minoritiescanadvocate change that will benefitthe economy. Byunderstandinghow aminoritycan bring about change minorities can be encouraged to make changes that will save money. E.g. EnvironmentalistsandRecyclingsavedmoneybyrecyclinggoodsratherthanbuyingeverything new (It also saves finite resources in the Earth) PSYCHOPATHOLOGY If treatments for mental illness are found to be more effective than other treatments. How could more effective treatments impact on the economy? If the treatmentismore effective thenitcouldleadto money being saved by the NHS not having to pay out for treatments that aren’t as effective. So the person could be treated quicker, saving money on further treatments, and more people can be treated successfully in the long term. Why would it be beneficial to the economy if treatments are so effective people could return to work? If people canreturnto work because treatmentshave beeneffective thenitmeansthat they will be contributingtothe economy(e.g.payingtaxes/national health) rather than being unable to work & claiming from the government. Eventhoughdrug treatments might be as effective as CBT, why might it be more beneficial for the economy if people have CBT instead? Because the drug treatmentsare sometimes accused of being a quick and short term fix. By having CBT, it targetsthe root cause rather thanjust masking symptoms. Therefore it could mean that the treatment might have a more long term effect – saving money on not needing further drug treatments.
- 6 ATTACHMENT Bowlby’sview that children need their mothers led to women feeling like they needed to “stay at home”. What effect could this have on the economy? If mothers are staying at home then they aren’t working and contributing to taxes etc. Later researchshowedthatactuallychildrenare generallyfine aslongastheyhave a good substitute carer (e.g good day care or their father). What could this mean for the economy? It couldmeanthat mothersare able to workand therefore theyare adding to the economy through taxes. Also if they are working it aids the organisations/businesses through having the workforce. How could research into the harmful effects of deprivation/privation have implications for the economy? Childrenthathave secure childhoodattachments go on to become productive members of society, so holddownjobsandcontribute to the economy. Whereas children with deprivation or privation may find it difficult in later life to be a productive member of society. They may also cost more to the government to help and support in later life. BIOPSYCHOLOGY How could research into “smart machines” – i.e machines that think like humans - affect the economy? Because it could lead to saving money for businesses and organisations by having machines doing jobs to save money – e.g recognising faces on CCTV etc. Psychology and the economy may also come up on the paper as an application question – the company want to sell something, how could they frame it positively? How could they persuade patients to take their medication? Woulditsave the Police time andmoneyoninvestigationsif Cognitive Interviews were much more accurate? Have some examples ready to go – it’s possible that this could be a long question (8 marks for example)
- Research methods – all three papers, particularly paper two Methods for Conducting Studies What are the Advantages/disadvantagesof a Lab study? The most likelyadvantagesof the laboratorysettinginclude: Control overextraneousvariables.The labsettingmeantthatextraneous variablescouldbe minimised. Replicability. It can be verycontrolled,andaffectthe behaviourof the participants. It can lack ecological validity A common mistake isin the exam isgiving general criticismsand not specificto the example inthe question.Youmust relate it to the scenariothey have givenyou. What are the advantages/disadvantagesof a fieldstudy? The environmentismore natural whichshouldproduce more realisticbehaviour There isless control of extraneousvariables The PPs maynot knowtheyare beingwatchedinwhichcase they cannotgive informedconsent. If theydon’tknowthat theyare beingstudiedthenitmayreduce experimentereffectsanddemand characteristics. What are the advantages/disadvantagesof Natural and Quasi Studies? The experimenterdoesnotmanipulate the IV,theyobserve anexisting one –natural means somethinghappenedoutof the ordinary,butwasnothingtodo withthe researchere.g.accident. Quasi – somethingthatcan’tbe controlledisthe IV, mostcommonisage. Positive:Behaviourshouldbe natural Negative:Causal conclusionscannotbe drawn No randomallocation But may be the onlywayto ethicallystudysomething.
- 8 Othermethods Self-ReportMethods: Questionnaires Structured, semi-structured,unstructuredinterviews Can be openor closedquestions The main problemishonesty –social desirabilitybiasmeansthatparticipantsmaytryto portray themselvesinthe bestpossiblelight. Observational Studies: Participantsare observedtonote behaviour– can be overt(whentheyare aware of being watched) orcovert (notaware of beingwatched). Will use eithertime sampling –e.g.whatare theydoingevery15 seconds Or eventsampling –recordingeverytime theydosomethinginparticular Case Study: A detailedstudyof one individual oraunique situation Usuallylongitudinal Providesrichdetail andmassesof data But can’t be generalisedtoothersbecause of the verysmall sample orunusual situation Correlational Studies: The relationshipbetweentwovariables Easilyshowsa link,andcan be replicated But does notshowa cause and effect relationship asthere maybe an interveningvariable
- Research methods – all three papers, particularly paper two Reliability Reliabilityreferstothe consistencyof a measurement How can Reliabilitybe checked? Example:Reliabilitycouldhave beencheckedbyadministeringavalidandreliable questionnaire to the participantsaswell asinterviewingthemandthencomparingthe scoresonthe twomeasures.If the interview score was reliable,there wouldbe strongpositivecorrelationbetweenthe scores. Inter-Raterreliability– comparingtwo or more researcherswhoare watching/scoring the same thing– there shouldbe astrong positive correlation –0.8 or similar. Example:The interviewscouldhave beenfilmedandgiventoanothertrainedtherapisttoassess.A strongcorrelationbetweenthe scoresgivenbyeachtherapist woulddemonstratereliability. Split–Half – on a mathstest(or similar) the questionsare divided,andthe answerscompared.E.g. One participantwill have theiranswerscomparedforthe oddnumbersagainstthe evennumbers, and the resultshouldbe the same/similar. Test-Retest– the experimentisrunagainand the resultscompared.Theyshouldgetsimilarresults inthe replications.Theycaneithertestthe same people againafterasuitable interval of time,test differentpeopleusingthe same test,ortestthe same people withmore thanone test,eachof whichhas the same standardiseddifficulty. Why isReplicabilityimportant? Replicabilityisanimportantpartof the scientificprocess.Scientificmethodinvolvesdefininga problemandformulatingahypothesiswhichistestedwithempirical research. Researchfindingsare animportantpartof thisprocess.If we wishto draw conclusionsfrom researchstudies,the proceduresand findingsshouldbe repeatable. Unrepeatable resultsmayimplyflawsor alack of control withinthe methodusedandare of limited use intheoryconstruction.
- 10 Validity Validityis about whethera testmeasureswhat it is meant to measure. Internal validityiswhat happenswithinthe study –isthe researchtestingwhatitis meantto? External validity- can the resultsbe generalisedtootherpeopleandothersettings? The ideais to try andmake sure thatextraneousvariablesdon’taffectthe result.The change inthe DV shouldbe asa resultof the changesinthe IV,andnothingelse.The control availableinthe laboratoryishelpful,butcanmake somethingartificial.Fieldstudiesare usuallybetter,butnot alwaysso,as theycan alsobe verycontrivedandartificial. Validityislinkedtoreliability,because if astudyisnotreliable thenitisn’tvalid.Considerthe followingexamples: If a participanttakes anintelligencetestonseveral occasionsandthe resultschange eachtime then the testis not reliableandthe resultsare meaningless,solackvalidity.If apersontakesanIQ test several timesandgetsthe same score itis a reliable test,butmaytestwhatthe personhas learntat school rather thantheirintelligence,inwhichcase itlacksvalidityasitisn’ttestingwhatitismeant to. Temporal validity– the abilitytogeneralise aresearcheffectbeyondaparticulartime period. Ecological validity– the abilitytogeneralise aresearcheffectbeyond the particulartime periodof the study. Validitycanbe affectedbymanydifferentthings,dependingonthe study.Commonissuesinclude: Sample – all one type of person,usuallystudents,is notgood All one genderalsoa problem If the testusesindividual groupsthere maybe differencesbetweenthe groups Lab experimentscanbe lowinexternal validity,butthisisnotautomaticallytrue – it dependsonthe task Mundane realismcanbe a problemif the taskisveryartificial,andthisreducesthe generalizabilityof findings Observationscanhave problemswithobserverbias,affectinginternal validity How can validitybe checked? Face validity– doesitlooklike itistestingwhatitis meantto onthe surface? Concurrent validity– checkingitagainst a pre-existingandpreviouslyvalidated measure
- Research methods – all three papers, particularly paper two Ethics • Good psychological researchispossible onlyif there ismutual respectandconfidence betweeninvestigatorsandparticipants. • Ethical guidelinesare necessarytoclarifythe conditionsunderwhichpsychological research isacceptable.The BritishPsychological Societypublishesethicsguideswhichare updated regularly. • A fundamental ethical questioninpsychological researchis `Doesthe end justifythe means?`.A balance mustbe struckbetweenthe interestsof the participantsandthe value of research. • Ethicsis that whichisdeemedacceptableinhumanbehaviourinpursuitof certaingoalsor aims.It isnot simplyaquestion of right,butof balance betweenthe interestsof the participantandthe scientificvalue of the research. • Basicallyethicsisall aboutwhatyoucan andcan’t do withparticipants. CONSENT • Participantsshouldgive informedconsent. • In studies involvingchildren,informedparental consentshouldbe obtained. • Paymentshouldnotbe usedtoinduce risktakingbehaviour. • Special safeguardingproceduresare necessarywithsubjectswithlimitationsin communicationorunderstandingorwhere unable to give realconsent. • DECEPTION • Intentional deceptionoverthe purpose of the investigationshouldbe avoidedwhere possible. • There mustbe strongmedical orscientificjustificationforanydeception. • Appropriate consultationwithdisinterestedcolleagues orethicscommitteesmustprecede the investigationif itinvolvesdeception.
- 12 CONFIDENTIALITY • The sourceof all information should remain confidential. • Legislation,includingtheData Protection Act, should be adhered to. • If confidentiality cannotbe guaranteed, the subjectshould be duly warned. DEBRIEFING • Participantsshould befully debriefed. • Participantsexperienceshould be discussed to assessany negativeeffects. • Debriefing should be in the form of active intervention before leavingthe research setting. • Participantsshould betold what happened in other conditions • They should have the opportunity to ask questions WITHDRAWAL FROM THE INVESTIGATION • Subjects should be aware of the right to withdraw at any time. • This may be done retrospectively by refusingpermission for their data to be used. PROTECTION OF PARTICIPANTS • Participantsshould beprotected from physical or mental harm. • Participantsshould beasked of any factors which may create risk;i.e. medical conditions. • Any risk should beno more than could be expected in the courseof normal daily lifestyle. • There should be the opportunity to contact the investigator ata later date if distress does occur. OBSERVATIONAL RESEARCH • Observation should beonly carried outin places where people could expect to be observed by strangers,unless specificpermission isobtained beforehand. • Care should be taken about the invasion of privacy. GIVING ADVICE. • If an investigator comes across a problemthat the subjectmay be unaware of, he/she has a duty to informthe subject,if they believe failureto do so will causeharmor distress. • The investigator should refrain fromgivingadviceif they are not competent to do so and should recommend suitablecourses of action. • Example – if an fMRI reveals a medical problem the participantshould beadvised to take further action by seeing a specialist.
- Research methods – all three papers, particularly paper two Hypotheses Studieshave twohypotheses. The alternative/experimentalhypothesisisthe one thatsayssomethingwill happen The null hypothesissaysthatthe IV will have noeffectonthe DV – nothingwill happen A directional hypothesisisknownas one-tailed A non-directional hypothesisisknownas two-tailed The experimental/alternativehypothesisisastatementof the relationshipbetweentwovariables, whereasthe null hypothesisisastatementof norelationshipbetweentwovariables. For example,the hypothesismightsay‘There isadifference betweenthe scoresona memorytest fromGroup A whouseda mnemonicandGroup B whodidnot’ whereasthe null hypothesiswouldbe ‘There is nodifference betweenthe scoresfromamemory testfrom GroupA whouseda mnemonicandGroupB who didnot’. The hypothesismustcontainanumberof thingsto gainfull marks. Hypotheses have tobe operationalised.Thismeans thathow the DV will be measured shouldbe part of the hypothesis. It shouldcontainthe rightword – correlation,association,difference Say whatwe are measuringandhow we are measuringit,aswell aswhat we are tryingto find Commonmistakesincludegivingthe wrongtype of hypothesis –null insteadof non-directional for example. The othercommonmistake isusingcorrelationwhenit’satestof difference orvice versa. If it is a correlational testandyouwrite ahypothesisthatsaysdifference, youwill endupwithno marks. Examplesof hypotheses: There isan associationbetweenbirthorderandchoice of career There is a correlationbetweenpupils’scoresonatest of mathematical abilityandpupils’scoresona testof musical ability. Thissays whatwe are measuringand how we are measuringit,aswell as what we are tryingto find – e.g. correlation.
- 14 Statistical tests – Basics In everyexperimentthere are twohypotheses,andatthe endof a piece of researchwe mustaccept one of them. There isan alternative/experimental hypothesisthatsayssomethingwill happen,anda null hypothesisthatsaysnothingwill happen - there will be norelationshipbetweenthe IV andthe DV . Statistical testsare usedtodecide whetherthe experimental/alternativehypothesisisacceptedor not. It mightlooklike itssignificant,butitneedstobe proven. Beingsignificantmeansthatthe difference betweenthe two(ormore) conditionsisenoughtobe sure thatit didn’t justoccurby chance. The testsusedcalculate the probabilityof somethingoccurringbychance – inorder to acceptthe hypothesiswe needtobe sure that the change in the DV was a resultof a change inthe IV. We alwaysuse a significancelevel of 0.05 – thismeansthat we are 95% sure that the resultsdidnot occur by chance. There isstill a 5% chance the resultsoccurrednaturally,andwere notrelatedto the change in the IV. This(0.05) isnot the value thatwe are comparinganythingto,nor isit the result,orthe critical value,orthe calculated value. Itisthe level of significance. Youshouldnotbe comparinganythingto0.05. It tellsyouwhere tolookon a table of critical values. The calculated/observedvalue isthe endresultof the study – once all the maths is done we are left withone figure – the observedvalue,whichwe thencompare tothe table of critical values. The critical value isthe value inthe table that we are comparingresultsto. To selectthe rightcritical value inthe table youneedtoknow the following: Degreesof freedom –inmost casesthisisthe numberof participants(chi-square isan exception) Whetheryouhave a one-tailed(directional)ortwo-tailed(non-directional) test–thisis basedon the hypothesis The significance level–usually 0.05 Whetherthe calculated/observedvalue needstobe higherorlowerthanthe critical value (lookunderthe table of critical values) Whetheritisparametric– parametrictestsuse interval data Type one error: a false positive, or error of optimists – most likely when the level of significance level is too lenient (10%), and leads to the results being judged as significant when they aren’t, and the experimental hypothesis is accepted incorrectly. Type two error: a false negative, most likely when the level of significance is too stringent (1%), leads to the experimental hypothesis being rejected, when it should be accepted.
- Research methods – all three papers, particularly paper two Levels of measurement anddata types Primary data – collectedbythe researcherforthe purposesof theirstudy.Thissuitsthatparticular studybut istime consumingandexpensive. Secondary data – usingdata collectedforapreviouspiece of work,e.g.government statistics.This savestime andmoneybutmay not fitthe currentstudyperfectly. Nominal data: If you are placingdata ina tallychart,thiswouldbe nominal data.If you are counting the numberof timessomethinghashappened,thisisnominal datae.g.numberof males/females stoppingfora pedestrianata zebracrossing Ordinal data: Use of self-reportquestionnairewitharatingscale wouldbe ordinal data.The likert scale isthe mostcommonlyusedscale,where Ppsare givenastatementandasked tostate level of agreement,form‘agree verymuch’to‘disagree verymuch’,orratingsomethingoutof ten. Interval data: This iswhere datais inthe form of equal unitse.g.score onan objective test.Insucha case,if one P has scored20 on a test and anotherhasonlyscored10, we wouldbe correct insaying the firstpersonhas performedtwice aswell asthe second. Italsoincludesdatawithafixedscale, e.g.centimetres,seconds,correctanswers. ************************************************************************************************************************** You also need to know what experimental design is: Independent groups – each participant only does one condition Avoids practice effects, you could use the same set of stimuli BUT you need more participants and there can be differences between the groups Repeated measures – each participant does all the conditions – must be counterbalanced Avoids individual differences e.g. in reaction times, less participants needed BUT more chance of demand characteristics and practice effects Matched pairs – the participants are matched on key characteristics and their results compared. Counts as repeated/related data for the purposes of statistical tests. Avoids the practice effects with repeated measures and the individual differences of independent groups BUT takes ages to do, needs a large pool of potential participants and may not account for variables that affect the results
- 16 Statistical tests: Spearman’s Rho Hypothesis states a correlation between two co-variables The two sets of data are related Data is ordinal or interval 1. State the hypothesis: the digit ratio between index finger and ring finger is positively correlated to numeracy skills Null: there is no correlation between digit ratio and numeracy skills 2. Record the data, rank each co-variable, and calculate the difference 3. Find the calculated value – for spearman it is called the correlation co-efficient or rho 4. Find the critical value to compare the observed value to In this case the hypothesis is directional, therefore you are looking for a one-tailed test Use the number of participants down the side of the table, and look for 0.05 and state the conclusion Always go with 0.05 Number of participants To be significant the observed value must be higher than the critical value for this test
- Research methods – all three papers, particularly paper two Statistical tests: Pearson’s r (parametric) Hypothesisstatesacorrelationbetweentwosetsof data The two setsof data are related The data are interval The requirementsforparametrictestsare satisfied(the populationsare assumedtohave a normal distributionandthe variancesof the sample are assumedtobe the same – don’t worryabout thisbit) 1. State the hypothesis 2. Place the data ina table 3. Findthe calculatedvalue of r – the formulaiscomplex andwon’tbe inthe exam, sotheywill give youthe calculatedvalue of r. 4. Findthe critical value bylookinginthe table of critical values.Rememberthat the degrees of freedomis participants -2. 5. Is the resultsignificantandisinthe rightdirection?If the predictionwasapositive correlationdid youget a positive?If the hypothesisisnondirectional thenitdoesn’tmatterwhichwaythe correlationgoes. 6. Report the conclusion. As the calculated value is…puttheactualfigure……andthe critical value is …. Putthe actualfigure We mustaccept/rejectthe… experimental/alternative/nullhypothesis Therefore,we canconclude thatthe resultis significant/notsignificant wheredf =………………………….. (degreesof freedom) andp<0.05 for a one-tailed/two-tailed test
- 18
- Research methods – all three papers, particularly paper two Statistical Tests: Chi-Square Deals with nominal data Used when we’ve counted how many things there are in each category (frequencies) Used when hypothesis predicts an association or difference between co-variables Sets of data must be independent, so no individual should have a score in more than one cell Step 1: Hypotheses Alternative hypothesis: there is an association between gender and the amount of hours slept Null hypothesis: there is no association between boys and girls and the amount of hours slept Step 2: Contingency Table – draw a table to record the frequencies in each group Step3: Findthe critical value,sothatyou can compare it to the calculated value Calculate the degreesof freedom(df) by: Multiplying(rows-1) x (columns-1) The calculated value (X2) of chi-squareis 1.984 – this isthe value of the data from the experiment Look at the critical value fromthe Table of critical values- we alwayslookat the column p≤0.05 Reminder:THIS(0.05) ISNOT THE CRITICALVALUE, OR THE CALCULATED VALUE, IT IS THE LEVEL OF SIGNIFICANCE. Step4: State yourconclusion Nondirectional hypothesis,sotwo-tailedtest. As the calculated value is…puttheactualfigure……andthe critical value is …. Putthe actualfigure We mustaccept/rejectthe… alternative/nullhypothesis Therefore,we canconclude that the resultis significant/notsignificant wheredf =…………………… (degreesof freedom) andp<0.05 for a one-tailed/two-tailed test
- 20 Statistical Tests: Sign test Data goesintoa table - happinessratingsbefore andafteraholiday: participant Happiness score before Happiness score after Difference between the two sign 1 6 7 1 + 2 3 4 1 + 3 4 6 2 + 4 8 6 -2 - 5 5 7 2 + 6 7 5 -2 - 7 5 7 2 + 8 5 8 3 + 9 4 7 3 + 10 8 5 -3 - 11 4 4 0 12 8 9 1 + 13 6 7 1 + 14 5 6 1 + You will have tofindthe calculatedvalue yourself. It isthe sumof the lessfrequentsign –inthiscase there are more plusesthanminuses,sothe total of minussignswill be the calculatedvalue: s=3. N=13 – there are 14 participantsbutany withnodifference (like participant11) are notcounted, meaningthatwhenyoucome to lookfor a critical value youare lookingfor13 and not14. The critical value for13 is3, equal to the calculatedvalue,sothe resultinthiscase wouldbe significant. Conclusion: The calculatedvalue of S (3) is equal tothe critical value of S (3) where N=13, p<0.05 and a one- tailedtestisusedsothe resultsare significant. The null hypothesiscanbe rejected andthe experimental hypothesis accepted. Where there is no difference the result is excluded, reducing the N value
- Research methods – all three papers, particularly paper two Statistical Tests: Mann-Whitney U The hypothesisstatesadifference betweentwosetsof data The two setsof data are from separate groups – independentgroups The data are ordinal or interval 1. State the hypotheses: Alternative:Male participants interviewed onahighbridge give higherratingsof the attractiveness of a female interviewerthanthose interviewedonalow bridge Null:there isnodifference inthe ratingsof attractivenessgivenbythose interviewedonahighor lowbridge. 2. Record the data ina table andallocate points Each score iscomparedto all the othersin the othergroup,and givenpoints 3. Findthe calculated value of U It’sthe lowerpointsvalue wheneachcolumn isaddedtogether 4. Compare it to the critical value Numberof participantsineachgroup showsyouwhat the critical value It’sa directional hypothesis,soa one-tailedtest,andhasto be lowerthanthe critical values Step4: State yourconclusion As the calculated value is…puttheactualfigure……andthe critical value is …. Putthe actualfigure We mustaccept/rejectthe… alternative/nullhypothesis Therefore,we canconclude that the resultis significant/notsignificant whereN=….. (numberof participants) andp<0.05 for a one-tailed/two-tailed test 5 wouldbe the critical value for 6 participants in one group, six in the other
- 22 Statistical Tests: Wilcoxon T Hypothesisstatesadifference betweentwosetsof data The two setsof data are from the same person – repeated measures The data are ordinal 1. State the hypotheses: Alternative:participantswillrate the more frequentlyseenface asmore likeable thanthe less frequentlyseenface. Null:there isnodifference inthe likeabilityscore forfacesseenmore orlessoften. 2. Record the data, calculate the difference betweenscoresandrank For eachscore the differenceisworkedout,andthenall the scoresare rankedin order,andthe difference betweenthe tworanksworkedout 3. Findthe observedvalueof T The sums of the lessfrequentsignsare addedtogether 4. Compare T to the critical value,usingthe numberof participantsforthe row and0.05 For thistestthe observedvalue Thas to be lowerthanthe critical value. 5. State the conclusion As the observedvalue is…puttheactualfigure……andthe critical value is …. Put the actualfigure We mustaccept/rejectthe… alternative/nullhypothesis Therefore,we canconclude that the resultissignificant/notsignificantwhereN=….. (numberof participants) andp<0.05 fora one-tailed/two-tailed test
- Research methods – all three papers, particularly paper two
- 24 Statistical tests: T test, related (parametric) 1. State the hypothesis –itshouldsaythat there will be adifference 2. Place the rawdata in a table – two for eachparticipantforrelatedttests 3. Findthe difference betweeneachpairof scoresandput that figure ina new table 4. Calculate the total of the differences –thisfigure isknownas Ƹd 5. Add anothercolumn forthe squares of the differences –d2 6. Calculate the total of the squaresof the differences 7. Findthe calculatedvalue –itis likelythattheywillgive youthe calculatedvalue 8. Compare the calculatedvalue of t to the table of critical values 9. Report the conclusion: Example:Asthe calculatedvalue (t=1.8) islessthanthe critical value (t=1.812) it isnot significant where p<0.05, df = 10, usinga one-tailedtest. Sowe mustacceptthe null hypothesisandconclude there isno difference between………. Rememberto check that the difference goesthe right way if it is a directional hypothesis
- Research methods – all three papers, particularly paper two Statistical tests: T test, unrelated, (parametric) 1. State the hypothesis –itshouldsaythat there will be adifference 2. Place the rawdata in a table – one foreach participantforunrelatedttests 3. Findthe difference betweeneachpairof scoresandput that figure ina new table 4. Calculate the total of the differences –thisfigure isknownas Ƹd 5. Add anothercolumn forthe squares of the differences –d2 6. Calculate the total of the squaresof the differences 7. Findthe calculatedvalue –itis likelythattheywillgive youthe calculatedvalue 8. Compare the calculatedvalue of t to the table of critical values 9. Report the conclusion: Example:Asthe calculatedvalue (t=1.921) is greaterthanthe critical value (t=1.812) the resultis significantwherep<0.05,df = 10, usinga one-tailedtest.Sowe mustacceptthe alternative hypothesisandconclude there isadifference between………. Remember to check that the difference goes the right way if it is a directional hypothesis
- 26 QualitativeAnalysis Non-numerical datacannotbe analysedwithstatistics andsoothermethodsneedto be used.This will involve some sortof analysisof writtenwords(interview transcriptsforexample),pictures,TV programsor films –anythingthatdoesnot lenditself tobeingmeasuredinnumbers. Contentanalysisisaway of analysingnon-numericaldatainwhichresponses/dataare grouped togetherincategories.Itispossible toturnitintoquantitative databycountingthe occurrencesin each group. Stepsforcontentanalysis: Decide on a sample,for example advertsabout cleaningproducts Code the data usingcategories – genderof main character, action they are observeddoing Watch the adverts recordingeach occurrence ofa particular behaviour Thematicanalysisisaboutlookingforthemesindataandkeepsthe resultsdescriptiveratherthan countingoccurrences. Stepsforthematicanalysis: Watch and re-watch the video/readand re-read the transcripts Break the data down into meaningful units Assigna label or code to each unit Combine codesinto larger themes Ensure all the data is representedbythe larger themes – there shouldn’tbe responsesthat don’t fit Example: Qs 20 and 21 are based on a stem about eating behaviour, and the impact of having restricted food and water and set meal times. Participants were asked to draw pictures food. 20 What ismeantby the term contentanalysis? (1 mark) Anin-depthanalysisofqualitativedata,conductedbylookingforthemesorcategories. 21 Explainhowapsychologistmighthave usedcontentanalysistoanalyse these drawings. (3 marks) Sheshouldlookforcharacteristicsthatshewouldexpecttoseeinindividualswhowerebeingaffected byfoodrestrictions.Eachpicturecouldbeassessedbylookingforcommonitems,forexampleportion
- Research methods – all three papers, particularly paper two sizes, whether it is fat or carbohydrate based and the colours used. If there are changes to the categoriesorthemesoverthecourseofthestudythenthesecanberecognised.
- 28 Graphs Quantitative data– bar graph or histogram Correlations –scattergrams Frequency polygons –same dataas histogramsbutbetterfor comparingtwoor more setsof data Label the axis properly and give the graph a title
- Research methods – all three papers, particularly paper two Distribution In large data setsthe distributionof scoresshouldresemble acurve: Sometimesthe distributionwill be skewedbyafew extremescores Positivelyskewedmeansthata few extremehighscoresaffectthe distribution Negativelyskewedmeansthatafew extreme low scoresaffectthe distribution The mean will be in the middle Most scores will be less than two standard deviation points away from the mean
- 30 Writing about a Psychological Study Abstract The purpose of thissectionisto provide abrief andcomprehensivesummaryof the study.Itisvery importantbecause itisall that manypeople will read.Itshouldinclude abrief descriptionof the problembeinginvestigated,the methodsused,the results,andtheirimplications. It shouldbe accurate (do notinclude informationhere thatisnotinthe bodyof the manuscript), self-contained(spell outabbreviations),concise (120wordmaximum),andspecific.Beginthis sectionwiththe mostimportant informationandlimitittothe four or five mostimportantconcepts, findings,orimplicationsof the study. Introduction The main purpose of thissectionistotell the readerwhyyouperformedthe study.Inotherwords, youhave to informthe readerof the researchquestionandindicate whyitisimportant,andhow it isunique whencomparedtopreviousstudies. It starts outbroad and becomesmore andmore specific.Forexample,youmight beginbydefining any relevantterms.Thengoonto review the relevantliterature.Thengoonto make clearthe connectionbetweenpreviousresearchandthe presentwork. Include astatementof the hypothesesandthe rationale forthem. The final paragraphusuallycontainsastatementwhichclearlyandexplicitly stateswhythe study was performed,suchasThe purpose of thisstudywas to...or The presentstudywasdesignedto investigatethe... Methods The purpose of thissectionisto describe indetail how youperformedthe study.Someone shouldbe able to replicate yourstudybasedonthe informationyouprovideinthissection. Make itsoundprofessional,donotmake itsoundlike a classproject.Assume youare writingfor submissiontoascientificjournal. For an experiment,thissectionistypicallydividedintofoursubsections:subjects,apparatus,design, and procedure.The orderof designfollowedbyprocedureisarbitrary.Inotherwords,youcould have the procedure come before the design.Sometimesresearcherscombine the designand procedure sections,however,inanexperimental psychologyorresearchmethodsclass,aseparate designsectionistypicallyrequired.
- Research methods – all three papers, particularly paper two For a surveystudy(i.e.,one inwhichthe participantsare simplyaskedasetof questions),the design sectionisnotnecessary(andthe surveyitself maybe includedasanappendix). Subjects/Participants Thissectionislabelledassubjectsorparticipantsdependingonwhetheranimalsorhumansare used inthe study.If animalsare used,use the termsubjects.If humansare used, use the term participants. Indicate whoparticipatedinthe study,how many,andhow were theyselected.Withhuman subjects,be sure toaddressthe issue of informedconsent. Include anydetailswhichare relevanttothe study.For animals,includethe gender,age,strain, weight.Forhumans,include the gender,age,race/ethnicity,and,whenappropriate,the socioeconomicstatus,disabilitystatus,sexualorientation,etc.If the subjectswere human,what type of rewardor motivationwasusedtoencourage themtoparticipate? Design Describe the designandclearlyspelloutthe independentanddependentvariables.Indicate what the levelsof the independentvariableswere,andwhetherthe factor(s) wererepeated,matched,or independent.Describe how the subjectswere assignedtogroups.Describe anycontrol procedures used. Procedure - the mostlikely sectionto write inan exam Carefullysummarize each stepin the executionofthe study.Indicate what a typical test,trial, or sessioninvolved.Describe anyphases that the study had or any instructionsthat the subjects received.Whenreferringtogroups,tryto use descriptive labels.Forexample,insteadof saying Group 1 or the experimental group,youmightsaythe druggedgroup.Anothertechniqueinthis regardis to use abbreviationsthatemphasize meaning.Forexample,there were three groups, includingthe control groupwhichreceived0mg/kgof morphine (M0),a low dose groupreceiving1 mg/kgof morphine (M1),anda highdose group receiving4mg/kgof morphine (M4). Results Look carefullyatthe results.Thatis,take a good hard lookat all those numbersyoucollect.Thinkof differentwaystosummarize them,aswell astomake sense of them. The resultssectionwill include descriptive andinferential statisticsinmanycases. There will usuallybe tablesof data(lesslikelyin qualitative research) andgraphsaswell asstatementsaboutthe resultsof statistical tests –whether theywere significant.
- 32 Designing Your Own Study • An – Aim– what youare aimingtofindout /investigate • Everso – Experimental andnull hypotheses(mustbe operationalised) • Violent– Variables –IV/DV/Extraneous variablesandtheircontrol • Person– Participants,who, where from, numberandsamplingmethod –how exactly. • Doesn’t– Design– experimental andresearchmethodsdesign • Do - Procedures – whatwill the participantsdo? Exactrecipe of whatyou will do. Include howdata will be collectedandwhatdatawill be. • Enough – Ethical issuesandhow youwill deal withthem • Martial – Materialse.g.itemsandtestsandconsentforms • Arts – Analysis –whichtestwouldyouuse and why?
- Research methods – all three papers, particularly paper two Reminder:Year One Research Methods Glossary Attrition The lossof participantsfromastudyover time whichislikelytoleave abiasedsample ora sample whichistoosmall. Behaviour checklistA listof the behaviourstobe recordedduringanobservational study. Behavioural categories Dividingatargetbehaviour(suchasattachmentor sociability) intoasubset of behaviours.Thiscanbe done usingabehaviourchecklistoracodingsystem. Case study A researchmethodthatinvolvesadetailedstudyof asingle individual,institutionor event.Case studiesprovide arichrecordof humanexperience butare hardto generalise from. Closedquestions Questionsthathave arange of answersfromwhichrespondentsselectone; producesquantitativedata.Answersare easier toanalyse thanthose foropenquestions. Codingsystem A systematicmethodforrecordingobservationsinwhichindividualbehavioursare givena code forease of recording. Cohort effects One groupof participants(cohort) mayhave unique characteristics becauseof time- specificexperiencesduringtheirdevelopmentsuchasbeinga childduringthe SecondWorldWar. Thiscan affectbothcross-sectionalstudies(because one groupisnotcomparable withanother) or inlongitudinal studies(becausethe group studiedisnottypical). Confederate Anindividual inastudywhoisnot a real participantand hasbeeninstructedhow to behave bythe investigator/experimenter. ConfidentialityA participant’srighttohave personal informationprotected. Contentanalysis A kindof observational studyinwhichbehaviourisobservedindirectlyinwrittenor verbal material suchasinterviews,conversations,books,diariesorTV programmes.Behaviouris categorised(qualitative analysis) andmaybe counted(quantitative analysis). Control conditionIn a repeatedmeasuresexperiment,the conditionthatprovidesabaseline measure of behaviourwithoutthe experimentaltreatment(IV),sothatthe effectof the experimental treatmentmaybe assessed. Control group Inan independentgroupsexperiment,agroupof participantswhoreceive no treatment.Theirbehaviouractsas a baseline againstwhichthe effectof the IV maybe measured. Control referstothe extenttowhichany variable isheldconstantorregulatedbya researcher. Do I really need to know all these? It’s long . . . . YES!
- 34 ControlledobservationA form of investigationinwhichbehaviourisobservedbutundercontrolled conditions,incontrastwithanaturalisticobservation. Correlation/ correlational analysis Determiningthe extentof arelationshipbetweentwovariables CorrelationcoefficientA numberbetween –1and +1 that tellsushow closelythe co-variablesina correlational analysisare related. CounterbalancingAnexperimental technique usedtoovercome ordereffects.Counterbalancing ensuresthateachconditionistestedfirstorsecondinequal amounts. Covert observationsObservingpeople withouttheirknowledge,e.g.usingone-waymirrors; knowingthatyourbehaviourisbeingobservedislikelytoalteryourbehaviour. Cross-cultural study A kindof natural experimentinwhich the IV isdifferentcultural practicesand the DV isa behavioursuchasattachment.Thisenablesresearcherstoinvestigate the effectsof culture/socialisation. Cross-sectional studyOne group of participantsof a youngage are comparedwithanother,older groupof participants,withaviewtofindingoutthe influence of age onthe behaviourinquestion. DeceptionWhere a participantisnottoldthe true aimsof a study(e.g.whatparticipationwill involve) andthuscannot give trulyinformedconsent. Demand characteristics A cue that makesparticipantsaware of whatthe researcherexpectstofind or howparticipantsare expectedtobehave.Demandcharacteristicscanchange the outcome of a studybecause participantswilloftenchange theirbehaviourtoconformtothe expectations. Dependentvariable the resultof changesinthe IV (hopefully!),the thingthatismeasured Difference studies Studiesinwhichtwogroupsof participantsare comparedintermsof a DV (such as malesversusfemales,orextravertsversusintroverts).Thisisnota true experimentbecause the apparentIV (genderorpersonality) hasnotbeenmanipulated. Directional hypothesis statesthe directionof the predicteddifferencebetweentwoconditionsor twogroups of participants. Double blindNeitherthe participantnorthe experimenterare aware of the researchaimsand other importantdetailsandthushave noexpectations.Ina single blindstudyonlythe participantis unaware. Ecological validity The degree towhicha researchfindingcanbe generalisedtoothersettings. Effectsize A measure of the strengthof the relationshipbetweentwovariables. Ethical committee (alsocalledinstitutional reviewboard,IRB) A groupof people within aresearch institutionthatmustapprove astudybefore itbegins. Ethical guidelinesare concrete,quasi-legal documentsthathelptoguide conductwithinpsychology by establishingprinciplesforstandardpractice andcompetence.
- Research methods – all three papers, particularly paper two Event samplingAn observationaltechniqueinwhichacount iskeptof the numberof timesa certain behaviour(event) occurs. Experimental conditionIna repeatedmeasuresdesign,the conditioncontainingthe independent variable. Experimental designA setof proceduresusedtocontrol the influenceof factorssuchas participant variablesinanexperiment. Experimental group Inan independentgroupsdesign,agroupof participantswhoreceive the experimental treatment(theIV). Experimental realismThe extenttowhichparticipantsbecome involvedinanexperimentand become lessinfluencedbycuesabouthow to behave. External validityThe degree towhicha researchfindingcanbe generalisedto,forexample,other settings(ecological validity),othergroupsof people (populationvalidity) andovertime (historical validity). FieldexperimentA controlledexperimentthatisconductedoutsidealaboratory.The IV isstill manipulatedbythe experimenter,andtherefore causal relationshipscanbe demonstrated.Field experimentstendtohave lowerinternal validity(more difficulttocontrol EVs) andhigherexternal validity(greatermundane realism).Participantsare usuallyunawarethattheyare participatinginan experiment,thusreducingparticipanteffects. Hawthorne effectThe tendencyforparticipantstoaltertheirbehaviourmerelyasaresultof knowingthattheyare beingobserved. Historical validity The degree towhicha researchfindingcanbe generalisedtoovertime. HypothesisA precise andtestable statement,whichincludeshow the variableswill be measured Imposedetic A technique ortheoryisdevelopedinone culture andthenusedtostudythe behaviourof people inadifferentculture whichhasdifferentnorms,values,experiencesetc. Independentgroups Participantsare allocatedtotwo(ormore) groupsrepresentingdifferent experimental conditions.Allocationisusuallydone usingrandomtechniques. Independentvariable The thingthatis manipulatedbythe researcher,or changesnaturallyina natural study InformedconsentParticipantsmustbe givencomprehensiveinformationconcerningthe nature and purpose of the researchand theirrole init,inorder that theycan make an informeddecisionabout whethertoparticipate. Inter-interviewerreliabilityThe extenttowhichtwointerviewersproduce the same outcome from an interview.
- 36 Internal validityWhetherthe studyhastestedwhatitset outto test.;the degree towhichthe observedeffectwasdue tothe experimental manipulationratherthanotherfactorssuchas extraneousvariables. Inter-observerreliabilityThe extenttowhichthere isagreementbetweentwoormore observers involvedinobservationsof abehaviour.Thisismeasuredbycorrelatingthe observations of twoor more observers.A general rule isthatif (total numberof agreements)/(total numberof observations)>0.80, the data have highinter-observerreliability. Interval Data are measuredusingunitsof equal intervals,suchaswhencountingcorrectanswersor usingany‘public’unitof measurement.Manypsychological studiesuse plasticintervalscales where the intervalsare arbitrarilydeterminedandtherefore we can’tactuallyknow forcertainthatthere are equal intervalsbetweenthe numbers.However,forthe purposesof analysis,suchdatamaybe acceptedas interval. Interveningvariable A variable thatcomesbetweentwoothervariableswhichisusedtoexplainthe relationshipbetweenthose twovariables.Forexample if apositive correlationisfoundbetweenice cream salesandviolence thismaybe explainedbyaninterveningvariable –heat– whichcasesthe increase inice creamsalesand the increase inviolence. InterviewA researchmethodor technique thatinvolvesaface-to-face,‘real-time’interactionwith anotherindividual andresultsinthe collectionof data. InterviewerbiasThe effectof aninterviewer’sexpectations,communicatedunconsciously,ona respondent’sbehaviour. InvestigatoreffectAnythingthatthe investigator/experimenterdoeswhichhasaneffectona participant’sperformance inastudyotherthanwhat was intended.Thisincludesdirecteffects(asa consequence of the investigator/experimenterinteractingwiththe participant)andindirecteffects (as a consequence of the investigatordesigningthe study). Investigator/experimenterbias The effectthatan investigator/experimenter’sexpectationshason the participantsandthus onthe resultsof a researchstudy. Laboratory experimentAnexperimentcarriedoutina controlledsetting.Labexperimentstendto highinternal validityandlowexternalvalidity thoughthisisn’talwaystrue. Longitudinal study Observationof the same itemsoveralongperiodof time.Suchstudiesusually aimto compare the same individualsatdifferentages,inwhichcase the IV isage.A longitudinal studymightalsoobserve aschool or otherinstitutionoveralongperiodof time. Matched pairs Pairsof participantsare matchedintermsof keyvariablessuchas age and IQ. One memberof eachpair isplacedinthe experimentalgroup andthe othermemberinthe controlgroup. Mean The arithmeticaverage of a groupof scores.Takesthe valuesof all the data intoaccount. Measuresof central tendency A descriptive statisticthatprovidesinformationabouta‘typical’ response fora data set.
- Research methods – all three papers, particularly paper two Measuresof dispersionA descriptive statisticthatprovidesinformationabouthow spreadoutaset of scoresare. MedianThe middle valueinasetof scoreswhentheyare placedinrank order. Meta-analysisA researcherlooksatthe findingsfromanumberof differentstudiesinordertoreach a general conclusionaboutaparticularhypothesis. Mode The mostfrequentlyoccurringscore inadata set. Mundane realismRefersto howa studymirrorsthe real word.The simulatedtaskenvironmentis realistictothe degree towhichexperiencesencounteredinthe environmentwilloccurinthe real world. Natural experimentA researchmethodinwhichthe experimentercannot manipulate the independentvariable directly,butwhere itvariesnaturallyandthe effectcanbe observedona dependentvariable.Strictlyspeaking,anexperimentinvolvesthe deliberate manipulationof anIV by the experimenter,socausal conclusionscannotbe drawnfroma natural experiment.Inaddition, participantsare not randomly allocated toconditionsinanatural experiment,whichmayreduce validity. Naturalistic observationA researchmethodcarriedoutina naturalisticsetting,inwhichthe investigatordoesnotinterfereinanywaybut merelyobservesthe behaviour(s) inquestionthough thisislikelytoinvolve the use of structuredobservations. Negative correlationIn a correlation asone co-variable increases,the otherdecreases. Nominal.The data are inseparate categories,suchasgroupingpeople accordingtotheirfavourite football team(e.g.Liverpool,InvernessCaledonianThistle,etc.). Non-directional hypothesis predictssimplythatthere will be adifference betweentwoconditions or two groupsof participants,withoutstatingthe directionof the difference. Observationtechniques The applicationof systematicmethodsof observationinanobservational study,experimentorotherstudy. Observerbias In observationalstudies,there isthe dangerthatobserversmight‘see’whatthey expecttosee.Thisreducesthe validityof the observations. OpenquestionsQuestionsthatinvite the respondentstoprovide theirownanswersratherthan selectone of those provided.Tendtoproduce qualitativedata. Operationalisingmakingsure thatthe resultsare measurable. Opportunity sample A sample of participantsproducedbyselectingpeoplewhoare mosteasily available atthe time of the study. Order effectIna repeatedmeasuresdesign,anextraneousvariablearisingfromthe orderinwhich conditionsare presented,e.g.apractice effectorfatigue effect.
- 38 Ordinal Data are orderedinsome way,forexample askingpeopletoputa listof football teamsin orderof liking.Liverpool mightbe 1st ,followedbyInvernessandsoon.The ‘difference’between each itemisnotthe same,i.e.the individualmaylike the 1st itema lotmore than the 2nd one but there mightonlybe a small difference betweenthe itemsrankedas2nd and 3rd . Participant effects A general termusedto acknowledgethe factthatparticipantsreactto cues inan experimental situationandthatthis may affectthe validityof anyconclusionsdrawnfromthe investigation. Participant variables Characteristicsof individual participants(suchasage,intelligence,etc.) that mightinfluencethe outcome of astudy. Pilotstudy A small-scale trial of astudyrun to testanyaspectsof the design,withaview tomaking improvements. Populationvalidity The degree towhicha researchfindingcanbe generalisedtoothergroupsof people. Positive correlationIn a correlationco-variablesbothincreasetogether, Presumptive consentA methodof dealingwithlackof informedconsentordeception,byaskinga groupof people whoare similartothe participantswhethertheywouldagree totake partin a study.If thisgroup of people consenttothe proceduresinthe proposedstudy,itispresumedthat the real participantswouldagree aswell. Privacy A person’srighttocontrol the flow of informationaboutthemselves. Protectionfrom harm Duringa researchstudy,participantsshould notexperience negativephysical or psychological effects,suchasphysical injury,loweredself-esteemorembarrassment. Qualitative Data that expressesthe ‘quality’of things –descriptions,words,meanings,pictures, textsandso on. Qualitativedatacannotbe countedor quantifiedbutitcanbe turnedinto quantitative databyplacingthemincategories. Quantitative data analysis Anymeansof representingtrendsfromnumerical data,suchasmeasures of central tendency. Quantitative Data that representhowmuchorhow long,or how many,etc.there are of something; i.e.a behaviourismeasuredinnumbersorquantities. Quasi-experimentsStudiesthatare ‘almost’experimentsbutlackone or more featuresof a true experiment,suchasfull experimenter control overthe IV andrandomallocationof participantsto conditions.Thismeansthattheycannotclaimto demonstrate causal relationships. Questionnaire Data iscollectedthroughthe use of writtenquestions. Random allocation Allocatingparticipants toexperimental groupsorconditionsusingrandom techniques.
- Research methods – all three papers, particularly paper two Random sample A sample of participantsproducedbyusinga randomtechnique suchthatevery memberof the targetpopulationbeingtestedhasanequal chance of beingselected. Random techniquesAnytechnique inwhichthere isnosystematicattempttoinfluence the selectionordistributionof the items. Range The difference betweenthe highestandlowestscore ina data set. ReliabilityA measure of consistencybothwithinasetof scoresor items(internal reliability) andalso overtime suchthat it ispossible toobtainthe same resultsonsubsequentoccasionswhenthe measure isused(externalreliability).The reliabilityof anexperimentcanbe determinedthrough replication. Repeatedmeasures Each participanttakespart ineveryconditionundertest. Right to withdraw Participantsshouldhave the righttowithdraw fromparticipatinginastudyif theyare uncomfortable inanyway,andshouldalsohave the rightto refuse permissionforthe researchertouse any data theyproduced. Role play A controlledobservationinwhichparticipantsare askedtoimagine how theywould behave incertainsituations,andactoutthe part. Thismethodhasthe advantage of permittingone to studycertainbehavioursthatmightbe unethical ordifficulttofindinthe real world. SamplingThe processof takinga sample whichisintendedtoarepresentative selectionof atarget population. Scattergram A graphical representationof the relationship(i.e.the correlation) betweentwosetsof scores. Significance A statistical termindicatingthatthe researchfindingsare sufficientlystrongforusto accept the researchhypothesisundertest. Single blindA type of researchdesigninwhichthe participantisnotaware of the researchaimsor of whichconditionof the experimenttheyare receiving. Situational variables Factorsin the environmentthatcouldaffectthe dependentvariable suchas noise,time of dayandalso the behaviourof aninvestigator. Social desirabilitybias A tendencyforrespondentstoanswerquestionsinsuchaway that presents themina betterlight. Standard deviationshowsthe amountof variationina data set.It assessesthe spreadof data aroundthe mean. Stratifiedsample Groups of participantsare selectedaccordingtotheirfrequencyinthe population inorder to obtaina representative sample.Groupsorstrata are selectedfromthe targetpopulation that needtobe representedandthenindividualssampledfromthe strata.If thisfinal sample isdone usinga randomtechnique itisa stratifiedsampleotherwiseitisa quotasample.
- 40 Structured (systematic) observations Anobserverusesvarious‘systems’toorganise observations, such as behavioural categories andsamplingprocedures. Structured interviewAnyinterviewinwhichthe questionsare decidedinadvance. Systematic sample A methodof obtainingarepresentativesample byselectingevery5thor10t th person.Thiscan be a randomsample if the firstpersonisselectedusingarandommethod;thenyou selectevery5th or 10th personafterthis. Target population The group of people thatthe researcherisinterestedin.The groupof people fromwhoma sample isdrawn.The groupof people aboutwhomgeneralisationscanbe made. Time samplingAnobservational techniqueinwhichthe observerrecordsbehavioursinagiventime frame,e.g.notingwhata target individual isdoingevery30seconds.You mayselectone or more categoriesfroma checklist. UnstructuredinterviewThe interview startsoutwithsome general aimsandpossiblysome questions,andletsthe interviewee’sanswersguide subsequentquestions. Unstructuredobservations An observerrecordsall relevantbehaviourbuthasno system.This technique maybe chosenbecause the behaviourtobe studiedislargelyunpredictable. VolunteerbiasA formof samplingbiasbecause volunteerparticipantsare usuallymore highly motivatedthanrandomlyselectedparticipants. Volunteersample A sample of participantsproducedbya samplingtechnique thatreliessolelyon volunteerstomake upthe sample. Oftenrecruitedbyanadvertisementinarelevantplace. Zero correlationIn a correlationthe co-variablesare notlinkedatall.
- Research methods – all three papers, particularly paper two You may have to designsomething –informedconsent,debrief,examplesfromaquestionnaire 22 The psychologist needed to be able to make sure that his participants understood the nature of the study so that they could give fully informed consent. Write a consent form for this study. Make sure there is sufficient information about the study for the participants to make an informed decision. (5 marks) During this study, the aim is to investigate the effect of a restricted diet upon psychological functioning,particularly foodperception. Ifyouagree topartakeinthestudy,youwillspendfourweeksataresearchunitwith19 otherparticipants.Youwillbe keptincomfort,allowedtosocialise,watchtvetc.butyouwill onlybeallowedtoeatatmealtimes.Youwillbegivenonlywatertodrinkandplainfood. Over the course of the study, we will carry out tests of emotional and cognitive functioning.Atthe endofeachweekyouwillbe askedtodrawapicture offoodwhichwillbe usedtoassessyourperceptionoffood. All information we acquire about you over the course of the research will remain confidentialandwewillnotuseyourrealnameinanypublication. It is NOT compulsory for you to participate. If you don’t wish to, simply return this form. You can also withdraw at any point during the study by notifying one of the research assistantsthatyouwishtoleave,and there doesnothavetobeareasongiven.Ifyouconsentto participate,pleasesignbelow.Doyouhaveanyquestions? Always include a check of understanding – it’s worth a mark
- 42 Other things worth a mark: Titles on graphs – easily forgotten and will drop a mark If you are writing the same thing twice one of them is wrong RTFQ Some sample answers: Qs 23 and 24 are based on the following stem: 23 State whetherthe hypothesisforthisstudywasdirectionalornon- directional (1mark) Directional
- Research methods – all three papers, particularly paper two 24 UsingTable 1, state whetherthe psychologist’sresultwassignificant.Explainyouranswer. (3 marks) Itwassignificant.Becausehehad20PPs, andasignificancelevelof5%, thecriticalvalueis60.HisT- valuemustbelessthanorequalto60and,at53,itislesssoitissignificant.Thismeansthatwecanreject thenullhypothesisandacceptthealternativehypothesis. 26 Usingthe data inTable,explainwhythe psychologistisconcernedaboutinter-raterreliability. (4 marks) Therearealotofdifferencesbetweentheratingsgivenbythetwoobserversforthesametimeslots. Inter-raterreliabilityisthedegreetowhicharatingsystemproducesreplicableresultswhenusedby differentratersforthesamesubject.Theobserversmusthavehaddifferentideasofwhatconstituted ‘verbalaggression’astheydisagreeineveryslot.Forexample 27 Identifyanappropriate statistical testtocheckthe inter-raterreliabilityof these twoobservers. Explainwhythisisa suitable test. (3 marks) TheyshouldusePearson’sr.Thedataisintervalandatestofcorrelationisrequired. 28 If the psychologistdoesfindlowreliability,whatcouldshe doto improve inter-raterreliability before proceedingwith the observational research? (4 marks) She could give the two observers training to try and make them aware of what counts as verbally aggressive behaviour. She could also clarify the scoring system to help observers determine if a behaviour should be counted or not. Having a behaviour checklist with well-defined behaviours
- 44 would help. She could run a pilot study using the checklist to ensure that both observers have had practisewiththechecklist,andtocheckthattheyhaveareliabilitylevelof0.8orhigherbeforerunning themainstudy.

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