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  1. 1. GCSE Psychology: Module Two (8) Sex and Gender ©© amac edu 2011amac edu 2011
  2. 2. Sex & Gender  Define sex & Gender.  Biological Factors In sex differences  Social learning Theory & Gender Roles  Psychoanalytical Theory and Gender Roles.  Cognitive Development & Gender roles  Cultural Differences in gender roles.
  3. 3. Definition: SEX* and Gender are quite different concepts, have a go at defining them:
  4. 4. Sex & Gender Terms • Sex – the biological fact of being male or female, eg. chromosomal sex (XX or XY), gonads (the possession of ovaries or testes), genital sex (possession of a vagina or penis) and hormones. • Gender – the social, psychological, behavioural and cultural aspects of being femalefemale or malemale (i.e. femininity and masculinity).
  5. 5.  Gender identity –how people feel, think and talk about themselves; the psychological aspects of gender.  Gender role – Acting in a gender appropriate way, according to their biological sex.  Gender Stereotype – Applying gender roles as a generality (eg. Nurses are Female etc)
  6. 6. How is a baby sexed at birth? FACT: An estimated one in 2,000 babies are born with ambiguous external genitalia (Intersexers) Intersexer
  7. 7. Human Protogyny and The Batista Family (Imperato-McGinley, 1974)  Some children from the same family (in the Dominican Republic) are born with normal female genitals and act like normal little girls.  However, at about 12 years old they start to develop male genitals and other male features; so as post-pubic adults they are male and act and feel like ‘normal’ reproductive males.  The cause is hereditary (hormone: 5 H-R) and within their family lineage there are many similar cases. Protogyny : organisms that are born female and at some point in their lifespan change sex to male. (PRO-TODGE- INNY)
  8. 8. Q) Is the Male / Female ‘Gender Model’ Universal? A) No For example: Native American, Mohave Indians (descended from Aztecs & Incas) traditionally have FOUR genders. Male, Female and Two- Spiriters (male and female mixed with one gender being dominant "berdache" ) North American Indians’ ceremonial dance to celebrate the two-spirit person
  9. 9. Genetics… the big picture Each human cell has a Nucleus. In the Nucleus are 23 pairs of Chromosomes. The Chromosomes are created by the Gene Sequence (DNA) as inherited from our biological parents (50%-50%) and determine our physical characteristics
  10. 10. Some biology: Karyotyping (Chromosomes) and sex/gender  In simple terms, a Human has 23 pairs of Chromosomes (inside the nucleus of each cell). The last pair (as shown) Differ: male/female. The male is a mutation of the female with a bit missing!
  11. 11. Sex typing chromosomal abnormalities A. Turner syndrome (X -) B. Klinefelter's syndrome (XXY) C. ‘Super-Man’ (XYY chromo) and ‘Super-Woman’ (XXX or Triple X chromo). If interested ‘Google it’ D. (- X)On the 23rd pair If the 1st chromosome determines the prototypical human body (Asexual ‘blue print’) & the 2nd chromosomes determines which sex (by hormonal action). What affect might each of the above have?
  12. 12.  Turner syndrome (X -) is a chromosomal disorder in which all (or most) of the second one of the 23rd pair is absent. Occurring in 1 out of every 2500 girls, the syndrome manifests itself in a number of ways. There are characteristic physical abnormalities (a/b/c) and gonadal under development (asexuality) with subsequent amenorrhea and infertility. All humans start female and need the 2nd Chromo to develop sexually
  13. 13.  Klinefelter's syndrome,XXY is a condition in which males have at least two X chromosomes and at least one Y chromosome.. The condition exists in roughly 1 out of every 500 males.  The principal effects are development of small testicles and reduced fertility. A variety of other physical and behavioral differences and problems are common In both cases afflicted people feel socially abnormal, therefore it could be argued that the 2nd chromo of the 23rd pair determines our sex and gender. A basic maleA basic male phenotypephenotype modified withmodified with minor femaleminor female characteristicscharacteristics
  14. 14. Nature Vs Nurture “Sex is fixed at birth and gender identity/roles are learned/acquired according to the determination of one’s biological sex” TRUE or FALSE (discuss)?
  15. 15. Social learning Theory & The Development of Gender Roles.  Observation- Children notice everything!!!!!!!!!! and imitate it. Bandura, SLT and the BoBo Doll:
  16. 16. Similar to Behaviourism (NB. a development of….)  Behaviourism you learn from what happens to you (1st Person)  SLT you learn from what happens to others (3rd Person)  Therefore SLT, you learn by copying (or not copying) other models
  17. 17. Models..anyone who is observed.  Similar:-same sex and frequency of behaviour.  Powerful/Caring:- Parents, teachers.  Reinforced:- If gaining pleasure will reinforce the behaviour.(Also known as vicarious reinforcement: seeing someone else rewarded and learn from it)
  18. 18. Process and Research Observe Model Imitate Model Internalise (Believe) Perry & Bussy (79) Aim: Young children (M/F) imitate same sex models Method: Films of role models (M/F) doing unfamiliar activities Results: Boys followed M and Girls followed F role models. If both M & F role models did same then both Boys & Girls copied Conclusion/Evaluate Explain results in terms of SLT (does it support? And what about the ambiguous condition) + Evaluate (method/culture)
  19. 19. Media, Gender and SLT From a very young age children are exposed to gender stereotypes… how much affect does it have?
  20. 20. Research Williams (86) Aim: The effect of TV on gender development Method: Canada, towns getting TV for first time. Measured gender attitudes before and two years later amongst young children (different children/same age) Result: Once children are exposed to TV they display greater gender stereotyped attitudes and behaviours Conclusion: TV has a direct effect on gender development (observe and imitate)
  21. 21. Evaluation of Social Learning Theory.  Gender differences occur due to societal reinforcement of gender appropriate behaviours.  However: does not explain:  Gender preference for toys  Children reared in single parent or homosexual families  Children persist in unwanted behaviours.  How brothers or sisters can be very different (biological?)
  22. 22. Freud & Gender Development (Psychodynamic Theory) Freud & Gender Development (Psychodynamic Theory)
  23. 23. Basic Assumption “We are a product of our early childhood experiences”
  24. 24. Personality comprises three parts (Freudian Tripartite Theory): Id – Ego – Super-Ego Instincts/Drives Our Consciousness Morals & Experience (Pain/Pleasure Principal) (Reality Principal) (Ego Ideal) YOUINNATE LEARNED ID EGO SUPER-EGO Sex Starved Monkey > Shy Bank Clerk < Maiden Aunt
  25. 25. Psychosexual Stages: Anal 18-36 mths The anus – withholding or expelling faeces Latent 6 yrs to puberty Little or no sexual motivation present Genital Puberty and beyond The penis or vagina – sexual intercourse Oral 0-18 mths The mouth – sucking, swallowing etc. EGO develops Phallic 3-6 yrs The penis or clitoris - masturbation SUPEREGO develops + Gender FOCUSSTAGE Development of ‘self’
  26. 26. Psychoanalytical theory & Gender Roles.  Male  Oedipus Complex.  Female  Electra complex BOTH OCCUR IN THE PHALLIC STAGE (PSD)
  27. 27. What do we think of Freud????  Should have poorly developed gender identity if in single sex family…..not the case.  Children younger than 4 aware of gender roles and toys, how could Freud have explained this?
  28. 28. Research…….  Little Hans: Freud (1909) p123 Supports the Oedipus Complex (see hand-out)  Gender Disturbance (Learned): Rekers & Moray (1990) p124 Boys not exposed to a father figure before 6 yrs old are more likely to have a disturbed gender than boys who do
  29. 29. Cognitive Development Kohlberg (1966) Kohlberg said that once a child understands that sex does not change (constancy), it has achieved gender identity. This develops in three stages.
  30. 30. Stage 1 - Gender labeling (up to 3 years old)  By about 18 months of age the child knows what label it is and by the age of two and a half it can label other children and adults.  However, the child does not realise: we stay the same sex throughout life ‘It is interesting to ask a child under 3 yrs old what sex it will be when it grows up’
  31. 31. Stage 2 Gender stability (3 to 5 years old)  Gender stability is achieved when the child understands that one’s sex remains unchanged throughout life.  But they can be deceived by appearance e.g. saying that a man wearing a dress would be a woman. Over-generalisation as they learn gender roles?
  32. 32. Stage 3 Gender constancy (from 6 years old onwards)  When a child understands that gender remains constant in other people despite changes in appearance they have achieved gender constancy.  Kohlberg said that when a child has a full understanding of its gender, it ‘models’ from observation of peers. Children if given the choice play/socialise with there own sex up to puberty (gender learning)
  33. 33. A full understanding of its gender… what does this mean?  Biology determines which colour lenses the developing child will start to see itself…. … and the environment reinforces what they see … and the environment reinforces what they see
  34. 34. Evaluation of Cog-Dev Explanation.  Is evidence to suggest after 6 yrs old, children pay more attention to same sex role models XX Does not account for why a child becomes aware of gender roles at younger age.
  35. 35. Research  Martin (1989) p131 Older children (+6 yrs old) are more flexible about gender than young children  Levy and Carter (1989) p132 When a child understands M & F, it then makes gender appropriate choices (eg. toys)
  36. 36. Cultural differences. M.Meade (1935)  Compared different cultures as useful way of generalising about findings.  3 tribes in New Guinea big differences in behaviour expectations of males and females.  Differences are cultural not biological, however males were more aggressive than females.