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  1. 1. Social Explanations of Aggression Aggression is an example of an antisocial behaviour. Theories have been proposed to explain this behaviour in terms of innate and learned factors (nature vs. nurture). Our first few lessons will focus on nurture: the explanations for aggression as a result of social interactions. But don't forget - there are many biological explanations, which provide an evaluation to the social ones. Social learning theory This states that aggression is learned through r____________ of direct experiences and i_________ of aggressive models, such as parents, peers or even TV/film characters. Aggressive behaviours may not be imitated simply because they have been learned vicarious reinforcement is required.Vicarious reinforcement is_________________________________________________________________________________________________. Support for this comes from studies using large, inflatable "______ dolls": Bandura (1961) conducted an experiment which involved_________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Children were more likely to behave aggressively towards the doll if they had observed an adult hitting and throwing the doll. Bandura and Walters (1965) conducted a further study to research the idea of vicarious reinforcement. They found that children, who witnessed the model being punished for aggressive behavior, were much less likely to imitate the behaviour than children who saw the model get no punishment. This suggested children learned about the likely consequences of their actions adjusted their behavior accordingly. IDA and SLT: For: Against: ____________________________ Ignores biological factors, such as genetic and hormonal influences. _______________________________ Explains influence of TV and film on the behaviour of children. _____________________________ Bandura's experiments only included children, which raises ethical considerations as exposing children to potentially harming stimuli would now go against ethical guidelines. Therefore it is hard to research SLT and thus hard to establish credibility of the explanation.
  2. 2. The Theory of Deindividuation