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  1. 1. Edexcel GCSE 9-1 Psychology Topic 11 Research Methods Representing and interpreting data (pp. 156-160) Learning objectives: 1) To learn the characteristics of normal distributions. 2) To learn how to construct and interpret tables, diagrams, charts and graphs. 3) To learn how to identify a correlation between two variables. 4) To learn how to translate information between graphical and numerical forms, plot variables and interpret graphs. Task 1: Complete the following key term definitions. Try to write them in your own words. Normal distribution Skewed distribution Frequency scores Frequency table Tally Frequency diagram/histogram Bell curve Task 2: Answer the following questions: 1) When do we find a normal distribution? 2) If the mean, median and mode are not similar, what type of distribution is produced?
  2. 2. 3) Look at the following frequency table. Number of colours correctly picked out Tally Frequency 0 0 1 0 2 II 2 3 I 1 4 IIII 4 5 III 3 6 IIIIIII 7 7 IIII 4 8 IIII 4 9 III 3 10 I 1 Table 11.7 Frequency table for the number of times colours were identified correctly a) Calculate the mean, median and mode for the above frequency table. b) Draw a frequency diagram or histogram for this data. Label both axes and give it a title! Bar charts Task 3: Complete the following key term definitions. Try to write them in your own words. Bar chart/graph x-asis y-axis 21 participants were asked to describe 10 colours presented on a sheet. They were given another sheet showing many more colours, including the original 10. They were asked to pick out the 10 colours they had described. This table shows how often a particular score was found in a set of numbers (frequency) as well as the tally of how many times that score occurs.
  3. 3. Task 4: Answer the following questions: 1) What do we mean by discrete data? 2) Draw a bar chart for the following data: The mean time taken in minutes to complete a jigsaw puzzle was 12 minutes for males and 8 minutes for females. Label both axes and label the bar chart. 3) Complete the following chart to show the difference between histograms and bar charts. Histogram Bar chart Bars show… Bars show… Uses continuous scores… Uses numbers… No spaces between bars Spaces between bars Bars can show distribution Bars show separate categories/things/summary scores Scatter diagrams and correlations Task 5: Complete the following key term definitions. Try to write them in your own words. Scatter diagram Line of best fit
  4. 4. Task 6: Draw a scatter diagram for the following set of data. Label both axes and label your scatter diagram. Participant Prejudice score ( /20) Rank of Prejudice score ( /20) Contact with/knowledge of schizophrenia ( /20) Rank of Contact with/knowledge of schizophrenia ( /20) 1 6 1 16 2 20 10 1 3 9 3 2 4 15 7 5 5 8 2 14 6 13 6 10 7 19 9 0 8 17 8 7 9 11 4 4 10 12 5 18 Instructions: a) Rank each set of data separately – start with the smallest number = rank 1 The first set of data has been ranked for you – rank the contact with/knowledge of schizophrenia ( /20) data set. b) Now, you need to do an estimation of results and scatter diagram. Label both axes and label the bar chart. c) Add a line of best fit to your scatter diagram.
  5. 5. Plotting variables and interpreting graphs Task 7: Isabella carried out a study on 10 people to see whether the amount of stress they said they were under related to how often they had visited their doctor in the last 12 months. She thought the more stress they admitted to, the more often they would have visited their doctor. Her data are shown in the table below. Participant Rating of stress out of 10 Rank: Stress rating Number of Dr visits Rank: Dr visits 1 3 3 2 10 9 3 2 0 4 6 1 5 8 5 a) Draw a scatter diagram to show whether stress levels relate to number of doctor visits. b) Explain whether the scatter diagram shows Isabella found a relationship in her data, and if so, was it positive or negative. c) Do her findings seem to support her aim? Explain your answer.