2. Område Effekt-
Level differentiation 0,12 No effect
Baseschools/Open schools 0,01 No effect
Agemixture 0,04 No effect
Reduced class size 0,21 Little effect
The teacher's feedback to the
The teacher's clarity and structure 0,71 Significant
A positive and supportive relationship
between students and teacher
Cognitive strategies; dialogue,
questions, preparation, repetition,
3. KEY PRINCIPLES INTHE ASSESSMENT-
1. Students shall understand what to learn and what is
expected of them (clear goals and criteria)
2. Students shall be involved in their own
learningprocess by assessing their own work and own
3. Students shall receive feedback telling them about the
quality of the work or the performance
4. Students shall be advised on how they can improve
4. Formative assessment or “assessment for learning” has gained increasing prominence in
both policy and practice in Norway. A statutory requirement has been introduced for
schools to implement formative assessment and the Directorate has created a website
with tools and materials to support teachers in fulfilling this requirement. Formative
assessment has also been identified as a priority for professional learning and the
Directorate has launched a four-year Assessment for Learning programme. Norway’s long-
standing tradition of teacher-based assessment provides a good basis for a stronger focus
on formative assessment. However, there is a risk that the national focus on formative
assessment is being accepted by teachers as just another name for what they already do.
Assessment for learning requires a major shift in mindset for teachers, as well as changes
in assessment practices (OECD Reviews of Evaluation and Assessment in Education: Norway
Assessment is considered as formative only if it actually shapes
subsequent teaching and learning, i.e. if teachers use the
assessment to identify misunderstandings, misconceptions or
missing elements of student learning, provide detailed
feedback, and change teaching practices.
5. A PARADIGM SHIFT?
• Assessment as control
• Assesment after teaching
• Monological teaching/ assessment
• Teacher's perspective on the work
• Mapping after the teaching process
• Criteria defined outside the
• Focus on error identification
• Fokus on product
Assessment as learningsupport
• Assesment during teaching
• Dialogic teaching/ assessment
Teacher's/students perspective on the work
Mapping during the teaching process
Criteria defined inside the classroom
Focus on progress
Fokus on process
Short (and pointed) implies AFL:
6. Assessment of learning: The teacher as judge: judges whereby the
student is over the list in an acceptable way? Feed-back.
Assessment for learning : The teacher who exercises:Teacher and
student discusses what the student should do to get over the list. Feed-
Assessment as learning :Teacher as a coach:Teacher and student
discuss:Why does the student think she comes as high as she does?
Where does the student want to have the list. Feed-up.
7. KEY PRINCIPLES INTHE ASSESSMENT-
1.Students shall understand
what to learn and what is
expected of them (clear
goals and criteria)
8. CLEAR GOALS AND CRITERIA
…pupils can assess themselves only when they
have a sufficiently clear picture of the targets that
their learning is meant to attain. Surprisingly, and
sadly, many pupils do not have such a picture, and
they appear to have become accustomed to
receiving classroom teaching as an arbitrary
sequence of exercises with no overarching rationale.
(Black andWiliam, 1998:6)
9. WILL GOALS AND CRITERIA BE SCAFFOLDED IN
THE STUDENTS' LEARNING?
Guiding characteristics of goal achievement in social studies - 10th stage
Grade 2 (E-D) Grade 3-4 (C) Grade 5-6 (B-A)
• reproduces parts of relevant
content in presentations
uses some vocabulary and
some subject knowledge
and can show simple
reproduces relevant content
uses vocabulary, subject
knowledge and examples in
relevant contexts ...
reproduces relevant and
central content in
uses and explains subject
concepts and models and
problematizes and develops
with examples ...
Parlament Report 28 (2015-2016) recommends that characteristics be drawn up for all subjects with final
assessment in elementary school and the comprehensive subjects in upper secondary education (p. 61).
10. WHAT IS STRUCTURE?
Vibe et al (2009)
• to explain learning goals in a clear way;
• to review the homework with the students;
• At the start of the hour give a quick summary of the previous one;
• to use questions and check whether the academic content is understood.
Skaalvik og Skaalvik (1996):The student knows:
• What is the goal.
• What to do.
• When he shall do it.
• How the task should be done.
• What is needed for a good job.
Are the criteria
Are they a scaffold
for their work?
11. KEY PRINCIPLES INTHE ASSESSMENT-
Students shall be involved in
their own learning process by
assessing their own work and
The long: What is the most important student
to learn in the subject, eg: student / parenting,
half-yearly assessment, presentation skills in
the subject, rather than detailed goals;
The middle-long: What should the student
learn in this particular topic.
The short; after the individual hour / session.
DylanWilliam (2008):This assessment has the
greatest impact on learning.
13. THE SHORT
• The answers were longer.
• The number of spontaneous, relevant answers became more.
• Fewer students fail.
• The thinking became more speculative.
• The pupils listened more to each other.
• The endings were better substantiated.
• The number of questions from the students increased.
• The number of questions from the teacher was reduced.
• The silent students participated more, and the teachers' expectations for these were changed.
• The teachers' questionnaire became more varied.
Average responsetime from teacher asks
questions for expected response: 1. 1 second
(Arneberg 2008):Teachers were asked to
increase this to 3 seconds.
Do you get enough time to
Think through your answers?
Do you really experience the teacher?
listening to what you say
(lowest in the entire OECD area)
14. Rich Questions (Plummer 1999)
• challenge students on key concepts;
are easy to understand so that everyone seizes the purpose
of them instantly;
are closely related to the content in which they are taught;
They have more possible answers.
Imagine that the man in the moon lands in a vikingvillage in
the year 990. How do you think he will describe it?
Imagine that a carpenter creates 3-legged stools and 4-legged
tables. One day, the carpenter had used 33 bones. How many
chairs and tables can he have made? (Education Directorate,
How would you like to use ...?
What other examples can you
What is wrong with this
What is the same and different
What information do you need to
resolve this issue?
Mr. D allows students to work individually with a problemsolving task before they are
asked to share their results with the rest of the class. Mr. R allowed them to work for
a long time in small groups before sharing their answers with the others.The
conclusion was that in Mr. D's class there were few students who volunteered and
not so many who remembered the solution when the hour was over.Voluntary
participation was far greater in the second class in which the discussion followed,
also reflected that students were actively involved in problem solving.They thought
more strategically (Kelly &Turner 2009, p. 264).
15. DET KORTETIDSSPENNET –
Two things I've
learned this lesson:
One thing I wonder:
Now we have worked with vikings for two lessons.Try
to write down two important things you’ve learned.
Try also to formulate one question.
What characterizes the vikingage?
Approved by________________(signature teacher)
16. KEY PRINCIPLES INTHE ASSESSMENT-
1.Students shall receive feedback
telling them about the quality of the
work or the performance
2.Students shall be advised on how
they can improve
17. Two Stars and a Wish
Task: English filmreport
Date: 12.mai 2017
I have described the intrigue quite well
I manage to express my own opinion
I like how the director show us the life in a Indian family ho laives in
London on of the girls are very good in football He-he may use
dictionary and rulebook a lot better.
Two Stars and a Wish
Task: English filmreport
Date: 12.mai 2017
I think you've built your review well. The message is well presented.
I like that you are self-sufficient in the text. A review is a subjective perception of
an artistic work and you have really taken that point
I wish you had worked more with the rules. For example, you can mark the words
you are in doubt about and check them in the dictionary before delivering.
Another idea is that we make a checklist of things you should look over / work
with that will support you the next time? What do you think will work?
Student own comments
Two Stars and a Wish
18. FEEDBACK IS MOST EFFECTIVEWHEN …
Is clearly linked to learning outcomes;
focuses on the task - not the student himself;
gives a hint of how the student himself can seal the leap between achievement and goals;
challenges, requires action and is understandable;
is adapted to the student's prerequisites.
Low self-esteem: a more explanatory, advisory feedback
High self-esteem : More Querying: (Shute 2008).
is precise:Teachers often tend to comment too much (Dysthe 2008)
Low self-esteem : Important to focus attention on few things that are consistently followed up
Have you read with pen in hand?
After reading a section, note the three most important things you remember