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Presentation about controlled vocabularies at RKD at the Heritage Thesauri Course in Najéra, Spain, 18-20 november 2015.

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  1. 1. Heritage Vocabularies by RKD RKDartists Iconclass and The Dutch Art and Architecture Thesaurus® Reem Weda, MA. Information specialist terminologies Heritage Thesauri Course, Nájera, Spain, 18-11-2015
  2. 2. Content  Introduction  The RKD  RKD vocabularies  RKDArtists  Iconclass  Dutch Art & Architecture thesaurus  The Getty Vocabularies in LOD  Discussion
  3. 3. RKD, Netherlands Institute for Art History, The Hague
  4. 4. RKD Collections • Art documentation • Library • Archives • Datasets ( web portal RKDexplore) • Vocabularies: RKDartists, Iconclass and Dutch AAT
  5. 5. Controlled Vocabularies RKD RKDartists: biographic info 250.000 persons related to the arts Iconclass: 28.000 classifications for art subjects Dutch AAT: 36.000 generic concepts for heritage collections
  6. 6. RKD in the ‘cloud’
  7. 7. RKDexplore www.rkd.nl
  8. 8. Why still the need for thesauri vocabs? Identify Synonyms • ‘salinity’ and ‘saltiness’ • ‘VHS’ and ‘Very High Frequency’ Identify Homonyms  Mercury (planet)  Mercury (metal)  Mercury (automobile)  Mercury (mythical being)
  9. 9. For describing and cataloging cultural objects • More effective exploration and use of collections • People find more of what they want and what they need • Standardised cataloging is the key to better acces to collections; it helps people to understand and use other collections that are working the same way. Vocabularies neccesary : 1. For translation 2. For consistency 3. For indication of relationships 4. For labeling and browsing 5. Information retrieval
  10. 10. Las señoritas de Avignon (five female nudes) 1907 MOMA, Public Domain US and Netherlands, but not in France and Spain? Subjects human figures • females • nudes • brothel • prostitution • fruit • tribal art • African mask • Iberian art • Avignon (Provence, France) Style :Cubist
  11. 11. Bust of Jacobvan Reygersberg (1625 - 1675) Image from Getty's Open Content Program. Materials and Techniques: marble with extensive drillwork Material: • marble Technique • carving • drillwork
  12. 12. CCO principles (2 out of 10) • Use controlled vocabularies • Create local authorities that are populated with terminology from standard published controlled vocabularies as well as with local terms and names. NB: RKD does this, but we don’t follow the CCO standard. ‘It’s difficult to get institutions to adapt standards’ ‘In the 21th century we must think beyond cataloging just for our own institutions’
  13. 13. RDK artists
  14. 14. Rembrandts artist record https://rkd.nl/en/explore/artists/66219
  15. 15. Artists Open Search web service New web service for application developers e.g. collection management systems, websites and apps Based on: Encoded Archival Context for Corporate Bodies, Persons, and Families (EAC-CPF) Search methods on a limited set of elements from RKDartists. Usage: authorithy file
  16. 16. Artists Open Search Search on Paulus Potter (1625-1654) https://rkd.nl/nl/opensearch-eac-cpf?q=part_name:(Potter,%20Paulus)
  17. 17. Artists Open Search EAC-CPF data on Paulus Potter (1625-1654)
  18. 18. Wikipedia Authority control
  19. 19. • subject-specific classification system (iconographic) • Alfa-numerical codes with text correlates • Hierarchically ordered • Alphabetical Index • Bibliography (not online) • Multilingual (English, German, French, Italian ,Finnish and Portuguese, Spanish translation is being worked on by DIBAM (Chile). • Internationally used/free to use. • Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI) and LOD
  20. 20. Main divisions: 0 Abstract, Non-representational Art 1 Religion and Magic 2 Nature 3 Human being, Man in general 4 Society, Civilization, Culture 5 Abstract Ideas and Concepts 6 History 7 Bible 8 Literature 9 Classical Mythology and Ancient History
  21. 21. Iconclass browser
  22. 22. Iconclass: Bible 71D12 Joseph sold into slavery and taken to Egypt (Genesis 37:12-35)
  23. 23. Iconclass subjects to index documents by themes, motifs, stories, situations, activities, gestures, events, ideas, messages, miracles. For instance: 31B6222 holding one's nose closed 33A11 baring the head, lifting one's hat 31B52 drunkenness 56F2 (personifications and symbolic representations of) Love; 'Amore (secondo Seneca)' (Ripa)
  24. 24. The Art & Architecture Thesaurus
  25. 25. AAT: Art & Architecture Thesaurus ULAN: Union List of Artists Names TGN: Thesaurus of Geographic Names CONA: Cultural Object Name Authority Getty vocabularies They are all constructed as thesauri
  26. 26.  Developed since 1980  43.000 concepts, and 255.000 terms  Generic concepts for describing objects and images  No names of persons and unique events  ‘Cathedal’ yes, but not ‘Chartres cathedral’ (CONA)  Strict editorial control, validation by sources  Thesaurus construction follows ISO standard  Multi-linguality  international (even global) scope
  27. 27. CONA: Eiffel tower ID: 700000116 Record Type: Built Work Titles: Eiffel Tower (preferred,C,U,English-P,U,U) Tour Eiffel (C,U,French,U,U) Three-Hundred-Metre Tower (H,U,undetermined,U,U) Work Types: watchtower [300134522] (preferred) (AAT) Creator Display: architect Eiffel, Gustave (French architect and engineer, 1832-1923) [500000800] (ULAN) Locations: Paris [7008038] V (TGN) Display Materials: structural iron [300011010] (AAT) wrought iron (iron alloy) [300011012] (AAT) exposed frame construction [300310589] (AAT)
  28. 28. Structure of the AAT  AAT is organized for general use FAQ: why aren't terms organised like I expect them to be. Why aren’t communion cups and chalices narrower terms to church plate? Broader term: drinking vessels Broader term: liturgical vessels  The AAT's organization stresses function and form over the context in which an object is used  The AAT links concepts to an alternate parent using polyhierarchical relationships Communion cups
  29. 29. Definition of ‘thesaurus’ • A semantic network of unique concepts • Thesauri may be monolingual or multilingual • Thesauri may have the following three relationships: • Equivalence Relationships • Hierarchical Relationships • Associative Relationships ISO 25964 – the international standard for thesauri and interoperability with other vocabularies
  30. 30. Thesaurus relations The Equivalence Relationship
  31. 31. Hierarchy leading to ‘hacienda’ Hierarchical Position: Objects Facet .... Built Environment (hierarchy name) (G) ........ Built Complexes and Districts (hierarchy name) (G) ............ complexes (buildings) (G) ................ <complexes by function> (G) .................... agricultural complexes (G) ........................ haciendas (G) Note: Large Spanish landed estates common to 17th century Seville used as farms, or ranches. Also applies to Spanish-American estates and the main building of such a complex.
  32. 32. Thesaurus relations: Associative Relationship Example for "watercolors" paintings Relationship Type: 2212 produced by Related Concept: watercolor brushes (<artists' brushes by function>, artists' brushes, ... Furnishings and Equipment) Relationship Type: 2501 made of/require Related Concept: watercolor (water-base paint, <paint by composition or origin>, ... Materials) Relationship Type: 2325 created by Related Concept: watercolorists (<painters by technique, implement, or material employed>, implement, ... People)
  33. 33. OBJECTS MATERIALS AGENTS Associated concepts STYLES and PERIODS PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES ACTIVITIES copper alloy, bronze knowledge, satire Asian, Medieval sketching, painting Proofs (prints by function) mirrors armors 7 facets green, acid-free sculptors, musicians
  34. 34. Dutch AAT translation
  35. 35. Dutch AAT translation • RKD handles translation of Getty AAT • We have translated 36.0000 of the now 43.000 concepts in the Getty AAT. • There is a difference in content between the Dutch and the American AAT, in number of concepts but also scope notes and hierarchy can differ. • Reason: work continues on both sides and we don’t have a regular way of exchanging data yet (perhaps soon). We strive to make the difference as small as possible. Soon we’ll work in an updated version. New concepts via the editorial group and then send to Getty Vocabs. Slow process.. But recently the 600th concept was added!
  36. 36. TESAURODE ARTE& ARQUITECTURA www.dibam.cl www.aatespanol.cl/taa/publico/buscar.htm http://www.aatespanol.cl
  37. 37. LOD cloud(2010)
  38. 38. Getty web service • The base URI is http://vocab.getty.edu/ • SPARQL-endpoint • Standard presentation is SKOS or SKOS-XL • Mappings and ontology based on RDF/XML and Turtle • Published versions of lookup lists e.g.,languages, roles, nationalities, place types, and bibliographic sources) ODC-By licence This [title or report or article or dataset] contains information from Art & Architecture Thesaurus (AAT)® which is made available under the ODC Attribution License
  39. 39. Europeana and AAT
  40. 40. RKDexplore (and RKDArtists) : www.rkd.nl Website AAT-Ned: www.aat-ned-nl Iconclass: www.iconclass.nl Getty Vocabularies http://www.getty.edu/research/tools/vocabularies/index.h tml Spanish AAT www.aatespanol.cl Reem Weda Information specialist terminologies weda@rkd.nl aat@rkd.nl