Training and Development
Any attempt to improve current or future
employee performance by increasing an
employee’s ability to perform through learning,
usually by changing the employee’s attitude or
increasing his or her skills and knowledge.
Role of Training and Development
Increase in Efficiency
Increase in Morale of Employees
Better Human Relations
Increase Organizational Viability
Basic aim of Training
Suitable change in the individual concerned.
Should be related both in terms of
organization’s demand and of that individual’s.
Strategic Model of Training
• Principles of
• Task Analysis
• Person Analysis
Phase I :
Phase II :
Phase III :
Phase IV :
Phase I: Conducting Assessment
An examination of environment, strategies, and resources to
determine where to emphasize training.
Reviewing the job description and specifications to identify
the activities performed in a particular job and the KSAOs needed to
Determining which employee requires training and equally
important, which do not.
Phase II: Designing the Training Program
Developing Instructional Objectives
Describe the skills or knowledge to be acquired and/or the
attitudes to be changed.
Assessing the Readiness and Motivation of Trainees
Refers to whether or not the experience and knowledge of
trainees have made them ready to absorb the training.
Incorporating the Principles of Learning
Giving full consideration to the psychological principles
of learning and help employees grasp new knowledge, make
sense of it in their own live, and transfer it back to their jobs.
Phase III: Implementing the Training Program
Provides hands-on experience under normal working conditions.
Assigning trainees to different jobs in different areas of a firm.
Combines practical OJT experience with formal education.
Emphasizes realism in equipment and its operation at minimum cost and
Takes place via electronics.
Playing the roles of other.
Continuous flow of instructions, comments, and suggestions from the
manager to a subordinate.
Phase IV: Evaluating the Training Program
Asses the participants’ reaction to the training they received.
Asses the skills and knowledge levels of the employees who have undergone the
How well employees apply what they have learned in the program to their actual
Results, Return on Investment (ROI)
to evaluate the efficiency of an investment or to compare the efficiency of
a number of different investments.
HR personnel typically collect data such as information on the quality of goods or services they provide, absenteeism, turnover, and number of accidents to determine what type of training needed.
- The second step is to list the steps performed by the employee to complete each task. The type of each task along with the skills and knowledge necessary to do it, can be identified.
- This step helps organizations avoid the mistake of sending all employee into training when some do not need it.