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HMC- Common Nutrition-Related Diseases (20 minutes)


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HMC- Common Nutrition-Related Diseases (20 minutes)

  1. 1. Common Nutrition-Related Diseases
  2. 2. Nutrition-Related Diseases/Conditions
  3. 3. Top 10 Causes of Death in the U.S. Intentional Self-Harm (suicide): 41,149 Intentional Self-Harm (Suicide) Nephritis, Nephrotic Syndrome, and Nephrosis: 47,112 Influenza and Pneumonia: 56,979 Diabetes: 75,578 Alzheimer’s Disease: 84,767 Stroke (Cerebrovascular Disease): 128,978 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Accidents (unintentional injuries): 130,557 Chronic Lower Respiratory Diseases: 149,205 Cancer: 584,881 Heart Disease: 611,105
  4. 4. A Web of Nutrition-Related Diseases
  5. 5. How Does My Diet Affect My Health? • Improves overall health • Helps prevent onset of some disease • Reduces symptoms of chronic disease
  6. 6. Diseases Linked to Nutrition • Obesity • Cardiovascular Disease • Hypertension • Coronary Artery Disease • Stroke • Diabetes
  7. 7. Why Obesity Is A Concern Overweight: BMI of 25.0-25.9 Obese: BMI of 30.0 or higher BMI: Body Mass Index • Measure of a person’s weight relative to his/her height In America Today: • 2 in 3 adults are overweight or obese • 1 in 3 children are overweight or obese
  8. 8. Pennsylvania Statistics This is a table representative of children grades K-6 (ages 5-12).
  9. 9. Pennsylvania Statistics (cont.) This is a table representative of children grades 7-12 (ages 12-18).
  10. 10. Perception May Be the Problem
  11. 11. Diseases Linked to Nutrition • Obesity • Cardiovascular Disease • Hypertension • Coronary Artery Disease • Stroke • Diabetes
  12. 12. Cardiovascular Disease • Hypertension • Coronary Artery Disease • Stroke Risk Factors: • Alcohol and tobacco abuse • Too much sodium and fat in diet • Too little potassium in diet • Lack of physical activity • Overweight/obese • Stress Are Cardiovascular Disease and Heart Disease the same thing?
  13. 13. Hypertension • Commonly known as high blood pressure • 77.9 million people in the U.S. have hypertension • Many people that have hypertension are unaware they have it • Fortunately, can be easily detected • Untreated, it can lead to heart attacks, heart failure, strokes, and kidney failure
  14. 14. Hypertension • What is it? • A condition present when blood flows through the arteries with a force greater than normal • What to do? • Make an appointment with your doctor • Hereditary • Monitor at home • Check food labels regularly • Limit alcohol and tobacco use • Exercise regularly • Take medication as directed
  15. 15. Coronary Artery Disease • What are coronary arteries? • The major blood vessels that supply your heart with blood, oxygen and nutrients • What is Coronary Artery Disease? • A result of plaque buildup in your arteries, narrowing them and blocking blood flow to your heart • What happens when plaque builds up? • Damaged arteries cause plaque to clump • Arteries become rigid and narrow, causing a blockage • Over time, plaque clumps can rupture and create blood clots
  16. 16. Coronary Artery Disease (cont.) Photo credit: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
  17. 17. Stroke • A stroke occurs when blood flow to the brain is interrupted by a blood clot or a burst blood vessel • 795,000 Americans have a stroke every year • About 610,000 are new strokes • About 185,000 are stroke survivors who go on to have another How are a heart attack and a stroke similar?
  18. 18. Stroke Risk Factors Lifestyle: • Overweight or obese • Physical inactivity • Heavy drinking • Illicit drug use Medical: • High blood pressure • Smoking • High cholesterol • Diabetes • Sleep apnea Other: • Family history • Age 55+ • Race • Gender
  19. 19. Diseases Linked to Nutrition • Obesity • Cardiovascular Disease • Hypertension • Coronary Artery Disease • Stroke • Diabetes
  20. 20. Diabetes • Diabetes is a disorder in which the body has trouble regulating its blood sugar levels • Almost 30 million adults and children in the United States have diabetes • 8 million undiagnosed • 86 million Americans have prediabetes • 1 in 3 Americans will have diabetes by year 2050 if current trend continues
  21. 21. Metabolic Syndrome • Raises your risk for Coronary Artery Disease, Stroke, and Diabetes • 2x more likely to develop Coronary Artery Disease • 5x more likely to develop Diabetes • You must have 3 of 5 factors to be diagnosed with Metabolic Syndrome
  22. 22. Metabolic Syndrome The 5 Risk Factors: • A large waistline • A high triglyceride level • A low HDL cholesterol level • High blood pressure • High fasting blood sugar
  23. 23. What You Can Do Today Small changes can yield big results • Take 10 • Be an active parent • Find support • Mix it up • Workout during TV time http://www.choosemyplate.gov/ten-tips
  24. 24. References • American Heart Association • U.S. National Library of Medicine • Mayo Clinic • Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion • Centers For Disease Control and Prevention • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute • American Diabetes Association

Notas do Editor

  • Whether you have a history of disease in your family, or are currently battling disease yourself, lifestyle factors, including your diet, can make a huge difference in helping you both prevent, live with, and fight off certain conditions. Some foods actually increase your risk of disease, while others support your body and strengthen your immune system. By making smart food choices, you can protect your health, feel better, and boost your ability to keep your body happy and healthy.
    Each of the diseases/conditions listed above can either be prevented, fought off, or have their symptoms lessened by use of adequate nutrition.
  • 4 of the Top 10 causes of death in our country are nutrition-related. These four are responsible for almost three-quarters of the deaths on this list.
  • If you have a chronic condition, a carefully planned diet can truly make a difference in your health. With certain diseases, what you eat may reduce symptoms or help prevent future ones.

    Think of it this way: Our bodies are a “road map” with many different paths and many specific turns. The food we eat gives our bodies the “directions” of how to function properly, and without the right “instructions,” we can become overweight, undernourished, and at risk for the development of certain diseases and conditions.
  • Your body is designed to operate best when it’s at an ideal weight. Carrying around extra pounds will greatly increase your risk of developing many chronic diseases, and seeing some of them listed on the previous slides gives you an idea of just how many- and how far-reaching- the problems can be.
    That being said, obesity itself is not the underlying cause of any health problem. The true underlying cause may be an unhealthy diet and/or a lack of exercise, which is what causes our bodies to become overweight or obese, therefore creating a vicious cycle of ill health. Unfortunately, many common diseases today are worsened by obesity, and may have been prevented with a person of ideal body weight. Cardiovascular Disease, and Diabetes are all closely related to the presence of excess body weight and obesity.
  • More than 2 in 3 adults are considered to be overweight or obese. That is 154.7 million people.
    More than 1 in 3 adults are considered to be obese. That is 78.4 million, or HALF.
    More than 1 in 20 adults are considered to have extreme obesity.

    About one-third of children and adolescents ages 6 to 19 are considered to be overweight or obese.
    More than 1 in 6 children and adolescents ages 6 to 19 are considered to be obese.

    Obesity is a growing epidemic in our country. We are the second-most obese country in the world, only behind Mexico, who surpassed our #1 ranking in 2013.
  • Perry County is the “healthiest” county in central PA, and even there nearly 1/3 of the children are overweight or obese. Less than half of the children in Dauphin County (46.68% to be exact) are of a healthy weight. In Lebanon County, 17.39% of children are obese- that is almost 1 in 5.

    This table documents 1) the total number of students in grades K-6, in public and private/non-public schools combined, who were weighed, measured, and for whom Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI-for-Age Percentile was calculated, and 2) the number and percentage of these students who ranked in one of four percentile ranges. Reports are submitted by school districts, charter schools, and comprehensive vocational-technical schools; data is presented by health district and by county.
  • Even more alarmingly…
    With the exception of Cumberland County, the percent of overweight children goes up by several percent in every county. The rate of obesity goes up by several percent in all counties, showing that this problem only worsens as children get older.
  • http://www.medicaldaily.com/parents-often-mistake-their-obese-children-being-just-about-right-weight-delaying-332454
    Using data taken from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the multinational team of researchers examined two different time periods, 1988 to 1994 and 2007 to 2012. They compared parents’ responses to a question asking whether they considered their child overweight, underweight, or just about the right weight, with the children in their sample aged 3 to 5. They then judged the parents’ accuracy via reported information about their child’s weight and height. Even though the surveys were taken 20 years apart, and children have become much heavier in that time span, the level of inaccuracy found was strikingly similar. "Percentages of parents who inappropriately perceived their overweight child as just about the right weight was 96.6 percent and 94.9 percent for the early and recent survey, respectively," the authors wrote.
    Parents in the most recent survey were only slightly better at telling whether their child was obese, with an inaccuracy rate of 78 percent found. Noting that previous research has shown similar results, the authors were nonetheless alarmed when further breaking down the demographics of the survey participants, finding that lower income and African-American parents had the most difficulty guessing correctly. "This was especially concerning because African-American and low-income children in the U.S. have the highest rates of obesity," said lead author Dr. Dustin Duncan of the NYU Langone Medical Center in a press release. As the average American has become heavier, so too has our perception of what healthy weight looks like in comparison. And other researchhas found a similar misjudging effect when asking people to guess their weight themselves. But the authors also believe that their results demonstrate a profound lack of communication between the medical community and parents, as many had little understanding of what the standard weight and height for their child should be.
    In an accompanying editorial for Childhood Obesity, Editor-in-chief Dr. David Katz lamented what he has coined "oblivobesity." "We do not always fix what we know to be broken, but we virtually never fix what we are overlooking — whether at the personal level or that of our culture," he wrote. Katz also noted that weight obliviousness can cut both ways, with normal weight individuals, especially women, judging themselves to be too heavy and going on unnecessary diets or developing eating disorders.
  • Although both diseases are serious cardiac-related diseases and both greatly affected by nutrition, they are not, in fact, the same.
    Heart Disease, sometimes known as Cardiac Disease, includes conditions affecting just the heart (aka the cardiac muscle). Cardiovascular Disease includes both the heart and the blood vessels (Cardio + Vascular).

    Hypertension, Coronary Artery Disease, and Stroke are three main components of Cardiovascular Disease and are all very closely related, and all have common risk factors:
    Alcohol abuse: Alcohol temporarily raises blood pressure, and long-term abuse can lead to long-term elevation. Americans who are overweight/obese may have gained weight through a tendency to drink alcohol, which is a high-calorie beverage.
    Using tobacco: Smoking cigarettes and chewing tobacco have an immediate effect on raising blood pressure temporarily, and their chemicals over time damage the lining of your artery walls. This can cause your arteries to narrow, increasing your blood pressure.
    Too much sodium (salt) intake: Sodium from your diet causes your body to retain fluid, which increases blood pressure. The more salt you eat, the higher your blood pressure. Typically, overweight Americans have a diet high in fast food or processed food, both extremely high in sodium, thus causing more fluid retention and leading to higher blood pressure.
    Too little potassium intake: Potassium helps balance the amount of sodium in your cells, so without it, you may accumulate too much sodium in your blood. Potassium is found in fresh foods such as leafy greens, fish, and bananas; overweight adults may not be eating enough of these.
    Lack of physical activity: People who are inactive tend to have higher heart rates. The higher your heart rate, the harder your heart must work with each contraction, and the stronger the force on your arteries. Lack of physical activity also increases the risk of being overweight, adding to the likelihood of and problems associated with high blood pressure.
    Being overweight/obese: The more you weigh, the more blood your body needs to supply its tissues with oxygen and nutrients. As more blood circulates through your blood vessels, the higher the pressure on your artery walls.
    Stress: High levels of stress can lead to increases in blood pressure. It is typical that people overeat when they are stressed, which can cause weight gain and obesity.
  • The United States population is around 321 million (as of July 21, 2015. Source: http://www.census.gov/popclock/), so that means nearly a quarter of the people living in our country have high blood pressure. According to the American Heart Association, 1 in 5 of these 77.9 million are unaware that they have it, and 1 in 2 do not have their blood pressure under control. One third of Americans have a condition called prehypertension, blood pressure numbers that are higher than normal, but not yet in the high blood pressure range.
    Many people remain undiagnosed, as hypertension has no obvious symptoms and can go unnoticed for years. Fortunately, monthly or yearly checkups with a doctor or another healthcare professional can make you aware if you have prehypertension or hypertension, as checking blood pressure is a routine measure in normal appointments.
    If not treated properly, hypertension can have devastating consequences, both on your future health and in your wallet. High blood pressure costs the nation $46 billion each year. This total includes the cost of health care services, medications to treat high blood pressure, and missed days of work.

    So what exactly is hypertension? When your heart beats, it pushes blood through your arteries to the rest of your body (remember, cardiovascular = heart + blood vessels). When the blood pushes harder against the walls of your arteries, your blood pressure goes up. Your blood pressure may be different at different times of the day. It is usually higher when you first wake up, after you exercise, or when you are under stress. A fluctuating blood pressure is normal; the problems begin when your heart has to work harder, longer throughout the day due to blood flow restriction, causing your blood pressure to remain elevated for longer periods of time.
    Blood pressure is determined both by the amount of blood your heart pumps and the amount of resistance to blood flow in your arteries. The more blood your heart pumps and the narrower your arteries, the higher your blood pressure.

    DOCTOR: You can have high blood pressure for years and not know it. To be on the safe side, schedule an appointment with your doctor and ask them to check your blood pressure- it’s a simple measurement! Hypertension runs in families, so for those with a hereditary background of this disease, it is even more important to be proactive with your health and to monitor your blood pressure more frequently.
    AT HOME: There are arm cuffs and gauge dials that are available to regularly monitor your blood pressure at home. Ask your doctor about what steps might be right for you.
    FOOD LABELS: Table salt is not the only culprit! Up to 75% of the sodium we consume is hidden in processed foods like tomato sauce, soups, condiments, canned foods and prepared mixes. Foods you may not even think of, such as baked goods and lunch meat, can also be surprisingly high in salt. Read food labels carefully, looking for words such as “soda” and “sodium.” Try to buy foods with low salt content or no added salt. The American Heart Association recommends consuming less than 1,500mg of sodium per day. For reference, know that one serving of a typical can of soup usually contains about 800mg of sodium (that’s right…only one serving, and cans usually contain 2+ servings).
    EXERCISE: Exercising regularly (30+ minutes/day) can lower blood pressure and can help you to lose weight, which will cause less stress on your arteries and help decrease your risk of developing hypertension. Losing even 5 or 10lbs may lower your blood pressure, and it might allow you to be able to take less medication.
    ALCOHOL/TOBACCO: Try to limit yourself to two or less drinks per day. Even if you do not partake in tobacco use, try to also avoid secondhand smoke, as that can have negative effects on blood pressure as well.
    MEDICATION: Follow your healthcare provider’s advice when it comes to taking medication to lower high blood pressure. Hypertension can be a lifelong disease, so even if your blood pressure readings are or become low, do not automatically assume you can stop taking your medication. Take your doctor’s recommendations seriously, whether they be dietary or medication-related.
  • Plaque is made up of materials such as calcium, cholesterol (fat), and cellular waste.
    Arteries are normally smooth and elastic, but over time as they become damaged, the walls of the arteries become sticky and plaque builds up, causing them to become rigid and narrow and making them more susceptible to blockages. The heart becomes starved of oxygen and the vital nutrients it needs to pump properly.
  • When the blood flow to the brain is decreased or completely cut off, the part of the brain that is no longer receiving that blood stops working and begins to shut down- this is the stroke occurring.

    How are a stroke and a heart attack similar?
    Both can be causes by blood clots/blockages in the blood vessel. If a clot restricts blood flow to the heart, you can have a heart attack. If a clot restricts blood flow to the brain, you can have a stroke, or more easily remembered as a “brain attack.”
    Americans suffer 1.5 million strokes and heart attacks per year. (source: http://millionhearts.hhs.gov/abouthds/cost-consequences.html)

    Trouble with speaking and understanding: You may experience confusion. You may slur your words or have difficulty understanding speech.
    Paralysis or numbness of the face, arm or leg: You may develop sudden numbness, weakness or paralysis in your face, arm or leg, especially on one side of your body. Try to raise both your arms over your head at the same time. If one arm begins to fall, you may be having a stroke. Similarly, one side of your mouth may droop when you try to smile.
    Trouble with seeing in one or both eyes: You may suddenly have blurred or blackened vision in one or both eyes, or you may see double.
    Headache. A sudden, severe headache, which may be accompanied by vomiting, dizziness or altered consciousness, may indicate you're having a stroke.
    Trouble with walking: You may stumble or experience sudden dizziness, loss of balance or loss of coordination.

    Face: Ask the person to smile. Does one side of the face droop?
    Arms: Ask the person to raise both arms. Does one arm drift downward? Or is one arm unable to raise up?
    Speech: Ask the person to repeat a simple phrase. Is his or her speech slurred or strange?
    Time: If you observe any of these signs, call 911 immediately.

  • About half of the risk factors for stroke are nutrition-related and can be prevented.

    Heavy or binge drinking
    Use of illicit drugs such as cocaine and methamphetamines

    The risk of stroke begins to increase at blood pressure readings higher than 120/80. Your doctor will help you decide on a target blood pressure based on your age, whether you have diabetes and other factors.
    Obstructive sleep apnea — a sleep disorder in which the oxygen level intermittently drops during the night.
    Cardiovascular disease, including heart failure, heart defects, heart infection or abnormal heart rhythm.

    Personal or family history of stroke, heart attack or transient ischemic attack.
    Being age 55 or older.
    Race — African-Americans have a higher risk of stroke than do people of other races.
    Gender — Men have a higher risk of stroke than women. Women are usually older when they have strokes, and they're more likely to die of strokes than are men. Also, they may have some risk from some birth control pills or hormone therapies that include estrogen, as well as from pregnancy and childbirth.
  • Diabetes is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) due to the body's failure to produce any or enough insulin to regulate high glucose levels. There are two main types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes, which often occurs in children or adolescents, is caused by the body's inability to make insulin. Type 2 diabetes occurs as a result of the body's inability to react properly to insulin (insulin resistance). Type 2 diabetes is more prevalent than Type 1 diabetes and is seen in roughly 90% of all diabetes cases. Type 2 diabetes is predominantly diagnosed after the age of forty; however, it is more recently being found in all age ranges, including children and adolescents.
  • Waistline: Over 40” for males, over 35” for females
  • http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-statistics/Pages/overweight-obesity-statistics.aspx
    “Effect of Weight Loss With Lifestyle Intervention on Risk of Diabetes” (Hamman, Richard F.)- Diabetes Care, Volume 29, Number 9, September 2006, pgs. 2102-2107